Shoresh, Israel
Shoresh, Israel

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Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP | Phase: SST-2007.2.2-02;SST-2007-2.2-02 | Award Amount: 7.50M | Year: 2009

River Information Services (RIS) are operational in European waterway corridors in a variety of sophistication levels. Their major objective is to collect and distribute river related information in order to support not only public waterways authorities, but also commercial operators in the Inland Waterway Transport (IWT) sector. The use of such information for logistics purposes is still quite under-exploited. RISING will investigate how such information can lead to useful solutions and services supporting complete transport chains involving inland waterways transport. For this purpose, existing RIS will be equipped with additional intelligent software modules. In addition, transport operators chain planning, execution and monitoring systems will gain the ability to implement such information into their planning and monitoring processes. On top of improved tracking and tracing capabilities, new concepts, such as Supply Chain Event Management (SCEM), will be used to facilitate automated chain monitoring such that chain managers are informed only when manual intervention is required for cargo to move properly. These new modules and their interaction with systems for chain planning and execution will be implemented according to the framework architecture and mode independent information exchange principles laid out in the Freightwise project. In order to make IWT a part of the co-modal transport chain, this mode must be able to supply at least the same quality services as all other transport modes. Therefore services need to be developed and offered in a harmonised way - harmonised across borders, as well as between different modes. A key results of RISING is a harmonised set of events, messages and services to be offered for providing RIS information to the logistics chain operators using inland waterway transport. RISING will develop the new capabilities by adopting an evolutionary approach enhancing existing systems rather than re-inventing everything from scratch. The results of RISING will be demonstrated in different logistics chains (containers, bulk, steel) in different geographical regions (Danube, Rhine, Scheldt, Elbe/Weser) covering the major European inland waterways based on the existing RIS information available.

Kosters F.,WaterWays | Winter C.,University of Bremen
Geo-Marine Letters | Year: 2014

The prediction of large-scale coastal and estuarine morphodynamics requires a sound understanding of the relevant driving processes and forcing factors. Data- and process-based methods and models suffer from limitations when applied individually to investigate these systems and, therefore, a combined approach is needed. The morphodynamics of coastal environments can be assessed in terms of a mean bed elevation range (BER), which is the difference of the lowest to highest seabed elevation occurring within a defined time interval. In this study of the coastal sector of the German Bight, North Sea, the highly variable distribution of observed BER for the period 1984-2006 is correlated to local bed shear stresses based on hindcast simulations with a well-validated high-resolution (typically 1,000 m in coastal settings) process-based numerical model of the North Sea. A significant correlation of the 95th percentile of bed shear stress and BER was found, explaining between 49 % and 60 % of the observed variance of the BER under realistic forcing conditions. The model then was applied to differentiate the effects of three main hydrodynamic drivers, i.e. tides, wind-induced currents, and waves. Large-scale mapping of these model results quantify previous qualitative suggestions: tides act as main drivers of the East Frisian coast, whereas waves are more relevant for the morphodynamics of the German west coast. Tidal currents are the main driver of the very high morphological activity of the tidal channels of the Ems, Weser and Elbe estuaries, the Jade Bay, and tidal inlets between the islands. This also holds for the backbarrier tidal flats of the North Frisian Wadden Sea. The morphodynamics of the foreshore areas of the barrier island systems are mainly wave-driven; in the deeper areas tides, waves and wind-driven currents have a combined effect. The open tidal flats (outer Ems, Neuwerker Watt, Dithmarschen Bight) are affected by a combination of tides, wind-driven currents and waves. Model performance should be measurably improved by integrating the roles of other key drivers, notably sediment dynamics and salt marsh stabilisation. © 2013 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

Naulin M.,WaterWays | Kortenhaus A.,Ghent University | Oumeraci H.,TU Braunschweig
Coastal Engineering Journal | Year: 2015

