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Scheurer M.,Water Technology Center Karlsruhe | Scheurer M.,Lüneburg University | Godejohann M.,Bruker Biospin Gmbh | Wick A.,Federal Institute of Hydrology BfG | And 5 more authors.
Environmental Science and Pollution Research | Year: 2012

Purpose: The two artificial sweeteners cyclamate (CYC) and acesulfame (ACE) have been detected in wastewater and drinking water treatment plants. As in both facilities ozonation might be applied, it is important to find out if undesired oxidation products (OPs) are formed. Methods: For the separation and detection of the OPs, several analytical techniques, including nuclear magnetic resonance experiments, were applied. In order to distinguish between direct ozone reaction and a radical mechanism, experiments were carried out at different pH values with and without scavenging OH radicals. Kinetic experiments were used for confirmation that the OPs are formed during short ozone contact time applied in waterworks. Samples from a waterworks using bank filtrate as raw water were analyzed in order to prove that the identified OPs are formed in real and full-scale ozone applications. Results: In the case of CYC, oxidation mainly occurs at the carbon atom, where the sulfonamide moiety is bound to the cyclohexyl ring. Consequently, amidosulfonic acid and cyclohexanone are formed as main OPs of CYC. When ozone reacts at another carbon atom of the ring a keto moiety is introduced into the CYC molecule. Acetic acid and the product ACE OP170, an anionic compound with m/z=170 and an aldehyde hydrate moiety, were identified as the main OPs for ACE. The observed reaction products suggest an ozone reaction according to the Criegee mechanism due to the presence of a C=C double bond. ACE OP170 was also detected after the ozonation unit of a full-scale drinking water treatment plant which uses surface water-influenced bank filtrate as raw water. Conclusions: Acesulfame can be expected to be found in anthropogenic-influenced raw water used for drinking water production. However, when ACE OP170 is formed during ozonation, it is not expected to cause any problem for drinking water suppliers, because the primary findings suggest its removal in subsequent treatment steps, such as activated carbon filters. © 2011 Springer-Verlag.


Lange F.T.,Water Technology Center Karlsruhe | Scheurer M.,Water Technology Center Karlsruhe | Brauch H.-J.,Water Technology Center Karlsruhe
Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry | Year: 2012

An overview is given of existing trace analytical methods for the determination of seven popular artificial sweeteners [acesulfame (ACE), aspartame, cyclamate (CYC), neotame, neohesperidine dihydrochalcone, saccharin (SAC), and sucralose (SUC)] from aqueous environmental samples. Liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry and liquid chromatography- electrospray ionization high-resolution mass spectrometry are the methods most widely applied, either directly or after solid-phase extraction. Limits of detection and limits of quantification down to the low nanogram per liter range can be achieved. ACE, CYC, SAC, and SUC were detected in wastewater treatment plants in high microgram per liter concentrations. Per capita loads of individual sweeteners can vary within a wide range depending on their use in different countries. Whereas CYC and SAC are usually degraded by more than 90% during wastewater treatment, ACE and SUC pass through wastewater treatment plants mainly unchanged. This suggests their use as virtually perfect markers for the study of the impact of wastewater on source waters and drinking waters. In finished water of drinking water treatment plants using surface-waterinfluenced source water, ACE and SUC were detected in concentrations up to 7 and 2.4 μg/L, respectively. ACE was identified as a precursor of oxidation byproducts during ozonation, resulting in an aldehyde intermediate and acetic acid. Although the concentrations of ACE and SUC are among the highest measured for anthropogenic trace pollutants found in surface water, groundwater, and drinking water, the levels are at least three orders of magnitude lower than organoleptic threshold values. However, ecotoxicology studies are scarce and have focused on SUC. Thus, further research is needed both on identification of transformation products and on the ecotoxicological impact of artificial sweeteners and their transformation products. © Springer-Verlag 2012.


