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Gladesville, Australia

Summerhayes R.J.,University of Sydney | Summerhayes R.J.,Southern Cross University of Australia | Morgan G.G.,University of Sydney | Lincoln D.,University of Sydney | And 6 more authors.
Water Research

Aim: This paper describes the spatio-temporal variation of trihalomethanes in drinking water in New South Wales, Australia from 1997 to 2007. Method: We obtained data on trihalomethanes (THMs) from two metropolitan and 13 rural water utilities and conducted a descriptive analysis of the spatial and temporal trends in THMs and the influence of season and drought. Results: Concetrations of monthly THMs in the two metropolitan water utilities of Sydney/Illawarra (mean 66.8 μg/L) and Hunter (mean 62.7 μg/L) were similar compared to the considerable variation between rural water utilities (range in mean THMs: 14.5-330.7 μg/L). Chloroform was the predominate THM in two-thirds of the rural water utilities. Higher concentrations of THMs were found in chlorinated water distribution systems compared to chloraminated systems, and in distribution systems sourced from surface water compared to ground water or mixed surface and ground water. Ground water sourced supplies had a greater proportion of brominated THMs than surface water sourced supplies. There was substantial variation in concentration of THMs between seasons and between periods of drought or no drought. There was a moderate correlation between heavy rainfall and elevated concentrations of THMs. Conclusion: There is considerable spatial and temporal variation in THMs amongst New South Wales water utilities and these variations are likely related to water source, treatment processes, catchments, drought and seasonal factors. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Cretikos M.,Center for Epidemiology and Research | Byleveld P.,Water Unit | Durrheim D.N.,Hunter New England Population Health Unit | Durrheim D.N.,Hunter Medical Research Institute | And 5 more authors.
Journal of Water and Health

Aim: To determine factors associated with microbiological safety of public drinking water systems in regional New South Wales (NSW), Australia. Method: We analysed 107,000 end-user drinking water samples for an association between detection of Escherichia coli and drinking water system features, sample year and season using NSW Health Drinking Water Monitoring Program data, 2001-2007. We used negative binomial generalized estimating equations with adjustment for autocorrelation and clustering. Results: We detected E. coli in over 2% of samples from 40% (129/323) of systems. E. coli detection was significantly more common in earlier years and during summer ( p < 0.001). On multivariate analysis E. coli detection was significantly associated with smaller systems; watercourse sources; no disinfection or disinfection with ultraviolet only; and higher post-treatment mean turbidity (all p ≤ 0.01). Detection was most strongly associated with lack of disinfection (incidence rate ratio 12.6, p < 0.001) and smaller supply systems (1% reduction in E. coli detection for each 1,000 person increase in supply population, p = 0.004). Ultraviolet disinfection alone was the least effective disinfection method ( p < 0.001). Conclusion: Even in developed countries, drinking water systems without disinfection or serving small populations appear vulnerable to the effects of faecal contamination, which presents a risk of waterborne disease outbreaks. © IWA Publishing 2010. Source

Lopes-Lima M.,The Interdisciplinary Center | Sousa R.,University of Minho | Geist J.,TU Munich | Aldridge D.C.,University of Cambridge | And 41 more authors.
Biological Reviews

Freshwater mussels of the Order Unionida provide important ecosystem functions and services, yet many of their populations are in decline. We comprehensively review the status of the 16 currently recognized species in Europe, collating for the first time their life-history traits, distribution, conservation status, habitat preferences, and main threats in order to suggest future management actions. In northern, central, and eastern Europe, a relatively homogeneous species composition is found in most basins. In southern Europe, despite the lower species richness, spatially restricted species make these basins a high conservation priority. Information on freshwater mussels in Europe is unevenly distributed with considerable differences in data quality and quantity among countries and species. To make conservation more effective in the future, we suggest greater international cooperation using standardized protocols and methods to monitor and manage European freshwater mussel diversity. Such an approach will not only help conserve this vulnerable group but also, through the protection of these important organisms, will offer wider benefits to freshwater ecosystems. © 2016 Cambridge Philosophical Society. Source

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