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Jiang J.,Xidian University | Zhou J.,Xidian University | Zheng Y.,Xidian University | Zheng Y.,China Institute of Technology | Zhou R.,Weinan Vocational and Technical College
Shenzhen Daxue Xuebao (Ligong Ban)/Journal of Shenzhen University Science and Engineering | Year: 2014

A double flora bacterial foraging optimization algorithm is presented to solve the problems of slow convergence and local optimization. The bacteria density factor is introduced, and the optimization direction to another bacterium is guided by the current optimal bacteria. The adaptive chemotactic step is used instead of fixed step to avoid turbulence near the optimal solution and to obtain partial optimal solutions. The crossover and the mutation operators are proposed and the elite bacterium is retained to find the optimal solution in the search area efficiently. Therefore, the premature bacteria are helped to jump out of the local optimal solution to a certain extent. A double flora optimization mechanism is formulated to increase the diversity of flora, to enhance the global search capability and suppress the degeneracy phenomenon. The simulation results of ten benchmark functions have demonstrated that the solution accuracy of proposed algorithm is generally improved by several orders of magnitude in comparison with standard bacterial foraging optimization, and fewer iterations are needed. Both optimization speed and global convergence ability are improved.


Dong J.,Weinan Vocational and Technical College | Dong J.,China Institute of Technology | Peng Y.,China Institute of Technology | Gao N.,Weinan Vocational and Technical College | And 6 more authors.
Analyst | Year: 2012

A new surface-initiated polymerization based on pasting the initiator on a sensor chip surface was applied to prepare a malachite green (MG) imprinted ultrathin film on a surface plasmon resonance (SPR) sensor. First, the initiator (2,2-azoisobutyronitrile) was pasted on the gold surface using polyvinyl chloride (PVC). The initiator-covered gold chip was then soaked in a pre-polymerization solution prepared by dissolving methacrylic acid (functional monomer), ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (cross-linker), and MG (template) in DMSO in a weighing bottle. Finally, the weighing bottle was placed in a vacuum oven and thermal-initiated polymerization was conducted at 60 °C for 16 h. This method was simple and time-saving compared with the commonly used surface-initiated polymerization. More importantly, the molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) film prepared using this method was much thicker than that of commonly used methods; the adsorption quantity was also much larger. The MIP modified SPR sensor showed high sensitivity and selectivity as well as good stability in detecting MG. The results suggest that the ultrathin MIP film prepared using the new method in this study is suitable to serve as the recognition element of the SPR sensor. © 2012 The Royal Society of Chemistry.


PubMed | Chinese Academy of Sciences, Peking University and Weinan Vocational and Technical College
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Shanghai archives of psychiatry | Year: 2016

Methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) is widely recognized as an effective method of combatting narcotic addiction. MMT reduces heroin withdrawal symptoms and, thus, makes it possible to provide the psychological and social support that is essential to the rehabilitation of drug users.Compare the severity of depressive symptoms in heroin users who are currently receiving MMT to that of heroin users who are not receiving MMT.We administered the 13-item version of the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-13) and a demographic history form to 929 heroin users who had been receiving MMT at nine methadone treatment clinics in three Chinese cities for an average of 9 months and to 238 heroin users who had enrolled in a MMT program at the centers but had not yet begun MMT.Seventy-nine percent (188/238) of the untreated individuals reported depressive symptoms compared to 68% (628/929) of the individuals receiving MMT ( (2)=11.69, p<0.001). The median (interquartile range) BDI score in the untreated group was 10.4 (7.9-11.4) compared to 8.0 (5.7-11.6) in the MMT group (Z=2.75, p=0.006). In the MMT group, there was a negative correlation between the severity of reported depressive symptoms and the duration of participation in the MMT program (rs =-0.24, Z=2.88, p=0.004). Multivariate linear regression analysis showed that after adjusting for all demographic variables the treated group still had less severe depressive symptoms than the untreated group. After adjusting for the effect of MMT treatment, depressive symptoms were more severe in heroin users who self-reported poor family relationships (standardized regression coefficient =0.118, t=6.56, p<0.001) and in those who were divorced (=0.120, t=3.73, p<0.001).Moderate to severe depressive symptoms are common in heroin users. MMT is associated with lower levels of depressive symptoms in heroin users, but prospective randomized controlled trials are needed to determine whether or not MMT actually improves depressive symptoms in heroin users. Poor relationships with family members are also associated with depressive symptoms in heroin users; this suggests that treatment of heroin addiction needs to incorporate methods for helping heroin users repair the severed social relationships that their addiction has caused.