Scheurer M.,Water Technology Center Karlsruhe | Schmutz B.,Water Technology Center Karlsruhe | Happel O.,Water Technology Center Karlsruhe | Brauch H.-J.,Water Technology Center Karlsruhe | And 2 more authors.
Science of the Total Environment | Year: 2014

The transformation of the artificial sweetener acesulfame by direct photolysis was investigated at various pH values, in different water types and at various concentration levels. Main photodegradation products of acesulfame were elucidated and analyzed both in laboratory experiments and in a full-scale waterworks using UV treatment for disinfection purposes. The degradation of acesulfame was found to be independent of the pH (range 5-11) and followed pseudo first order kinetics in a concentration range between 1μg·L-1 and 10mg·L-1. Calculated rate constants were in the range between 5.4·10-3s-1 and 7.4·10-3s-1. The main photodegradation products of acesulfame were separated by ion exchange chromatography and high performance liquid chromatography and were identified as hydroxylated acesulfame and iso-acesulfame by high resolution mass spectrometry and fragmentation experiments. In the case of iso-acesulfame an intramolecular rearrangement is assumed as the transformation product has a higher polarity and different product ions after MS fragmentation compared to acesulfame. Minor transformation products were identified as amidosulfonic acid and sulfate by comparison with analytical standards. The transformation pathway was found to be transferable to drinking water production as the identified transformation products were also detected to a similar extent in fortified tap water. In a Swiss full-scale waterworks acesulfame concentrations were reduced by approximately 30% and one of the main UV transformation products could be qualitatively detected. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.


Scheurer M.,Water Technology Center Karlsruhe | Storck F.R.,Water Technology Center Karlsruhe | Brauch H.-J.,Water Technology Center Karlsruhe | Lange F.T.,Water Technology Center Karlsruhe
Water Research | Year: 2010

Due to incomplete removal of artificial sweeteners in wastewater treatment plants some of these compounds end up in receiving surface waters, which are used for drinking water production. The sum of removal efficiency of single treatment steps in multi-barrier treatment systems affects the concentrations of these compounds in the provided drinking water. This is the first systematic study revealing the effectiveness of single treatment steps in laboratory experiments and in waterworks. Six full-scale waterworks using surface water influenced raw water were sampled up to ten times to study the fate of acesulfame, saccharin, cyclamate and sucralose. For the most important treatment technologies the results were confirmed by laboratory batch experiments. Saccharin and cyclamate proved to play a minor role for drinking water treatment plants as they were eliminated by nearly 100% in all waterworks with biologically active treatment units like river bank filtration (RBF) or artificial groundwater recharge. Acesulfame and sucralose were not biodegraded during RBF and their suitability as wastewater tracers under aerobic conditions was confirmed. Sucralose proved to be persistent against ozone and its transformation was <20% in lab and field investigations. Remaining traces were completely removed by subsequent granular activated carbon (GAC) filters. Acesulfame readily reacts with ozone (pseudo first-order rate constant k = 1.3 × 10-3 s-1 at 1 mg L-1 ozone concentration). However, the applied ozone concentrations and contact times under typical waterworks conditions only led to an incomplete removal (18-60%) in the ozonation step. Acesulfame was efficiently removed by subsequent GAC filters with a low throughput of less than 30 m3 kg-1, but removal strongly depended on the GAC preload. Thus, acesulfame was detected up to 0.76 μg L-1 in finished water. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.


Goletz C.,Water Technology Center Karlsruhe | Goletz C.,Leibniz University of Hanover | Wagner M.,Water Technology Center Karlsruhe | Grubel A.,Water Technology Center Karlsruhe | And 3 more authors.
Talanta | Year: 2011

Fluorescence excitation-emission-matrices (EEM) are a useful tool for water quality monitoring. Recent publications show the potential of the method for real time drinking water control. However, in fluorescence measurements there is still a need for standardization to make data interpretation comparable. In this work a standardization procedure based on excitation and emission correction as well as normalization and optional inner filter effect correction is presented. By measurements of humic acid and tryptophan standards with two different spectrometers (LS 50 and LS 55 by PerkinElmer) the procedure application leads to comparable fluorescence intensities with relative standard deviations (median) of 6.6-8.4% and 10.6-12.0%, respectively. These small differences are not avoidable even if all possible correction methods are implemented and constant measurement conditions are given. The used BAM kit for emission correction induced good agreement in peak shape not only for single wavelengths but also for the whole EEM. As a consequence it is necessary to use identical equipment and identical experimental conditions in order to apply this method in fields of water quality control if small changes of fluorescence intensities are relevant for data assessment. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


Zirlewagen J.,TU Berlin | Licha T.,University of Gottingen | Schiperski F.,TU Berlin | Nodler K.,Water Technology Center Karlsruhe | Scheytt T.,TU Berlin
Science of the Total Environment | Year: 2016

