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Mummaneni P.V.,University of California at San Francisco | Park P.,University of Michigan | Fu K.-M.,Weill Cornell Brain and Spine Center | Wang M.Y.,University of Miami | And 17 more authors.
Neurosurgery | Year: 2015

BACKGROUND: Proximal junctional kyphosis (PJK) is a known complication after spinal deformity surgery. One potential cause is disruption of posterior muscular tension band during pedicle screw placement. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of minimally invasive surgery (MIS) on PJK. METHODS: A multicenter database of patients who underwent deformity surgery was propensity matched for pelvic incidence (PI) to lumbar lordosis (LL) mismatch and change in LL. Radiographic PJK was defined as proximal junctional angle >10°. Sixty-eight patients made up the circumferential MIS (cMIS) group, and 68 were in the hybrid (HYB) surgery group (open screw placement). RESULTS: Preoperatively, there was no difference in age, body mass index, PI-LL mismatch, or sagittal vertical axis. The mean number of levels treated posteriorly was 4.7 for cMIS and 8.2 for HYB (P <.001). Both had improved LL and PI-LL mismatch postoperatively. Sagittal vertical axis remained physiological for the cMIS and HYB groups. Oswestry Disability Index scores were significantly improved in both groups. Radiographic PJK developed in 31.3% of the cMIS and 52.9% of the HYB group (P .01). Reoperation for PJK was 4.5% for the cMIS and 10.3% for the HYB group (P .20). Subgroup analysis for patients undergoing similar levels of posterior instrumentation in the cMIS and HYB groups found a PJK rate of 48.1% and 53.8% (P .68) and a reoperation rate of 11.1% and 19.2%, respectively (P .41). Mean follow-up was 32.8 months. CONCLUSION: Overall rates of radiographic PJK and reoperation for PJK were not significantly decreased with MIS pedicle screw placement. However, a larger comparative study is needed to confirm that MIS pedicle screw placement does not affect PJK. © 2015 by the Congress of Neurological Surgeons.

Zoccali C.,Italian National Cancer Institute | Skoch J.,University of Arizona | Skoch J.,Cincinnati Childrens Hospital Medical Center | Walter C.M.,University of Arizona | And 4 more authors.
European Spine Journal | Year: 2016

Purpose: Accurate survival estimation is prerequisite to determine the most appropriate treatment for patients with metastatic spine disease. Several authors have proposed classification systems analyzing clinical and radiological parameters, such as, performance status, metastasis localization, and primary tumor histotype, but the modified Tokuhashi score (mTS) is the most widely used. Although it is regarded as one of the most complete and accurate systems, it does not take the effectiveness of new therapeutic strategies into consideration, contributing to a progressive loss of accuracy. The purpose of this review is to verify the ability of the mTS to accurately estimate metastatic spine patient survival, nearly 10 years after it was introduced. Methods: A literature review was conducted to evaluate mTS accuracy to predict metastatic spine patient survival. Results: Ten studies were selected, representing 1686 patients. The total predictive accuracy of the mTS was 63.00 %; for patients expected to survive less than 6 months (group I), it was 64.10 %; 6–12 months (group II), 55.32 %; and more than 12 months (group III), 77.21 %. A progressive decrease in accuracy over time was statistically significant in groups I and II. Conclusions: The mTS is suggestive of actual survival for patients with a good prognosis. It is less accurate for patients with an estimated survival of less than 12 months. The decreasing trend in mTS accuracy over time will likely further reduce mTS utility. An important opportunity exists to develop new instruments to assist spine surgeons and oncologists to choose appropriate surgical or non-surgical treatment modalities for patients with metastatic spine disease. © 2015, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

Ahluwalia M.S.,Cleveland Clinic | Xie H.,Cleveland Clinic | Dahiya S.,Cleveland Clinic | Hashemi-Sadraei N.,University of Cincinnati | And 10 more authors.
Journal of Neuro-Oncology | Year: 2015