Du J.,Shaanxi Normal University | Li H.,Weinan Vocational and Technical College
Applied Spectroscopy | Year: 2010

A new chemiluminescence reaction, the luminol-Cu 2+ reaction, was investigated for the determination of thirteen (13) cephalosporin antibiotics, namely cefalexin, Cefadroxil, cefradine, cefazolin sodium, cefaclor, cefuroxime axetil, cefotaxime sodium, cefoperazone sodium, ceftriaxone sodium, ceftazidime, Cefetamet pivoxil hydrochloride, Cefixime, and Cefpodoxime. It was found that, without adding any special oxidant, strong chemiluminescent (CL) signal could be produced from the reaction of the alkaline Iuminol with the above-mentioned antibiotics in the presence of Cu 2+. The experimental conditions for the reaction were carefully optimized with flow-injection mode. The detection limits are 0.3 ng/mL cefalexin, 3 ng/mL Cefadroxil, 0.3 ng/mL cefradine, 0.02 μg/mL cefazolin sodium, 0.8 ng/mL cefaclor, 0.02 μg/mL cefuroxime axetil, 5 ng/ mL cefotaxime sodium, 0.02 μg/mL cefoperazone sodium, 0.8 ng/mL ceftriaxone sodium, 1 ng/mL ceftazidime, 0.08 ng/mL Cefetamet pivoxil hydrochloride, 0.8 ng/mL Cefixime, and 2 ng/mL Cefpodoxime. The proposed method was validated by direct application to commercial formulations and spiked milk samples containing cefradine. A possible reaction mechanism is also discussed. © 2010 Society for Applied Spectroscopy.


Li R.,Northwest University, China | Zhang X.M.,CAS Kunming Institute of Zoology | Campana M.G.,Harvard University | Huang J.P.,Northwest University, China | And 8 more authors.
Animal Genetics | Year: 2013

To determine the genetic diversity and paternal origin of Chinese cattle, 302 males from 16 Chinese native cattle breeds as well as 30 Holstein males and four Burma males as controls were analysed using four Y-SNPs and two Y-STRs. In Chinese bulls, the taurine Y1 and Y2 haplogroups and indicine Y3 haplogroup were detected in seven, 172 and 123 individuals respectively, and these frequencies varied among the Chinese cattle breeds examined. Y2 dominates in northern China (91.4%), and Y3 dominates in southern China (90.8%). Central China is an admixture zone, although Y2 predominates overall (72.0%). The geographical distributions of the Y2 and Y3 haplogroup frequencies revealed a pattern of male indicine introgression from south to north China. The three Y haplogroups were further classified into one Y1 haplotype, five Y2 haplotypes and one Y3 haplotype in Chinese native bulls. Due to the interplay between taurine and indicine types, Chinese cattle represent an extensive reservoir of genetic diversity. The Y haplotype distribution of Chinese cattle exhibited a clear geographical structure, which is consistent with mtDNA, historical and geographical information. © 2013 The Authors, Animal Genetics © 2013 Stichting International Foundation for Animal Genetics.


Liu B.,Zhejiang University | Liu B.,Weinan Vocational and Technical College | Hong Y.-B.,Zhejiang University | Zhang Y.-F.,Zhejiang University | And 5 more authors.
Plant Science | Year: 2014

WRKY proteins comprise a large family of transcription factors that play important roles in plant responses to biotic and abiotic stresses; however, only a few of tomato WRKYs have been studied for their biological functions. In the present study, we identified a Botrytis cinerea-responsive WRKY gene SlDRW1 (Solanum lycopersicum defense- related WRKY1) from tomato. SlDRW1 is a nucleus localized protein with transactivation activity in yeast. Expression of SlDRW1 was significantly induced by B. cinerea, leading to 10-13 folds of increase than that in the mock-inoculated plants but not by Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato (Pst) DC3000. Silencing of SlDRW1 resulted in increased severity of disease caused by B. cinerea, but did not affect the phenotype of disease caused by Pst DC3000. In addition, silencing of SlDRW1 also resulted in decreased tolerance against oxidative stress but did not affect drought stress tolerance. Furthermore, silencing of SlDRW1 attenuated defense response such as expression of defense-related genes after infection by B. cinerea. Our results demonstrate that SlDRW1 is a positive regulator of defense response in tomato against B. cinerea and oxidative stress. © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd.