The identification and differentiation of different sources of contamination are crucial aspects of risk assessment in water resource protection. This is especially challenging in karst environments due to their highly heterogeneous flow fields. We have investigated the use of two artificial sweeteners, cyclamate and acesulfame, as an indicator set for contamination by wastewater within the rural catchment of a karst spring. The catchment was investigated in detail to identify the sources of artificial sweeteners and quantify their impact. Spring water was analysed following two different but typical recharge events: (1) a rain-on-snow event in winter, when no wastewater overflow from the sewer system was observed, and (2) an intense rainfall event in summer triggering an overflow from a stormwater detention basin. Acesulfame, which is known to be persistent, was quantified in all spring water samples. Its concentrations decreased after the winter event with no associated wastewater spillage but increased during the summer event following a recent input of untreated wastewater. Cyclamate, which is known to be degradable, was only detected following the wastewater inflow incident. The cyclamate signal matched very well the breakthrough of faecal indicator bacteria, indicating a common origin. Knowing the input function, cyclamate was used quantitatively as a tracer in transport modelling and the impact of 'combined sewer overflow' on spring water quality was quantified. Signals from artificial sweeteners were compared to those from bulk parameters (discharge, electrical conductivity and turbidity) and also to those from the herbicides atrazine and isoproturon, which indicate 'old' and 'fresh' flow components, respectively, both originating from croplands. High concentration levels of the artificial sweeteners in untreated wastewater (cyclamate and acesulfame) and in treated wastewater (acesulfame only) make them powerful indicators, especially in rural settings where wastewater input is relatively low, and in karst systems where dilution is often high. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.


Scheurer M.,Water Technology Center Karlsruhe | Scheurer M.,Lüneburg University | Storck F.R.,Water Technology Center Karlsruhe | Graf C.,Water Technology Center Karlsruhe | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Environmental Monitoring | Year: 2011

Six trace contaminants (acesulfame (ACE), sucralose (SUC), carbamazepine (CBZ), diatrizoic acid (DTA), 1H-benzotriazole (BTZ) and its 4-methyl analogue (4-TTri)) were traced from wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) to receiving waters and further to riverbank filtration (RBF) wells to evaluate their prediction power as potential wastewater markers. Furthermore, the persistence of some compounds was investigated in advanced wastewater treatment by soil aquifer treatment (SAT). During wastewater treatment in four conventional activated sludge WWTPs ACE, SUC, and CBZ showed a pronounced stability expressed by stable concentration ratios in influent (in) and effluent (out) (ACE/CBZ: in45, out40; SUC/CBZ: in1.8, out1.7; and ACE/SUC: in24, out24). In a fifth WWTP, additional treatment with powdered activated carbon led to a strong elimination of CBZ, BTZ, and 4-TTri of about 80% and consequently to a distinctive shift of their ratios with unaffected compounds. Data from a seven month monitoring program at seven sampling locations at the rivers Rhine and Main in Germany revealed the best concentration correlation for ACE and CBZ (r 2 = 0.94) and also a good correlation of ACE and CBZ concentrations to BTZ and 4-TTri levels (r 2 = 0.66 to 0.82). The comparison of ratios at different sampling sites allowed for the identification of a CBZ point source. Furthermore, in Switzerland a higher consumption of SUC compared to Germany can be assumed, as a steadily increasing ACE/SUC ratio along the river Rhine was observed. In RBF wells a good correlation (r 2 = 0.85) was again observed for ACE and CBZ. Both also showed the highest stability at a prolonged residence time in the subsurface of a SAT field. In the most peripheral wells ACE and CBZ were still detected with mean values higher than 36 μg L -1 and 1.3 μg L -1, respectively. Although SUC concentrations in wastewater used for SAT decreased by more than 80% from about 18 μg L -1 to 2.1 μg L -1 and 3.5 μg L -1 in these outlying wells, the compound was still adequate to indicate a wastewater impact in a qualitative way. © The Royal Society of Chemistry.