Standard initial therapy for patients with pure and mixed anaplastic oligodendrogliomas (AO/MAO) includes chemotherapy and radiation therapy. Anaplastic oligodendrogliomas with 1p/19q co-deletion are more responsive to chemotherapy. There is concern for potential long-term CNS toxicity of radiation. Hence an approach using chemotherapy initially and reserving radiation for progressive disease is attractive. This multicenter phase II trial included patients with newly diagnosed AO/MAO with central pathology review and 1p/19q assay. Temozolomide was given 150 mg/m2 days 1–7 and 15–21, every 28 days for 8 cycles. The primary endpoint was progression free survival (PFS). Secondary endpoints included response rate, overall survival (OS), treatment toxicity and health-related quality of life (HRQL). Data from 62 patients enrolled between December 2001 and April 2007 at seven centers were analyzed. Among patients with measurable disease, 8 % achieved complete remission, 56 % had stable disease and 36 % had progression. The median PFS and OS were 27.2 months (95 % CI 11.9–36.3) and 105.8 months (95 % CI 51.5–N/A), respectively. Both 1p loss and 1p/19q co-deletion were positive prognostic factors for PFS (p < 0.001) and OS (p < 0.001); and there was some suggestion that 1p/19q co-deletion also predicted better response to chemotherapy (p = 0.007). Grade 3/4 toxicities were mainly hematological. Significantly improved HRQL in the future uncertainty domain of the brain cancer module was seen after cycle 4 (p < 0.001). This trial achieved outcomes similar to those reported previously. Toxicities from dose-intense temozolomide were manageable. Improvement in at least one HRQL domain increased over time. This trial supports the further study of first-line temozolomide monotherapy as an alternative to radiation therapy for patients with newly diagnosed AO/MAO with 1p 19q co-deleted tumors. © 2014, Springer Science+Business Media New York.

Chandra S.,Cornell University | Parker D.J.,Cornell University | Barth R.F.,Ohio State University | Pannullo S.C.,Weill Cornell Brain and Spine Center
Journal of Neuro-Oncology | Year: 2015

Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is one of the deadliest forms of human brain tumors. The infiltrative pattern of growth of these tumors includes the spread of individual and/or clusters of tumor cells at some distance from the main tumor mass in parts of the brain protected by an intact blood–brain-barrier. Pathophysiological studies of GBM could be greatly enhanced by analytical techniques capable of in situ single-cell resolution measurements of infiltrating tumor cells. Magnesium homeostasis is an area of active investigation in high grade gliomas. In the present study, we have used the F98 rat glioma as a model of human GBM and an elemental/isotopic imaging technique of secondary ion mass spectrometry, a CAMECA IMS-3f ion microscope, for studying Mg distribution with single-cell resolution in freeze-dried brain tissue cryosections. Quantitative observations were made on tumor cells in the main tumor mass, contiguous brain tissue, and infiltrating tumor cells in adjacent normal brain. The brain tissue contained a significantly lower total Mg concentration of 4.70 ± 0.93 mmol/kg wet weight (mean ± SD) in comparison to 11.64 ± 1.96 mmol/kg wet weight in tumor cells of the main tumor mass and 10.72 ± 1.76 mmol/kg wet weight in infiltrating tumor cells (p < 0.05). The nucleus of individual tumor cells contained elevated levels of bound Mg. These observations have established that there was enhanced influx and increased binding of Mg in tumor cells. They provide strong support for further investigation of altered Mg homeostasis and activation of Mg-transporting channels in GBMs as possible therapeutic targets. © 2015 Springer Science+Business Media New York

Berends H.I.,Sint Maartenskliniek | Journee H.L.,Sint Maartenskliniek | Racz I.,Sint Maartenskliniek | van Loon J.,Sint Maartenskliniek | And 2 more authors.
European Spine Journal | Year: 2016

Purpose: To optimize intraoperative neuromonitoring during extreme lateral interbody fusion (XLIF) by adding transcranial electrical stimulation with motor evoked potential (TESMEP) to previously described monitoring using spontaneous EMG (sEMG) and peripheral stimulation (triggered EMG: tEMG). Methods: Twenty-three patients with degenerative lumbar scoliosis had XLIF procedures and were monitored using sEMG, tEMG and TESMEP. Spontaneous and triggered muscle activity, and the MEP of 5 ipsilateral leg muscles, 2 contralateral leg muscles and 1 arm muscle were monitored. Results: During XLIF surgery decreased MEP amplitudes were measured in 9 patients and in 6 patients sEMG was documented. In 4 patients, both events were described. In 30 % of the cases (n = 7), the MEP amplitude decreased immediately after breaking of the table and even before skin incision. After reduction of the table break, the MEP amplitudes recovered to baseline. In two patients, the MEP amplitude deteriorated during distraction of the psoas with the retractor, while no events were reported using sEMG and tEMG. Repositioning of the retractor led to recovery of the MEP. Conclusions: Monitoring the complete nervous system during an XLIF procedure is found to be helpful since nerve roots, lumbar plexus as well as the intradural neural structures may be at risk. TESMEP has additional value to sEMG and tEMG during XLIF procedure: (1) it informed about otherwise unnoticed events, and (2) it confirmed and added information to events measured using sEMG. © 2015, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

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