Jiang B.,Northwest University, China | Jiang B.,Weinan Vocational and Technical College | Zhang Z.-W.,Northwest University, China
Molecules | Year: 2012

The antioxidant activities in the Cabernet Sauvignon and Merlot wines from four wine grape-growing regions in China were measured by different analytical assays: 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH·), cupric reducing antioxidant capacity (CUPRAC), superoxide radical-scavenging activity (SRSA) and the contents of total phenols, total flavonoids, total flavanols and total anthocyanins were determined. The results showed that the contents of phenolic compounds and the levels of antioxidant activity in the wine samples greatly varied with cultivar and environmental factors of vine growth. The contents of phenolic compounds and antioxidant activities in Cabernet Sauvignon and Merlot wines from the Yuquanying region of Ningxia were significantly higher than other three regions, followed by the wines from Shacheng region of Hebei, and these parameters were the lowest in Cabernet Sauvignon and Merlot wines from the Changli regions of Hebei and Xiangning region of Shanxi. Taken together, a close relationship between phenolic subclasses and antioxidant activity was observed for the wine samples. Moreover, there were significant discrepancies in the individual phenolic composition and content of four regional Cabernet Sauvignon and Merlot wines, among which the individual phenolic compounds (catechin, epicatechin, cinnamic acid, quercetin-3-O-glucuronide, quercetin-3-O-glucoside, laricitrin-3-O-glucoside and isorhamnetin-3-O-glucoside) revealed a significant correlation (p < 0.05) with the antioxidant capacity in present study, especially for catechin and epicatechin.


Yifan J.,Changzhou University | Jiayan Y.,Enzymaker Bioscience Inc | Bao J.,Weinan Vocational and Technical College
Asian Journal of Chemistry | Year: 2014

Volatile chemicals emitted from the flowers and leaves Ailanthus altissima were collected using a dynamic headspace technique and identified using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The total emission rates of volatile compounds from flowers (6086.18 ng/h/g) was about 11.4 folds as in the leaves (534.68 ng/h/g). Twenty-four fatty acid derivatives were identified from the flowers accounting for 16.09% of the total emission rates of volatiles (979.18 ng/h/g). while ten fatty acid derivative compounds from the leaves accounting for: 87.67% of the total emission rates of volatiles (468.74 ng/h/g). The monoterpenoids linalool and (E)-geranial turned out to be the dominant compounds in the flowers accounting for 53.3 and 24.01% of the total emission rate of volatile compounds respectively. Two Nitrogen-containing compounds were only present in the flowers of A. altissim.


Jiang B.,Northwest University, China | Jiang B.,Weinan Vocational and Technical College | Xi Z.,Northwest University, China | Luo M.,Weinan Vocational and Technical College | Zhang Z.,Northwest University, China
Food Research International | Year: 2013

In order to elucidate the influence of terroir on wine aroma compounds of Cabernet Sauvignon and Merlot varieties, aroma compounds of two monovarietal wines from the four wine grape-growing regions were investigated for the first time in this research. Aroma compounds of wine were analyzed by solid-phase microextraction with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (SPME-GC/MS). A total of 58 volatile compounds were identified and quantified in Cabernet Sauvignon and Merlot wines. In the volatiles detected, alcohols formed the most abundant group in the aroma compounds of two monovarietal wines, followed by esters and fatty acids. Cabernet Sauvignon wines from the HBSC region had the highest levels of aroma compounds while Merlot wines had the lowest. According to their odor active values (OAVs), ethyl octanoate, ethyl hexanoate, isoamyl acetate, ethyl acetate, 2-phenylethanol, 3-(methylthio)-1-propanol, and isoamyl alcohol were the impact odorants of two monovarietal wines, showing only quantitative but not qualitative differences in different regional wines. The shape of the OAVs for the HBSC and the HBCL regional Merlot wines is very similar. According to the data analysis of aroma compounds, the volatile compounds can be affected by "terroir" factor, further, the magnitude of the influence by the "terroir" factor on the aroma of young wine could be in relation to grape variety. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.


Li R.,North University of China | Xie W.-M.,Pingliang Medical College | Chang Z.-H.,Weinan Vocational and Technical College | Wang S.-Q.,North University of China | And 4 more authors.
Molecular Biology Reports | Year: 2013

To determine the Y chromosome genetic diversity and paternal origin of Chinese cattle, 369 bulls from 17 Chinese native cattle breeds and 30 bulls from Holstein and four bulls from Burma were analyzed using a recently discovered USP9Y marker that could distinguish between taurine and indicine cattle more efficiently. In total, the taurine Y1, Y2 haplogroup and indicine Y3 haplogroup were detected in 7 (1.9 %), 193 (52.3 %) and 169 (45.8 %) individuals of 17 Chinese native breeds, respectively, although these frequencies varied amongst the Chinese native cattle breeds examined. Y2 dominates in northern China (91.4 %), while Y3 dominates in southern China (81.2 %). Central China is an admixture zone with Y2 predominating overall (72.0 %). Our results demonstrate that Chinese cattle have two paternal origins, one from B. taurus (Y2) and the other from B. indicus (Y3). The Y1 haplogroup may originate from the imported beef cattle breeds in western countries. The geographical distributions of the Y2 and Y3 haplogroup frequencies reveal a pattern of male indicine introgression from south to north China, and male taurine introgression from north to south China. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.

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