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Spencer D.J.,Rockefeller University | Jones J.E.,Weill Cornell Medical Center
Archives of Otolaryngology - Head and Neck Surgery | Year: 2012

Objective: To evaluate the complication rate for adenotonsillectomy in children younger than 3 years, without a diagnosis of severe obstructive sleep apnea, to assess the necessity for postoperative inpatient admission. Design: Retrospective medical record review (January 1, 2003, through October 31, 2009). Setting: Tertiary care academic medical center. Patients: Retrospective medical record review of 105 patients younger than 3 years who underwent adenotonsillectomy performed by a single surgeon. Nineteen patients were excluded from our review because of incomplete medical records or severe underlying disease, leaving a total of 86 patients with medical records available for inclusion in our study. Patient medical records were deidentified and reviewed for age, sex, indications for surgery, intraoperative and perioperative interventions, and postoperative complications. One child with a diagnosis of severe obstructive sleep apnea was excluded from the study. Main Outcome Measures: Complications, including bleeding, dehydration requiring admission, and airway intervention, during the intraoperative or perioperative period were recorded. Results: The mean age of the study population was approximately 27.5 months (range, 13-35 months), with most children (76.5%) between 23 and 31 months of age. Among the patients whose records were reviewed, 80 (93.0%) did not experience any intraoperative or postoperative complications. Dehydration was the most common complication and was the cause of all documented readmissions (4.7%) in our patients who ranged in age from 14 to 30 months. Two patients had other complications, reactive airway disease (n=1) and postoperative fever (n=1), which were identified and treated in the post-anesthesia care unit, resulting in same-day discharge. No airway complications were noted in our study. Conclusions: Our study reveals a low complication rate in children younger than 3 years. The recommendations for mandatory admission for children younger than 3 years should be reexamined. Criteria for inpatient admission for children younger than 3 years should be based on preoperative and postoperative clinical evaluation of the patient and an evaluation of the family resources for adequately caring for young children at home in the postoperative period. These recommendations apply only to otherwise healthy children (American Society of Anesthesiologists classifications I and II) without a diagnosis of severe obstructive sleep apnea syndrome. ©2012 American Medical Association. All rights reserved.

More than 2.1 million central venous catheters are placed annually. While carotid artery cannulation is rare, its effects can be devastating. Anesthesia providers frequently work with central venous catheters in the perioperative setting. Therefore, it is imperative that they be able to identify and react appropriately to carotid artery injury both in preexisting central lines and those that they have placed. This case report details a case of accidental carotid artery catheterization during attempted right internal jugular vein catheterization and the steps taken to treat the patient following its recognition. A discussion of technique for central venous catheterization, indications for suspicion of arterial puncture, methods for confirming venous or arterial placement, appropriate methods for management of carotid artery cannulation, and the benefit of ultrasound in central venous cannulation follow. Through the appropriate use of equipment, early detection and management of carotid artery injury, and proper training, patient outcomes may be improved.

Jones D.W.,Weill Cornell Medical Center
Journal of the American Heart Association | Year: 2013

Patients with peripheral arterial disease often experience treatment failure from restenosis at the site of a prior peripheral endovascular intervention (PVI) or lower extremity bypass (LEB). The impact of these treatment failures on the utilization and outcomes of secondary interventions is poorly understood. In our regional vascular quality improvement collaborative, we compared 2350 patients undergoing primary infrainguinal LEB with 1154 patients undergoing secondary infrainguinal LEB (LEB performed after previous revascularization in the index limb) between 2003 and 2011. The proportion of patients undergoing secondary LEB increased by 72% during the study period (22% of all LEBs in 2003 to 38% in 2011, P<0.001). In-hospital outcomes, such as myocardial infarction, death, and amputation, were similar between primary and secondary LEB groups. However, in both crude and propensity-weighted analyses, secondary LEB was associated with significantly inferior 1-year outcomes, including major adverse limb event-free survival (composite of death, new bypass graft, surgical bypass graft revision, thrombectomy/thrombolysis, or above-ankle amputation; Secondary LEB MALE-free survival = 61.6% vs primary LEB MALE-free survival = 67.5%, P=0.002) and reintervention or amputation-free survival (composite of death, reintervention, or above-ankle amputation; Secondary LEB RAO-free survival = 58.9% vs Primary LEB RAO-free survival 64.1%, P=0.003). Inferior outcomes for secondary LEB were observed regardless of the prior failed treatment type (PVI or LEB). In an era of increasing utilization of PVI, a growing proportion of patients undergo LEB in the setting of a prior failed PVI or surgical bypass. When caring for patients with peripheral arterial disease, physicians should recognize that first treatment failure (PVI or LEB) affects the success of subsequent revascularizations.

Raad R.,Weill Cornell Medical Center | Appelbaum P.S.,Columbia University
Annual Review of Medicine | Year: 2012

Relationships between physicians and industry are prevalent in medical education, clinical practice, and research, as well as at the level of medical institutions. These relationships can be valuable for the advancement of medicine but have also received increased scrutiny in recent years because they create conflicts of interest that pose a risk of biasing the judgments of physicians. Responses to these conflicts of interest by medical institutions, journals, and governments have utilized four main tools: education, disclosure, management, and prohibition. Each of the four has its advantages and drawbacks. Medicine faces the challenge of tailoring the use of these tools to minimize the risk of bias while allowing useful medicalindustry collaborations to proceed. Viewing the dilemmas created by physicians' relationships with industry as a version of the principalagent problem, which is much discussed by economists, may help in developing creative approaches to these issues. © 2012 by Annual Reviews. All rights reserved.

Pacelli R.,Weill Cornell Medical Center
Clinical Journal of Oncology Nursing | Year: 2011

Receiving a cancer diagnosis and experiencing the effects of antineoplastic therapies can have a devastating effect on a person's emotional, physical, and psychological well-being and a significant negative effect on sexual desire and function. Oncology nurses are the ideal healthcare professionals to assess the sexual health status of their patients and to intervene to sensitively address sexuality issues. Having this discussion can be uncomfortable for both nurses and patients, but using communication tools can help nurses gain confidence in their abilities to address sexuality concerns in an effective and comfortable manner and to provide patients with useful information and insights.

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