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Milwaukee, WI, United States

Forte V.J.,National Grid | Fraser J.C.,Nova Scotia Power Inc. | Pahwa A.,Kansas State University | Short T.,EPRI | And 2 more authors.
IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery | Year: 2011

Weather significantly influences distribution reliability indices, especially duration benchmarks like SAIDI. We explore correlations with various weather parameters including lightning-detection network data, and wind from weather stations. This paper explores a number of ways to account for the variability caused by weather. Approaches include regression models to normalize with weather data as inputs, using outage database indicators of weather, and modifications to the 2.5 beta method of IEEE Std. 1366. © 2010 IEEE. Source


Naik T.R.,University of Wisconsin - Milwaukee | Kumar R.,University of Wisconsin - Milwaukee | Ramme B.W.,WE Energies | Canpolat F.,Yildiz Technical University
Construction and Building Materials | Year: 2012

This paper presents information regarding development, properties, and advantages and disadvantages of using high-strength self-consolidating concrete in the construction industry. It also presents results of a study recently completed for manufacturing economical high-strength self-consolidating concrete containing high-volumes of fly ash. In this study, portland cement was replaced by Class C fly ash in the range of 35-55% by the mass of cement. The results of fresh and hardened properties of concrete show that the use of high-volumes of Class C fly ash in self-consolidating concrete reduces the requirements for superplasticizer (HRWRA) and viscosity modifying agent (VMA) compared with the normal dosage for such admixtures in self-consolidating concrete. The results further indicate that economical self-consolidating concrete with 28-day strengths up to 62 MPa can be made using high-volumes of fly ash. Such concretes can be used for a wide range of applications from cast-in-place to precast concrete construction. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source


Naik T.R.,University of Wisconsin - Milwaukee | Kraus R.N.,University of Wisconsin - Milwaukee | Ramme B.W.,WE Energies | Canpolat F.,Yildiz Technical University
Journal of Materials in Civil Engineering | Year: 2012

This research was conducted to establish the effects of fly ash and used foundry sand on strength and durability of concrete. Two series (Series 1 and Series 2) of experiments were performed. All concrete mixtures were produced for and at the production plant of an architectural precast concrete products producer. Concrete mixtures produced were used in manufacture of precast concrete panels. Tests were performed with normal and air-entrained fly ash concrete. Concrete test specimens were evaluated for compressive strength, abrasion resistance, salt-scaling resistance, freezing and thawing resistance, and chloride-ion penetration resistance. On the basis of strength and durability evaluations, it was concluded that both nonair and air-entrained concrete mixtures developed in this investigation are appropriate for manufacture of high-quality, high-durability architectural precast concrete using used foundry sand and fly ash. © 2012 American Society of Civil Engineers. Source


Werner V.G.,WE Energies
2010 IEEE PES Transmission and Distribution Conference and Exposition: Smart Solutions for a Changing World | Year: 2010

The data collection, storage, access and use of electric service interruptions to address individual customer reliability at We Energies is examined. This paper provides a thorough description of the data collection methods and the inhouse tools that were developed at We Energies to access the collected data and make use of the customer level information. The use, planned use, and setting of goals for customer information are also discussed. © 2010 IEEE. Source


Yen L.,University of Michigan | Schultz A.B.,University of Michigan | Schaefer C.,WE Energies | Bloomberg S.,Take Care Health Systems | Edington D.W.,University of Michigan
International Journal of Workplace Health Management | Year: 2010

Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to document the total return on investment (ROI) of a comprehensive worksite health program from 1999 to 2007 through two different analytic approaches. Design/methodology/approach - Two analytical techniques were used: time period analysis and historical trend analysis of the entire study period. The time-period analysis of ROI was performed among employees in four time periods: 1999-2001; 2002-2003, 2004-2005; and 2006-2007. The historical trend analysis on participation-related savings was used to compare the financial trend differences between participants and non-participants as well as the three different participation levels of continuous, sporadic, and non-participants since the year 2000 among 2,753 employees who worked for and were covered by the company-sponsored health plans for the entire study period. Findings - The ROI from health care costs and time away from work ranged from 1.29 to 2.07 for the four time periods with a cumulative ROI of 1.66 over nine years. The historical trend analysis of 2,753 long-term employees resulted in a 1.57 ROI for 2,036 program participants (t-test: p < 0.005) with statistically significant annual saving of $180 per participant per year. Originality/value - The returns on comprehensive worksite health program were greater than the program investment as documented by both time-period and historical trend analyses. Organizations seeking ways to manage the increases in health care and absenteeism costs of employees will be encouraged to see that positive returns can be generated by investments in employee health and wellness and steady or consistent participation is one key to generating success. © Emerald Group Publishing Limited. Source

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