Failures of flood defenses have been one of the major reasons in the past leading to flooding of the hinterland behind flood defenses along rivers and at the sea. It is therefore inevitable to investigate the reliability of such defenses for extreme events as have occurred in the past and are discussed to happen more frequently in the future and due to climate changes. The first subproject in XtremRisK (SP 1) and the related papers in this issue [Gönnert, G. and Gerkensmeier, B. [2015] "A multi-method approach to develop extreme storm surge events to strengthen the resilience of highly vulnerable coastal areas," Coast. Eng. J., this special issue; Wahl, T. et al. [2015] "Statistical assessment of storm surge scenarios within integrated risk analyses," Coast. Eng. J., this special issue; Tayel, M. and Oumeraci, H. [2015] "A hybrid approach using hydrodynamic modelling and artificial neural networks for extreme storm surge prediction, Coast. Eng. J., this special issue] have investigated the components of storm surges and their statistical occurrence, also in relation to the wave parameters. These results can now be used as input for investigating the reliability of flood defenses and provide an overall failure probability for different types of defenses and different failure modes. This paper therefore summarizes the key findings of the "risk pathway" analysis of XtremRisK Subproject 2 (SP 2) which comprise a reliability analysis and breach modeling of coastal and estuarine flood defenses using storm surge scenarios and sea states, including their occurrence probabilities provided by XtremRisK SP 1. The paper discusses the key results, the progress, and challenges in reliability analysis and breach modeling of flood defenses. The developed and advanced methods were applied to pilot sites in Hamburg (Elbe Estuary) and the Island of Sylt (North Sea). These pilot sites are mainly protected by linear flood defenses such as sea dikes, estuarine dikes, coastal dunes, and flood defense walls. Results have shown that under extreme conditions many dikes may fail simply from wave overtopping and even overflow but also from dike breaching due to the severe loading of the dike slopes when heavy overtopping and overflow occurs. The inflowing water volumes were calculated based on time-dependent water levels and then used for inundation modeling of the hinterland in Subproject 3 (SP 3) of XtremRisK. Furthermore, the limit state equations for wave overtopping and overflow had been adapted to time-dependent simulations. An importance factor was introduced for the probability of breaching of sea dikes leading to significantly different failure probabilities. The length effect considering the different homogeneous segments in the dike ring of Hamburg-Wilhelmsburg was estimated using an upper and lower bound approach showing the importance of the segmentation of the dike ring. © 2015 World Scientific Publishing Company and Japan Society of Civil Engineers.

Bauman A.G.,James Cook University | Baird A.H.,James Cook University | Cavalcante G.H.,WaterWays
Coral Reefs | Year: 2011

Despite extensive research on coral reproduction from numerous geographic locations, there remains limited knowledge within the Persian Gulf. Given that corals in the Persian Gulf exist in one of the most stressful environments for reef corals, with annual variations in sea surface temperature (SST) of 12°C and maximum summer mean SSTs of 36°C, understanding coral reproductive biology in the Gulf may provide clues as to how corals may cope with global warming. In this study, we examined six locally common coral species on two shallow reef sites in Dubai, United Arab Emirates (UAE), in 2008 and 2009 to investigate the patterns of reproduction, in particular the timing and synchrony of spawning. In total, 71% colonies in April 2008 and 63% colonies in April 2009 contained mature oocytes. However, the presence of mature gametes in May indicated that spawning was potentially split between April and May in all species. These results demonstrate that coral reproduction patterns within this region are highly seasonal and that multi-species spawning synchrony is highly probable. Acropora downingi, Cyphastrea microphthalma and Platygyra daedalea were all hermaphroditic broadcast spawners with a single annual gametogenic cycle. Furthermore, fecundity and mature oocyte sizes were comparable to those in other regions. We conclude that the reproductive biology of corals in the southern Persian Gulf is similar to other regions, indicating that these species have adapted to the extreme environmental conditions in the southern Persian Gulf. © 2011 Springer-Verlag.

