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Eschborn, Germany

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Eschborn, Germany
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Novakova L.,Charles University | Rentsch M.,Waters AG | Grand-Guillaume Perrenoud A.,University of Geneva | Veuthey J.,University of Geneva | Guillarme D.,University of Geneva
Analytica Chimica Acta | Year: 2015

The potential and applicability of UHPSFC-MS/MS for anti-doping screening in urine samples were tested for the first time. For this purpose, a group of 110 doping agents with diverse physicochemical properties was analyzed using two separation techniques, namely UHPLC-MS/MS and UHPSFC-MS/MS in both ESI+ and ESI- modes. The two approaches were compared in terms of selectivity, sensitivity, linearity and matrix effects. As expected, very diverse retentions and selectivities were obtained in UHPLC and UHPSFC, proving a good complementarity of these analytical strategies. In both conditions, acceptable peak shapes and MS detection capabilities were obtained within 7. min analysis time, enabling the application of these two methods for screening purposes. Method sensitivity was found comparable for 46% of tested compounds, while higher sensitivity was observed for 21% of tested compounds in UHPLC-MS/MS and for 32% in UHPSFC-MS/MS. The latter demonstrated a lower susceptibility to matrix effects, which were mostly observed as signal suppression. In the case of UHPLC-MS/MS, more serious matrix effects were observed, leading typically to signal enhancement and the matrix effect was also concentration dependent, i.e., more significant matrix effects occurred at the lowest concentrations. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.


van der Linde K.,University of Osnabrück | van der Linde K.,Max Planck Institute for Terrestrial Microbiology | Gutsche N.,University of Osnabrück | Leffers H.-M.,University of Osnabrück | And 5 more authors.
Plant Physiology and Biochemistry | Year: 2011

From the five genes which code for cytosolic fructose 1,6-bisphosphate aldolases in Arabidopsis thaliana L., the cDNA clone of cAld2 (At2g36460), was heterologously expressed in E. coli and incubated under various oxidizing and reducing conditions. Covalent binding of a GSH moiety to the enzyme was shown by incorporation of biotinylated GSH (BioGEE) and by immunodetection with monoclonal anti-GSH serum. Nitrosylation after incubation with GSNO or SNP was demonstrated using the biotin-switch assay. Mass-spectrometry analysis showed glutathionylation and/or nitrosylation at two different cysteine residues: GSH was found to be attached to C68 and C173, while the nitroso-group was incorporated only into C173. Non-reducing SDS-PAGE conducted with purified wild-type and various Cys-mutant proteins revealed the presence of disulfide bridges in the oxidized enzyme, as described for rabbit muscle aldolase. Incubation of the purified enzyme with GSSG (up to 25 mM) led to partial and reversible inactivation of enzyme activity; NADPH, in the presence of the components of the cytosolic NADP-dependent thioredoxin system, could reactivate the aldolase as did DTT. Total and irreversible inactivation occurred with low concentrations (0.1 mM) of nitrosoglutathione (GSNO). Inactivation was prevented by co-incubation of cAld2 with fructose-1,6-bisphosphate (FBP). Nuclear localization of cAld2 and interaction with thioredoxins was shown by transient expression of fusion constructs with fluorescent proteins in isolated protoplasts. © 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS.


Frenkel J.,Friedrich - Schiller University of Jena | Wess C.,Waters GmbH | Vyverman W.,Ghent University | Pohnert G.,Friedrich - Schiller University of Jena
Journal of Chromatography B: Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences | Year: 2014

The proline derived diketopiperazine has been identified in plants, insects and fungi with unknown function and was recently also reported as the first pheromone from a diatom. Nevertheless the stereochemistry and enantiomeric excess of this natural product remained inaccessible using direct analytical methods. Here we introduce a chiral separation of this metabolite using supercritical fluid chromatography/mass spectrometry. Several chromatographic methods for chiral analysis of the diketopiperazine from the diatom Seminavis robusta and synthetic enantiomers have been evaluated but neither gas chromatography nor high performance liquid chromatography on different chiral cyclodextrin phases were successful in separating the enantiomers. In contrast, supercritical fluid chromatography achieved baseline separation within four minutes of run time using amylose tris(3,5-dimethylphenylcarbamate) as stationary phase and 2-propanol/CO2 as mobile phase. This very rapid chromatographic method in combination with ESI mass spectrometry allowed the direct analysis of the cyclic dipeptide out of the complex sea water matrix after SPE enrichment. The method could be used to determine the enantiomeric excess of freshly released pheromone and to follow the rapid degradation observed in diatom cultures. Initially only trace amounts of c(d-Pro-d-Pro) were found besides the dominant c(l-Pro-l-Pro) in the medium. However the enantiomeric excess decreased upon pheromone degradation within few hours indicating that a preferential conversion and thus inactivation of the l-proline derived natural product takes place. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.


