Dall'Osto M.,CSIC - Institute of Environmental Assessment And Water Research |
Dall'Osto M.,University of Birmingham |
Dall'Osto M.,National University of Ireland |
Dall'Osto M.,CSIC - Institute of Marine Sciences |
And 44 more authors.
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics | Year: 2013
This paper presents the summary of the key objectives, instrumentation and logistic details, goals, and initial scientific findings of the European Marie Curie Action SAPUSS project carried out in the western Mediterranean Basin (WMB) during September-October in autumn 2010. The key SAPUSS objective is to deduce aerosol source characteristics and to understand the atmospheric processes responsible for their generations and transformations - both horizontally and vertically in the Mediterranean urban environment. In order to achieve so, the unique approach of SAPUSS is the concurrent measurements of aerosols with multiple techniques occurring simultaneously in six monitoring sites around the city of Barcelona (NE Spain): a main road traffic site, two urban background sites, a regional background site and two urban tower sites (150 m and 545 m above sea level, 150 m and 80 m above ground, respectively). SAPUSS allows us to advance our knowledge sensibly of the atmospheric chemistry and physics of the urban Mediterranean environment. This is well achieved only because of both the three dimensional spatial scale and the high sampling time resolution used. During SAPUSS different meteorological regimes were encountered, including warm Saharan, cold Atlantic, wet European and stagnant regional ones. The different meteorology of such regimes is herein described. Additionally, we report the trends of the parameters regulated by air quality purposes (both gaseous and aerosol mass concentrations); and we also compare the six monitoring sites. High levels of traffic-related gaseous pollutants were measured at the urban ground level monitoring sites, whereas layers of tropospheric ozone were recorded at tower levels. Particularly, tower level night-time average ozone concentrations (80 ± 25 μg m−3) were up to double compared to ground level ones. The examination of the vertical profiles clearly shows the predominant influence of NOx on ozone concentrations, and a source of ozone aloft. Analysis of the particulate matter (PM) mass concentrations shows an enhancement of coarse particles (PM2.5–10) at the urban ground level (+64%, average 11.7 μg m−3) but of fine ones (PM1) at urban tower level (+28%, average 14.4 μg m−3). These results show complex dynamics of the size-resolved PM mass at both horizontal and vertical levels of the study area. Preliminary modelling findings reveal an underestimation of the fine accumulation aerosols. In summary, this paper lays the foundation of SAPUSS, an integrated study of relevance to many other similar urban Mediterranean coastal environment sites. © Author(s) 2013. CC Attribution 3.0 License.
Ringer J.M.,Wehrwissenschaftliches Institute For Schutztechnologien
European Journal of Mass Spectrometry | Year: 2013
The chemical warfare agents (CWA) Sarin, Soman, Cyclosarin and Tabun were characterised by proton transfer mass spectrometry (PTRMS). It was found that PTRMS is a suitable technique to detect nerve agents highly sensitively, highly selectively and in near realtime. Methods were found to suppress molecule fragmentation which is significant under PTRMS hollow cathode ionisation conditions. In this context, the drift voltage (as one of the most important system parameters) was varied and ammonia was introduced as an additional chemical reagent gas. Auxiliary chemicals such as ammonia affect ionisation processes and are quite common in context with detectors for CWAs based on ion mobility spectrometry (IMS). With both, variation of drift voltage and ammonia as the reagent gas, fragmentation can be suppressed effectively. Suppression of fragmentation is crucial particularly concerning the implementation of an algorithm for automated agent identification in field applications. On the other hand, appearance of particular fragments might deliver additional information. Degradation and rearrangement products of nerve agents are not distinctive for the particular agent but for the chemical class they belong to. It was found that switching between ammonia doped and ordinary water ionisation chemistry can easily be performed within a few seconds. Making use of this effect it is possible to switch between fragment and molecular ion peak spectra. Thus, targeted fragmentation can be used to confirm identification based only on single peak detection. PTRMS turned out to be a promising technique for future CWA detectors. In terms of sensitivity, response time and selectivity (or confidence of identification, respectively) PTRMS performs as a bridging technique between IMS and GC-MS. © IM Publications LLP 2013.
Gransee R.,Fraunhofer Institute of Microtechnology Mainz |
Roser T.,Fraunhofer Institute of Microtechnology Mainz |
Drese K.S.,Fraunhofer Institute of Microtechnology Mainz |
Duchs D.,Fraunhofer Institute of Microtechnology Mainz |
And 4 more authors.
Progress in Biomedical Optics and Imaging - Proceedings of SPIE | Year: 2012
Preventing bacterial contaminations is a significant challenge in applications across a variety of industries, e.g. in food processing, the life sciences or biohazard detection. Here we present a fully automated lab-on-a-chip system wherein a disposable microfluidic chip moulded by polymeric injection is inserted into an operating device. Liquid samples, here obtained from an air sampler, can be processed to extract and lyse bacteria, and subsequently to purify their DNA using a silica matrix. After the washing and elution steps, the DNA solution is dispensed into a reaction vessel for further analysis in a conventional laboratory polymerase chain reaction (PCR) device. We demonstrate the workability and efficiency of our approach with results from a 9 ml liquid sample spiked with E. coli. © 2012 SPIE.
Sabath F.,Wehrwissenschaftliches Institute For Schutztechnologien |
Nitsch D.,Wehrwissenschaftliches Institute For Schutztechnologien |
Weise Th.H.G.G.,Rheinmetall W and M GmbH |
Jung M.,Rheinmetall W and M GmbH
PPPS 2001 - Pulsed Power Plasma Science 2001 | Year: 2015
In this paper the setup of a short pulse simulator system for susceptibility investigations is presented. The system consists of a compact ultra wide band UWB source and a half Impulse Radiating Antenna (half IRA). First measurements of the system are compared with calculated field values. The application of interest is the generation of a ultra short pulse with a high electromagnetic field strength. © 2002 IEEE.
Sagripanti J.-L.,U.S. Army |
Grote G.,Wehrwissenschaftliches Institute For Schutztechnologien |
Niederwohrmeier B.,Wehrwissenschaftliches Institute For Schutztechnologien |
Hulseweh B.,U.S. Army |
Marschall H.-J.,Wehrwissenschaftliches Institute For Schutztechnologien
Photochemistry and Photobiology | Year: 2012
Adaptability to a broad range of environments together with relatively high resistance to antibiotics and to disinfectants makes Pseudomonas aeruginosa a concern in hospitals and in public health. We investigated whether UVA-mediated photochemical inactivation of P. aeruginosa could be accomplished with high efficiency while at the same time preserving the sensitivity of subsequent diagnostic tests. We characterized dose responses and bactericidal kinetic rates of 5-iodonaphthyl 1-azide (INA) and of amotosalen (AMO) as these substances exposed to UVA are known to inactivate germs with minimal impact to blood products or to viral antigens. Neither UVA without photochemicals nor INA or AMO in the dark inactivated bacteria. We found that AMO was ca 1000-fold more effective in inactivating P. aeruginosa cells than INA under similar conditions. Photoinactivation with either INA or AMO at conditions that abolished bacterial infectivity did not impair polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) testing. For comparison, similar titers of Bacillus atrophaeus spores (a surrogate for B. anthracis) remained unaffected at conditions that reduced the survival of P. aeruginosa below detection levels. The results presented in this study should assist in improved methods to inactivate P. aeruginosa in environmental, clinical and forensic samples without impairing subsequent nucleic acid- or immune-based analysis. © 2011 U.S. Government. Photochemistry and Photobiology © 2011 The American Society of Photobiology.