The interaction of water and soil has been both a blessing and a curse in all times within living memory. Water is the origin of life but is also threatening life when appearing unboundedly. Therefore mankind has always worked hard to benefit from water resources on one hand and to deal with the threat of flooding on the other hand. For both, to protect the land and to allow for beneficial uses like irrigation or navigation, often special measures are necessary to keep the water within certain bounds. Structures to achieve a permanently stable situation like irrigation and navigational canals, river training or flood protection measures need suitable material, carefully thought out design and accurate execution. Often a decision has to be made among competitive approaches to optimize such structures. In many cases, geosynthetics can support or improve the functionality and sometimes only with geosynthetics the desired result can be achieved. Geosynthetics can provide strength and flexibility, imperviousness and drainage, durability and robustness or controlled degradation. All these properties can be of use to handle the many occurrences of interaction of water and soil. Surface water has to be guided or to be kept off; percolating water should be controlled to avoid internal erosion effects should be restrained by appropriate filtration. To guarantee well functioning in general, also chemical and biological aspects have to be considered like ochre formation, root penetration and population by any kind of species. The German Federal Waterways Engineering and Research Institute (BAW) has gathered experience with geosynthetics in hydraulic applications since more than 40 years. These years revealed the capabilities of geosynthetic solutions and simultaneously emphasized the need of careful selection, design and execution.A large variety of geosynthetic fabric and structures is available. To control the interaction of water and soil many different attributes are required, e.g. membranes for impervious lining, filter sheets for erosion control, different kinds of mattresses or wrap-around structures, voluminous elements from sandbags to mega containers for protection, training or immediate repair. In many cases geosynthetics can be designed to control the interaction of water and soil according to the individual and local requirements to allow for an excellent execution of waterways and flood protection structures. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

Sarma K.G.S.,WaterWays
Procedia Engineering | Year: 2015

One of the major maintenance problems encountered by the shoreline harbours along east coast of India is siltation of approach channels due to huge longshore sediment movement by wave action along the coast. Wave induced longshore sediment transport rates along east coast of India at selected major shoreline harbours Chennai, Visakhapatnam and Paradip have been estimated using an energy flux method. The direction of littoral drift is generally from south to north during the period March to October when southwest monsoon blows over Bay of Bengal and reverses its direction from north to south during the period November to February during northeast monsoon season. The rates of sediment transport however vary from one shoreline harbour to another depending upon the wave climate and other near shore features. While the littoral drift rates are high during south west monsoon season from March to October at Visakhapatnam and Paradip harbours, the Chennai harbour on the other hand experiences high rates of littoral drifts during north east monsoon months particularly from November to January due to storm waves along the coast. The estimated sediment transport rates have been compared with the available dredging quantities to know their accuracies. The problems of siltation and coastal erosion have become severe over the years due to deepening of the harbour channels as a part of expansion and modernization of ports. Hence, a detailed study on siltation problems faced by the shoreline harbours will definitely useful not only for dredging management plan for existing ports but also for planning new port locations along the coast. The historical problems of the shoreline harbours due to construction of harbour installations at selected important ports along east coast of India have been discussed briefly. © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

Mittelbach L.,WaterWays
AIP Conference Proceedings | Year: 2013

and costal shores. They have to resist hydraulic loads such as ship and wind induced waves, tidal and ship induced currents, tidal varying water levels and storm surges. The numerical modelling of rip-rap revetments is undertaken by using the Distinct Element Method in three dimensions. With the DEM rip-rap stones can be modelled as autonomous objects with any degrees of freedom. Typical shapes of stones are formed by using clumped spherical particles. A method for the generation of the rip-rap stones based on geometrical and probabilistic parameters has been developed in order to generate stones with a realistic size and mass distribution. The DEM program is coupled with a computational fluid dynamics program to account for the influence of the hydraulic loads on the rip-rap stones. The acting forces can be simulated realistically for waves, currents and tidal varying water levels. Field measurements and model tests serve as validation for the numerical model. Physical model tests are carried out in a hydraulic flume with an instrumented rip-rap section for the calibration of the numerical stones material parameters. The behaviour of the particles depends on properties such as density, friction coefficient, normal and shear stiffness as well as the accuracy of the numerical representation of the rip-rap stones. Influences on the accuracy of the modelling of rip-raps with regard to the variation of these parameters are examined by comparing the results of the physical flume tests and numerical model. © 2013 AIP Publishing LLC.

In at least one embodiment, a method for remediating oxic water having transition metal ions comprises the steps of providing oxic water having transition metal ions. The water is introduced to a chamber. The pH is adjusted to a range from 2.5 to 7.5 forming a pH-adjusted oxic water. Thiosulfate ions are introduced and reacted with the transition metal ions to form insoluble transition metal-thiosulfate species complexes, which are immobilized forming remediated oxic water.

In at least one embodiment, a remediation system for oxic water having transition metal ions includes a first chamber defining a first cavity having a first inlet and a first outlet. The first cavity includes oxic water having dissolved ions of reduced species of chalcogenides. The system also includes a second chamber in fluid communication with the first chamber. The oxic water has a pH ranging from 2.5 to 7.5 when present in the first chamber.

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