PubMed | Waters GmbH, University of Potsdam and Max Planck Institute of Colloids and Interfaces
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Biomacromolecules | Year: 2016

Owing to its rod-like -helical secondary structure, the synthetic polypeptide poly(-benzyl-l-glutamate) (PBlG) can form physical and thermoreversible gels in helicogenic solvents such as toluene. The versatility of PBlG can be increased by introducing functionalizable comonomers, such as allylglycine (AG). In this work we examined the secondary structure of PBlG and a series of statistical poly(-benzyl-l-glutamate-co-allylglycine) copolypeptides, varying in composition and chain length, by circular dichroism (CD), Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) and Raman spectroscopy, and wide-angle X-ray scattering (WAXS). The secondary structure of PBlG and the copolypeptides presented dissimilarities that increased with increasing AG molar fraction, especially when racemic AG units were incorporated. The physical gelation behavior of these copolypeptides was analyzed by temperature-sweep (1)H NMR and rheological measurements. The study revealed that both copolypeptide composition and chain length affected secondary structure, gelation temperature, and gel stiffness.


Vacogne C.D.,Max Planck Institute of Colloids and Interfaces | Schopferer M.,Waters GmbH | Schlaad H.,University of Potsdam
Biomacromolecules | Year: 2016

Owing to its rod-like α-helical secondary structure, the synthetic polypeptide poly(γ-benzyl-l-glutamate) (PBlG) can form physical and thermoreversible gels in helicogenic solvents such as toluene. The versatility of PBlG can be increased by introducing functionalizable comonomers, such as allylglycine (AG). In this work we examined the secondary structure of PBlG and a series of statistical poly(γ-benzyl-l-glutamate-co-allylglycine) copolypeptides, varying in composition and chain length, by circular dichroism (CD), Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) and Raman spectroscopy, and wide-angle X-ray scattering (WAXS). The secondary structure of PBlG and the copolypeptides presented dissimilarities that increased with increasing AG molar fraction, especially when racemic AG units were incorporated. The physical gelation behavior of these copolypeptides was analyzed by temperature-sweep 1H NMR and rheological measurements. The study revealed that both copolypeptide composition and chain length affected secondary structure, gelation temperature, and gel stiffness. © 2016 American Chemical Society.


Noll T.,NRW Nachwuchsforschergruppe fur Nanotechnologie | Schonherr H.,University of Siegen | Wesner D.,University of Siegen | Schopferer M.,Waters GmbH | And 2 more authors.
Angewandte Chemie - International Edition | Year: 2014

A three-dimensional DNA hydrogel was generated by self-assembly of short linear double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) building blocks equipped with sticky ends. The resulting DNA hydrogel is thermoresponsive and the length of the supramolecular dsDNA structures varies with temperature. The average diffusion coefficients of the supramolecular dsDNA structures formed by self-assembly were determined by diffusion-ordered NMR spectroscopy (DOSYNMR) for temperatures higher than 60°C. Temperature-dependent rheological measurements revealed a gel point of 42±1°C. Below this temperature, the resulting material behaved as a true gel of high viscosity with values for the storage modulus G' being significantly larger than that for the loss modulus G′. Frequency-dependent rheological measurements at 20°C revealed a mesh size (ξ) of 15nm. AFM analysis of the diluted hydrogel in the dry state showed densely packed structures of entangled chains, which are also expected to contain multiple interlocked rings and catenanes. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.


Kuhn J.,Ruhr University Bochum | Vollmer T.,Ruhr University Bochum | Martin C.,Waters GmbH | Hendig D.,Ruhr University Bochum | Knabbe C.,Ruhr University Bochum
Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis | Year: 2012

