Bedford R.,Kings College London |
Pickles A.,Kings College London |
Lord C.,Weill Cornell Medical CollegeNew York
Autism Research | Year: 2015
Background: Motor milestones such as the onset of walking are important developmental markers, not only for later motor skills but also for more widespread social-cognitive development. The aim of the current study was to test whether gross motor abilities, specifically the onset of walking, predicted the subsequent rate of language development in a large cohort of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Methods: We ran growth curve models for expressive and receptive language measured at 2, 3, 5 and 9 years in 209 autistic children. Measures of gross motor, visual reception and autism symptoms were collected at the 2 year visit. In Model 1, walking onset was included as a predictor of the slope of language development. Model 2 included a measure of non-verbal IQ and autism symptom severity as covariates. The final model, Model 3, additionally covaried for gross motor ability. Results: In the first model, parent-reported age of walking onset significantly predicted the subsequent rate of language development although the relationship became non-significant when gross motor skill, non-verbal ability and autism severity scores were included (Models 2 & 3). Gross motor score, however, did remain a significant predictor of both expressive and receptive language development. Conclusions: Taken together, the model results provide some evidence that early motor abilities in young children with ASD can have longitudinal cross-domain influences, potentially contributing, in part, to the linguistic difficulties that characterise ASD. © 2015 The Authors Autism Research published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of International Society for Autism Research.
Harding J.J.,Weill Cornell Medical CollegeNew York |
El Dika I.,Internal Medicine Hematology and OncologyAmerican University of BeirutBeirut Lebanon |
Abou-Alfa G.K.,Weill Cornell Medical CollegeNew York
Cancer | Year: 2015
Advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) carries a dismal prognosis and the current treatment is limited to sorafenib, an agent with modest benefit. Preclinical data have indicated that several immunologic mechanisms are at play to promote HCC development and growth while impairing effective antitumor immune surveillance. Several novel approaches geared toward manipulating the immune response to HCC have suggested a therapeutic benefit in early-stage clinical trials, indicating a real potential to augment tumor-specific immunity and improve outcomes in patients with this disease. In the current study, the authors reviewed the barriers to an effective immune response against HCC and contemporary clinical investigations that may be "primed" to alter the natural history of HCC. © 2015 American Cancer Society.