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Bessudo A.,San Diego Pacific Oncology Hematology Associates Inc. | Boccia R.V.,Center for Cancer and Blood Disorders | Noga S.J.,Weinberg Cancer Institute | Gravenor D.S.,Family Cancer Center Foundation | And 7 more authors.
British Journal of Haematology

Bendamustine, active in multiple myeloma (MM), is a bifunctional mechlorethamine derivative with alkylating properties. Bortezomib, approved to treat MM, is effective in combination with alkylators. The tolerability and efficacy of bendamustine plus bortezomib in relapsed/refractory MM was assessed in an open-label, dose-escalating, phase I/II study. Patients aged ≥18 years received intravenous bendamustine 50, 70, or 90 mg/m2 (days 1 and 4) plus bortezomib 1·0 mg/m2 (days 1, 4, 8, and 11) for up to eight 28-day cycles. No dose-limiting toxicity was observed after cycle 1; bendamustine 90 mg/m2 plus bortezomib 1·0 mg/m2 was designated the maximum tolerated dose (MTD). The most common grade 3/4 adverse events were leucopenia (58%), neutropenia (50%), lymphopenia (45%), and thrombocytopenia (30%). Primary efficacy measure was overall response rate (ORR), which was the combined complete response (CR), very good partial response (VGPR), partial response (PR), and minimal response (MR). ORR was 48% (one CR, two VGPR, nine PR, and seven MR) for all 40 enrolled patients, 52% (16/31) at the MTD (90 mg/m2), and 42% and 46% for prior use of bortezomib (n = 31) or alkylators (n = 28) respectively. Bendamustine plus bortezomib was well tolerated with promising efficacy in this heavily pretreated population. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd. Source

Weinstein C.L.J.,Merck And Co. | Jordan K.,Martin Luther University of Halle Wittenberg | Green S.A.,Merck And Co. | Camacho E.,Comprehensive Cancer Center | And 5 more authors.
Annals of Oncology

Background: To establish the role of antiemetic therapy with neurokinin-1 (NK1) receptor antagonists (RAs) in nonanthracycline and cyclophosphamide (AC)-based moderately emetogenic chemotherapy (MEC) regimens, this study evaluated single-dose intravenous (i.v.) fosaprepitant for the prevention of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) associated with non-AC MEC. Patients and methods: In this international, phase III, double-blind trial, adult cancer subjects scheduled to receive =1 non-AC MEC on day 1 were randomized to a regimen comprising single-dose i.v. fosaprepitant 150 mg or placebo along with ondansetron and dexamethasone on day 1; control regimen recipients received ondansetron on days 2 and 3. Primary end points were the proportion of subjects achieving a complete response (CR; no vomiting and no use of rescue medication) in the delayed phase (25-120 h after MEC initiation) and safety. Secondary end points included CR in the overall and acute phases (0-120 and 0-24 h after MEC initiation, respectively) and no vomiting in the overall phase. Nausea and the Functional Living Index-Emesis were assessed as exploratory end points. Results: The fosaprepitant regimen improved CR significantly in the delayed (78.9% versus 68.5%; P < 0.001) and overall (77.1% versus 66.9%; P < 0.001) phases, but not in the acute phase (93.2% versus 91.0%; P = 0.184), versus control. In the overall phase, the proportion of subjects with no vomiting (82.7% versus 72.9%; P < 0.001) and no significant nausea (83.2% versus 77.9%; P = 0.030) was also significantly improved with the fosaprepitant regimen. The fosaprepitant regimen was generally well tolerated. Conclusion: Single-dose fosaprepitant added to a 5-HT3 RA and dexamethasone was well tolerated and demonstrated superior control of CINV (primary end point achieved) associated with non-AC MEC. This is the first study to evaluate NK1 RA therapy as an i.v. formulation in a well-defined non-AC MEC population. © The Author 2015. Source

Wolchok J.D.,Sloan Kettering Cancer Center | Neyns B.,Universitair Ziekenhuis | Linette G.,University of Washington | Negrier S.,Center Leon Berard | And 12 more authors.
The Lancet Oncology

Background: Ipilimumab is a human monoclonal antibody that blocks cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen 4 and has shown promising activity in advanced melanoma. We aimed to ascertain the antitumour efficacy of ipilimumab in patients with advanced melanoma. Methods: We undertook a randomised, double-blind, phase 2 trial in 66 centres from 12 countries. 217 patients with previously treated stage III (unresectable) or stage IV melanoma were randomly assigned a fixed dose of ipilimumab of either 10 mg/kg (n=73), 3 mg/kg (n=72), or 0·3 mg/kg (n=72) every 3 weeks for four cycles (induction) followed by maintenance therapy every 3 months. Randomisation was done with a permuted block procedure, stratified on the basis of type of previous treatment. The primary endpoint was best overall response rate (the proportion of patients with a complete or partial response, according to modified WHO criteria). Efficacy analyses were done by intention to treat, whereas safety analyses included patients who received at least one dose of ipilimumab. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00289640. Findings: The best overall response rate was 11·1% (95% CI 4·9-20·7) for 10 mg/kg, 4·2% (0·9-11·7) for 3 mg/kg, and 0% (0·0-4·9) for 0·3 mg/kg (p=0·0015; trend test). Immune-related adverse events of any grade arose in 50 of 71, 46 of 71, and 19 of 72 patients at doses of 10 mg/kg, 3 mg/kg, and 0·3 mg/kg, respectively; the most common grade 3-4 adverse events were gastrointestinal immune-related events (11 in the 10 mg/kg group, two in the 3 mg/kg group, none in the 0·3 mg/kg group) and diarrhoea (ten in the 10 mg/kg group, one in the 3 mg/kg group, none in the 0·3 mg/kg group). Interpretation: Ipilimumab elicited a dose-dependent effect on efficacy and safety measures in pretreated patients with advanced melanoma, lending support to further studies at a dose of 10 mg/kg. Funding: Bristol-Myers Squibb. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source

Elias E.G.,Weinberg Cancer Institute | Hasskamp J.H.,Weinberg Cancer Institute | Sharma B.K.,Weinberg Cancer Institute

A review of the natural behavior of cutaneous melanoma, clinical and pathological factors, prognostic indicators, some basic research and the present and possible futuristic strategies in the management of this disease are presented. While surgery remains to be the most effective therapeutic approach in the management of early primary lesions, there is no standard adjuvant therapy after surgical resection, or for metastatic disease. © 2010 by the authors. Source

Elias E.G.,Weinberg Cancer Institute | Hasskamp J.H.,Weinberg Cancer Institute | Sharma B.K.,Weinberg Cancer Institute

Cytokines and growth factors have biologic effects that could stimulate tumor growth, invasion and angiogenesis. The incidence of 24 factors was investigated in 25 cultured human melanoma cell lines and in 62 fixed tissues at different stages of the disease. Over 80% of the human melanoma cell lines expressed TGF-β, IL-8, IL-6, VEGF, PDGF-AA and OPN. Significantly higher TGF-β, IGF-1 and IL-15 were determined in primary lesions compared to distant metastases by immunohistochemistry. Illustrating the complexity of the milieu of the tumor microenvironment, some of these factors may have to be considered in targeted therapy. © 2010 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. Source

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