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Li R.,Northwest University, China | Zhang X.M.,CAS Kunming Institute of Zoology | Campana M.G.,Harvard University | Huang J.P.,Northwest University, China | And 8 more authors.
Animal Genetics | Year: 2013

To determine the genetic diversity and paternal origin of Chinese cattle, 302 males from 16 Chinese native cattle breeds as well as 30 Holstein males and four Burma males as controls were analysed using four Y-SNPs and two Y-STRs. In Chinese bulls, the taurine Y1 and Y2 haplogroups and indicine Y3 haplogroup were detected in seven, 172 and 123 individuals respectively, and these frequencies varied among the Chinese cattle breeds examined. Y2 dominates in northern China (91.4%), and Y3 dominates in southern China (90.8%). Central China is an admixture zone, although Y2 predominates overall (72.0%). The geographical distributions of the Y2 and Y3 haplogroup frequencies revealed a pattern of male indicine introgression from south to north China. The three Y haplogroups were further classified into one Y1 haplotype, five Y2 haplotypes and one Y3 haplotype in Chinese native bulls. Due to the interplay between taurine and indicine types, Chinese cattle represent an extensive reservoir of genetic diversity. The Y haplotype distribution of Chinese cattle exhibited a clear geographical structure, which is consistent with mtDNA, historical and geographical information. © 2013 The Authors, Animal Genetics © 2013 Stichting International Foundation for Animal Genetics. Source


Du J.,Shaanxi Normal University | Li H.,Weinan Vocational and Technical College
Applied Spectroscopy | Year: 2010

A new chemiluminescence reaction, the luminol-Cu 2+ reaction, was investigated for the determination of thirteen (13) cephalosporin antibiotics, namely cefalexin, Cefadroxil, cefradine, cefazolin sodium, cefaclor, cefuroxime axetil, cefotaxime sodium, cefoperazone sodium, ceftriaxone sodium, ceftazidime, Cefetamet pivoxil hydrochloride, Cefixime, and Cefpodoxime. It was found that, without adding any special oxidant, strong chemiluminescent (CL) signal could be produced from the reaction of the alkaline Iuminol with the above-mentioned antibiotics in the presence of Cu 2+. The experimental conditions for the reaction were carefully optimized with flow-injection mode. The detection limits are 0.3 ng/mL cefalexin, 3 ng/mL Cefadroxil, 0.3 ng/mL cefradine, 0.02 μg/mL cefazolin sodium, 0.8 ng/mL cefaclor, 0.02 μg/mL cefuroxime axetil, 5 ng/ mL cefotaxime sodium, 0.02 μg/mL cefoperazone sodium, 0.8 ng/mL ceftriaxone sodium, 1 ng/mL ceftazidime, 0.08 ng/mL Cefetamet pivoxil hydrochloride, 0.8 ng/mL Cefixime, and 2 ng/mL Cefpodoxime. The proposed method was validated by direct application to commercial formulations and spiked milk samples containing cefradine. A possible reaction mechanism is also discussed. © 2010 Society for Applied Spectroscopy. Source


Jiang B.,Northwest University, China | Jiang B.,Weinan Vocational and Technical College | Zhang Z.-W.,Northwest University, China
Molecules | Year: 2012

The antioxidant activities in the Cabernet Sauvignon and Merlot wines from four wine grape-growing regions in China were measured by different analytical assays: 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH·), cupric reducing antioxidant capacity (CUPRAC), superoxide radical-scavenging activity (SRSA) and the contents of total phenols, total flavonoids, total flavanols and total anthocyanins were determined. The results showed that the contents of phenolic compounds and the levels of antioxidant activity in the wine samples greatly varied with cultivar and environmental factors of vine growth. The contents of phenolic compounds and antioxidant activities in Cabernet Sauvignon and Merlot wines from the Yuquanying region of Ningxia were significantly higher than other three regions, followed by the wines from Shacheng region of Hebei, and these parameters were the lowest in Cabernet Sauvignon and Merlot wines from the Changli regions of Hebei and Xiangning region of Shanxi. Taken together, a close relationship between phenolic subclasses and antioxidant activity was observed for the wine samples. Moreover, there were significant discrepancies in the individual phenolic composition and content of four regional Cabernet Sauvignon and Merlot wines, among which the individual phenolic compounds (catechin, epicatechin, cinnamic acid, quercetin-3-O-glucuronide, quercetin-3-O-glucoside, laricitrin-3-O-glucoside and isorhamnetin-3-O-glucoside) revealed a significant correlation (p < 0.05) with the antioxidant capacity in present study, especially for catechin and epicatechin. Source


Liu B.,Zhejiang University | Liu B.,Weinan Vocational and Technical College | Hong Y.-B.,Zhejiang University | Zhang Y.-F.,Zhejiang University | And 5 more authors.
Plant Science | Year: 2014

WRKY proteins comprise a large family of transcription factors that play important roles in plant responses to biotic and abiotic stresses; however, only a few of tomato WRKYs have been studied for their biological functions. In the present study, we identified a Botrytis cinerea-responsive WRKY gene SlDRW1 (Solanum lycopersicum defense- related WRKY1) from tomato. SlDRW1 is a nucleus localized protein with transactivation activity in yeast. Expression of SlDRW1 was significantly induced by B. cinerea, leading to 10-13 folds of increase than that in the mock-inoculated plants but not by Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato (Pst) DC3000. Silencing of SlDRW1 resulted in increased severity of disease caused by B. cinerea, but did not affect the phenotype of disease caused by Pst DC3000. In addition, silencing of SlDRW1 also resulted in decreased tolerance against oxidative stress but did not affect drought stress tolerance. Furthermore, silencing of SlDRW1 attenuated defense response such as expression of defense-related genes after infection by B. cinerea. Our results demonstrate that SlDRW1 is a positive regulator of defense response in tomato against B. cinerea and oxidative stress. © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. Source


Li R.,North University of China | Xie W.-M.,Pingliang Medical College | Chang Z.-H.,Weinan Vocational and Technical College | Wang S.-Q.,North University of China | And 4 more authors.
Molecular Biology Reports | Year: 2013

To determine the Y chromosome genetic diversity and paternal origin of Chinese cattle, 369 bulls from 17 Chinese native cattle breeds and 30 bulls from Holstein and four bulls from Burma were analyzed using a recently discovered USP9Y marker that could distinguish between taurine and indicine cattle more efficiently. In total, the taurine Y1, Y2 haplogroup and indicine Y3 haplogroup were detected in 7 (1.9 %), 193 (52.3 %) and 169 (45.8 %) individuals of 17 Chinese native breeds, respectively, although these frequencies varied amongst the Chinese native cattle breeds examined. Y2 dominates in northern China (91.4 %), while Y3 dominates in southern China (81.2 %). Central China is an admixture zone with Y2 predominating overall (72.0 %). Our results demonstrate that Chinese cattle have two paternal origins, one from B. taurus (Y2) and the other from B. indicus (Y3). The Y1 haplogroup may originate from the imported beef cattle breeds in western countries. The geographical distributions of the Y2 and Y3 haplogroup frequencies reveal a pattern of male indicine introgression from south to north China, and male taurine introgression from north to south China. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht. Source

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