PubMed | Water Technology Center Karlsruhe, TU Berlin and University of Gottingen
Type: | Journal: The Science of the total environment | Year: 2016

The identification and differentiation of different sources of contamination are crucial aspects of risk assessment in water resource protection. This is especially challenging in karst environments due to their highly heterogeneous flow fields. We have investigated the use of two artificial sweeteners, cyclamate and acesulfame, as an indicator set for contamination by wastewater within the rural catchment of a karst spring. The catchment was investigated in detail to identify the sources of artificial sweeteners and quantify their impact. Spring water was analysed following two different but typical recharge events: (1) a rain-on-snow event in winter, when no wastewater overflow from the sewer system was observed, and (2) an intense rainfall event in summer triggering an overflow from a stormwater detention basin. Acesulfame, which is known to be persistent, was quantified in all spring water samples. Its concentrations decreased after the winter event with no associated wastewater spillage but increased during the summer event following a recent input of untreated wastewater. Cyclamate, which is known to be degradable, was only detected following the wastewater inflow incident. The cyclamate signal matched very well the breakthrough of faecal indicator bacteria, indicating a common origin. Knowing the input function, cyclamate was used quantitatively as a tracer in transport modelling and the impact of combined sewer overflow on spring water quality was quantified. Signals from artificial sweeteners were compared to those from bulk parameters (discharge, electrical conductivity and turbidity) and also to those from the herbicides atrazine and isoproturon, which indicate old and fresh flow components, respectively, both originating from croplands. High concentration levels of the artificial sweeteners in untreated wastewater (cyclamate and acesulfame) and in treated wastewater (acesulfame only) make them powerful indicators, especially in rural settings where wastewater input is relatively low, and in karst systems where dilution is often high.


PubMed | Federal Institute of Hydrology and Water Technology Center Karlsruhe
Type: | Journal: Water research | Year: 2017

A considerable removal of the artificial sweetener acesulfame (ACE) was observed during activated sludge processes at 13 wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) as well as in a full-scale sand filter of a water works. A long-term sampling campaign over a period of almost two years revealed that ACE removal in WWTPs can be highly variable over time. Nitrifying/denitrifying sequencing batch reactors (SBR) as well as aerobic batch experiments with activated sludge and filter sand from a water works confirmed that both activated sludge as well as filter sand can efficiently remove ACE and that the removal can be attributed to biologically mediated degradation processes. The lab results strongly indicated that varying ACE removal in WWTPs is not associated with nitrification processes. Neither an enhancement of the nitrification rate nor the availability of ammonium or the inhibition of ammonium monooxygenase by N-allylthiourea (ATU) affected the degradation. Moreover, ACE was found to be also degradable by activated sludge under denitrifying conditions, while being persistent in the absence of both dissolved oxygen and nitrate. Using ion chromatography coupled with high resolution mass spectrometry, sulfamic acid (SA) was identified as the predominant transformation product (TP). Quantitative analysis of ACE and SA revealed a closed mass balance during the entire test period and confirmed that ACE was quantitatively transformed to SA. Measurements of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) revealed an almost complete removal of the carbon originating from ACE, thereby further confirming that SA is the only relevant final TP in the assumed degradation pathway of ACE. A first analysis of SA in three municipal WWTP revealed similar concentrations in influents and effluents with maximum concentrations of up to 2.3mg/L. The high concentrations of SA in wastewater are in accordance with the extensive use of SA in acid cleaners, while the degradation of ACE in WWTPs adds only a very small portion of the total load of SA discharged into surface waters. No removal of SA was observed by the biological treatment applied at these WWTPs. Moreover, SA was also stable in the aerobic batch experiments conducted with the filter sand from a water works. Hence, SA might be a more appropriate wastewater tracer than ACE due to its chemical and microbiological persistence, the negligible sorbing affinity (high negative charge density) and its elevated concentrations in WWTP effluents.


PubMed | University of Tübingen, Regional Commission RP Tubingen, Water Technology Center Karlsruhe and University of Stuttgart
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Environmental science and pollution research international | Year: 2015

In order to evaluate surface water and the sediment quality of rivers connected to wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) with different treatment technologies, fish embryo tests (FET) with Danio rerio were conducted using native water and sediment samples collected upstream and downstream of four WWTPs in Southern Germany. Two of these WWTPs are connected to the Schussen River, a tributary of Lake Constance, and use a sand filter with final water purification by flocculation. The two others are located on the rivers Schmiecha and Eyach in the area of the Swabian Alb and were equipped with a powdered activated carbon stage 20years ago, which was originally aimed at reducing the release of stains from the textile industry. Several endpoints of embryo toxicity including mortality, malformations, reduced hatching rate, and heart rate were investigated at defined time points of embryonic development. Higher embryotoxic potentials were found in water and sediments collected downstream of the WWTPs equipped with sand filtration than in the sample obtained downstream of both WWTPs upgraded with a powdered activated carbon stage.

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