We developed a stable isotope dilution ultra-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry assay to measure nicotine and cotinine, the major oxidative and pharmacologically less active metabolite of nicotine, in human urine. A simple dilution step was used as sample preparation and the measurement of nicotine and cotinine was performed during a 1.5-min run-time using nicotine-d 4 and cotinine-d 4 as internal standards. Multiple calibration curves for the analysis of both nicotine and cotinine exhibited a consistent excellent linearity and reproducibility in the range of 5-35,000μg/L (r>0.999). Limits of Detection were 0.7μg/L for nicotine and 0.4μg/L for cotinine, and Lower Limits of Quantification were 1.7μg/L for nicotine and 1.1μg/L for cotinine. The intraassay coefficients of variation (CVs) for nicotine and cotinine were <4% and <2%, respectively, the interassay CVs were <6% for nicotine and <4% for cotinine. The inaccuracy was <6% for both substances. The mean recovery was 103.2% (range 96.8-105.1%) for nicotine and 97.4% (range 94.3-99.2%) for cotinine. A method comparison showed that the values of nicotine metabolites in human urine samples (n=98) measured by a commercially available chemiluminescent immunoassay tested on analyzer IMMULITE 2000 were much higher than the cotinine concentration in the same urine samples measured by our UPLC-MS/MS assay. The Passing-Bablok regression line was: immunoassay=4.62 (UPLC-MS/MS)+3.64 [μg/L]; r=0.75. This robust, sensitive and interference-free UPLC-MS/MS assay permits rapid and accurate determination of nicotine and cotinine in human urine. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.


Lange S.,Max Planck Institute for Infection Biology | Lange S.,Waters GmbH | Rosenkrands I.,Statens Serum Institute | Stein R.,I and B | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Proteomics | Year: 2014

Secreted proteins of bacteria are preferentially capable of interacting with host cells and are therefore of special biological and medical interest. Narrow pH range 2-DE and MALDI-TOFTOF-MS combine high-resolution protein separation with highly sensitive identification of proteins. Secreted proteins of Mycobacterium tuberculosis were separated at the protein species level, distinguishing different protein species of one protein. We focused on the pI range 4.0-4.7 and the Mr range 6-20. kDa of the 2-DE pattern. Out of 128 analyzed spots, 121 were identified resulting in 33 different proteins with 277 different protein species, accumulating in a mean of 8.4 protein species per protein. Overrepresentation was found for the protein classes "virulence, detoxification, adaption", "information pathways", "cell wall and cell processes" and "intermediary metabolism and respiration". Thus far, 15 protein species of the ESX-1 family are characterized with 100% sequence coverage. More automated 2-DE procedures and more sensitive identification techniques are required for complete characterization of all of the protein species even in highly enriched samples, such as culture filtrates. Only then the functional level of proteomics will be achieved and potential biomarkers can be postulated at the molecular level. Biological significance: Proteomics is dominated by bottom-up approaches largely ignoring protein speciation. A prerequisite to reach the protein species level is to obtain 100% sequence coverage, which is a major challenge in proteomics. Here we show complete sequence information with a 2-DE-MS approach for 15 protein species. Acetylation of the N-terminus of ESAT-6 inhibits interaction with CFP-10, with direct consequences for pathogen-host interaction.This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Trends in Microbial Proteomics. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.


Today's mass spectrometry plays a key role for the analysis of complex protein mixtures. Nevertheless, it reaches technical limits already, which can be overcome via combination with ion mobility spectrometry.


Milic I.,University of Leipzig | Kipping M.,Waters GmbH | Hoffmann R.,University of Leipzig | Fedorova M.,University of Leipzig
Journal of Mass Spectrometry | Year: 2015

Phospholipids are major components of cell membranes and lipoprotein complexes. They are prone to oxidation by endogenous and exogenous reactive oxygen species yielding a large variety of modified lipids including small aliphatic and phospholipid bound aldehydes and ketones. These carbonyls are strong electrophiles that can modify proteins and, thereby, alter their structures and functions triggering various pathophysiological conditions. The analysis of lipid-protein adducts by liquid chromatography-MS is challenged by their mixed chemical nature (polar peptide and hydrophobic lipid), low abundance in biological samples, and formation of multiple isomers. Thus, we investigated traveling wave ion mobility mass spectrometry (TWIMS) to analyze lipid-peptide adducts generated by incubating model peptides corresponding to the amphipathic β1 sheet sequence of apolipoprotein B-100 with 1-palmitoyl-2-(oxo-nonanoyl)-sn-glycerophosphatidylcholine (PONPC). The complex mixture of peptides, lipids, and peptide-lipid adducts was separated by TWIMS, which was especially important for the identification of two mono-PONPC-peptide isomers containing Schiff bases at different lysine residues. Moreover, TWIMS separated structural conformers of one peptide-lipid adduct possessing most likely different orientations of the hydrophobic sn-1 fatty acyl residue and head group of PONPC, relative to the peptide backbone. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

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