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Sagripanti J.-L.,U.S. Army | Grote G.,Wehrwissenschafliches Institute For Schutztechnologien Wis | Niederwohrmeier B.,Wehrwissenschafliches Institute For Schutztechnologien Wis | Marschall H.-J.,Wehrwissenschafliches Institute For Schutztechnologien Wis
Photochemistry and Photobiology | Year: 2013

We determined the sensitivity of Pseudomonas aeruginosa to direct sunlight radiation, while maintaining the experimental temperature below levels harmful to the bacterium. The results presented here were similar to previous data on solar sensitivity obtained half a world away on another related bacterial species. The findings presented in this study suggest that related bacteria have a characteristic sensitivity to sunlight with their survival depending mainly on the fluence (photons) received in a dose-dependent manner that is otherwise relatively independent from latitude, atmospheric ozone and other local conditions. Conditions that inactivated P. aeruginosa did not result in measurable impairment of specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) or enzyme-linked immunoassays (ELISA) tests suggesting that this germ could still be amenable to detection after inactivation by sunlight. The results presented in this study should assist in predicting the survival of P. aeruginosa outdoors and in monitoring the risk posed by this widespread organism in a variety of environmental settings. © 2013 The American Society of Photobiology. Source


Sagripanti J.-L.,U.S. Army | Hulseweh B.,Wehrwissenschafliches Institute For Schutztechnologien Wis | Grote G.,Wehrwissenschafliches Institute For Schutztechnologien Wis | Voss L.,Wehrwissenschafliches Institute For Schutztechnologien Wis | And 2 more authors.
Applied and Environmental Microbiology | Year: 2011

The high risk associated with biological threat agents dictates that any suspicious sample be handled under strict surety and safety controls and processed under high-level containment in specialized laboratories. This study attempted to find a rapid, reliable, and simple method for the complete inactivation of a wide range of pathogens, including spores, vegetative bacteria, and viruses, while preserving microbial nucleic acid fragments suitable for PCRs and proteinaceous epitopes for detection by immunoassays. Formaldehyde, hydrogen peroxide, and guanidium thiocyanate did not completely inactivate high titers of bacterial spores or viruses after 30 min at 21°C. Glutaraldehyde and sodium hypochlorite showed high microbicidal activity but obliterated the PCR or enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) detection of bacterial spores or viruses. High-level inactivation (more than 6 log10) of bacterial spores (Bacillus atrophaeus), vegetative bacteria (Pseudomonas aeruginosa), an RNA virus (the alphavirus Pixuna virus), or a DNA virus (the orthopoxvirus vaccinia virus) was attained within 30 min at 21°C by treatment with either peracetic acid or cupric ascorbate with minimal hindrance of subsequent PCR tests and immunoassays. The data described here should provide the basis for quickly rendering field samples noninfectious for further analysis under lower-level containment and considerably lower cost. © 2011, American Society for Microbiology. Source


Sagripanti J.-L.,U.S. Army | Voss L.,Wehrwissenschafliches Institute For Schutztechnologien Wis | Marschall H.-J.,Wehrwissenschafliches Institute For Schutztechnologien Wis | David Lytle C.,U.S. Army
Photochemistry and Photobiology | Year: 2013

This study determined the sensitivity of vaccinia virus, an orthopox virus commonly used as a surrogate for variola virus (etiological agent of smallpox), exposed to UVB radiation emitted by a solar simulator, or to direct natural sunlight. The data obtained indicate that: (1) the virucidal effect of natural sunlight can be mimicked adequately by an artificial light source with similar spectral characteristics in the UVB, (2) viral sensitivity to UVB or to solar radiation can be correlated with experimental data previously obtained with UVC, (3) the correlation factor between virus inactivation by solar radiation (measured at 300 ± 5 nm) and by UVC (254 nm) is between 33 and 60, and (4) the sensitivity of viruses either dry on glass surfaces or in liquid suspension is similar when in the presence of similar amounts of cellular debris and growth media. The findings reported in this study should assist in estimating the threat posed by the persistence of virus during epidemics or after an accidental or intentional release. Vaccinia virus, commonly used as a surrogate for variola virus, was exposed to UVB radiation emitted by a solar simulator, or to direct natural sunlight. The data indicate that: (1) the virucidal effect of natural sunlight can be mimicked by an artificial light source with similar spectral characteristics in the UVB, (2) viral sensitivity to UVB or to solar radiation can be correlated with data previously obtained with UVC, and (3) the sensitivity of viruses either dry or in liquid suspension is similar when in the presence of similar amounts of cellular debris and growth media. © 2012 U.S. Government Photochemistry and Photobiology © 2012 The American Society of Photobiology. Source

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