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Dash N.B.,Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur | Panda S.N.,Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur | Remesan R.,University of Bristol | Sahoo N.,Water Technology Center for Eastern Region
Neural Computing and Applications | Year: 2010

The accurate prediction of groundwater level is important for the efficient use and management of groundwater resources, particularly in sub-humid regions where water surplus in monsoon season and water scarcity in non-monsoon season is a common phenomenon. In this paper, an attempt has been made to develop a hybrid neural model (ANN-GA) employing an artificial neural network (ANN) model in conjunction with famous optimization strategy called genetic algorithms (GA) for accurate prediction of groundwater levels in the lower Mahanadi river basin of Orissa State, India. Three types of functionally different algorithm-based ANN models (viz. back-propagation (GDX), Levenberg-Marquardt (LM) and Bayesian regularization (BR)) were used to compare the strength of proposed hybrid model in the efficient prediction of groundwater fluctuations. The ANN-GA hybrid modeling was carried out with lead-time of 1 week and study mainly aimed at November and January months of a year. Overall, simulation results suggest that the Bayesian regularization model is the most efficient of the ANN models tested for the study period. However, a strong correlation between the observed and predicted groundwater levels was observed for all the models. The results reveal that the hybrid GA-based ANN algorithm is able to produce better accuracy and performance in medium and high groundwater level predictions compared to conventional ANN techniques including Bayesian regularization model. Furthermore, the study shows that hybrid neural models can offer significant implications for improving groundwater management and water supply planning in semi-arid areas where aquifer information is not available. © 2010 Springer-Verlag London Limited.

Kar G.,Water Technology Center for Eastern Region | Kumar A.,Water Technology Center for Eastern Region
Irrigation Science | Year: 2010

In eastern India, cultivation of winter maize is getting popular after rainy season rice and farmers practice irrigation scheduling of this crop based on critical phenological stages. In this study, crop water stress index of winter maize at different critical stages wase determined to investigate if phenology-based irrigation scheduling could be optimized further. The components of the energy budget of the crop stand were computed. The stressed and non-stressed base lines were also developed (between canopy temperature and vapor pressure deficit) and with the help of base line equation, [(Tc - Ta) = -1. 102 VPD - 3. 772], crop water stress index (CWSI) was determined from the canopy-air temperature data collected frequently throughout the growing season. The values of CWSI (varied between 0. 42 and 0. 67) were noted just before the irrigations were applied at critical phenological stages. The soil moisture depletion was also measured throughout the crop growing period and plotted with CWSI at different stages. Study revealed that at one stage (silking), CWSI was much lower (0. 42-0. 48) than that of recommended CWSI (0. 60) for irrigation scheduling. Therefore, more research is required to further optimize the phenology-based irrigation scheduling of winter maize in the region. This method is being used now by local producers. The intercepted photosynthetically active radiation and normalized difference vegetation index over the canopy of the crop were also measured and were found to correlate better with leaf area index. © 2009 Springer-Verlag.

Thakur A.K.,Water Technology Center for Eastern Region | Rath S.,Water Technology Center for Eastern Region | Roychowdhury S.,Water Technology Center for Eastern Region | Uphoff N.,Cornell University
Journal of Agronomy and Crop Science | Year: 2010

The System of Rice Intensification (SRI) reportedly enhances the yields of rice (Oryza sativa L.) through synergy among several agronomic management practices. This study was conducted to investigate the effects on rice plant characteristics and yield by comparing the plants grown with different methods of cultivation - SRI vs. recommended management practices (RMP) focusing on the impact of different plant spacings.Performance of individual hills was significantly improved with wider spacing compared with closer-spaced hills in terms of root growth and xylem exudation rates, leaf number and leaf sizes, canopy angle, tiller and panicle number, panicle length and grain number per panicle, grain filling and 1000-grain weight and straw weight, irrespective of whether SRI or RMP was employed. Both sets of practices gave their highest grain yield with the spacing of 20 × 20 cm; however, SRI yielded 40 % more than the recommended practice. At this spacing, canopies also had the highest leaf area index (LAI) and light interception during flowering stage. The lowest yield was recorded at 30 × 30 cm spacing under both the practices, as a result of less plant population (11 m-2), despite improved hill performance.During the ripening stage, hills with wider spacing had larger root dry weight, produced greater xylem exudates, and transported these towards shoot at faster rates. These features contributed to the maintenance of higher chlorophyll levels, enhanced fluorescence and photosynthesis rates of leaves and supported more favourable yield attributes and grain yield in individual hills than in closely-spaced plants.Moreover, these parameters further improved in SRI, apart from the enhanced percentage of effective tillers and showed substantial and positive impacts on grain yield (17 %) compared with recommended practice. In conclusion, wide spacing beyond optimum plant density, however, does not give higher grain yield on an area basis and for achieving this, a combination of improved hills with optimum plant population must be worked out for SRI. © 2009 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

Thakur A.K.,Water Technology Center for Eastern Region | Uphoff N.,Cornell University | Antony E.,Water Technology Center for Eastern Region
Experimental Agriculture | Year: 2010

An evaluation was conducted in eastern India over three years, 2005-2007, to compare the performance of certain System of Rice Intensification (SRI) practices: transplanting single, young (10-day-old) seedlings in a square pattern; no continuous flooding; and use of a mechanical weeder - with those currently endorsed by the Central Rice Research Institute of India, referred to here as recommended management practices (RMP). All plots received the same fertilization, a combination of organic and inorganic nutrients, and the SRI spacing used was 20% less than usually recommended. Accordingly, the results reported here are designated as a modification of SRI recommendations (SRIm). The objective of this research was to understand the benefits in terms of yield and other physiological parameters, if any, from using most if not all recommended SRI practices compared to RMP. These selected SRI practices out-yielded RMP by 42%, with the higher yield associated with various phenotypical alterations, which are reported here. Significant measurable changes were observed in physiological processes and plant characteristics, such as longer panicles, more grains panicle -1 and higher % of grain-filling. The decreased plant density with SRIm management was compensated for by increased per-plant productivity. SRIm hills with single plants were found to have deeper and better-distributed root systems, higher xylem exudation rates, more open plant architecture with more erect and larger leaves, and more tillers than did RMP hills having multiple plants. Due to the reduction in number of hills m-2 in SRIm plots compared to RMP, no significant difference was found in root dry weight or leaf number, tillers or panicle number on an area basis. Nevertheless, in spite of SRIm having fewer hills and fewer tillers per unit area, the leaf area index (LAI) with SRIm practice was greater due to larger leaves. These together with altered plant architecture, contributed to more light interception by SRIm plants. The higher leaf chlorophyll content at ripening stage reflected delayed senescence and the greater fluorescence efficiency (Fv/Fm and φ PS II) associated with SRIm practices contributed to more efficient utilization of light and a higher rate of photosynthesis, which was probably responsible for the observed increase in grain filling and heavier grains compared to RMP plants. The higher photosynthesis rate coupled with lower transpiration in SRIm plants indicated that they were using water more efficiently than did RMP plants. The latter produced 1.6 μ mol CO2 fixed per m mol water transpired, compared to 3.6 mol CO2 in SRIm plants. Copyright © Cambridge University Press 2009.

Rai D.R.,Punjab Agricultural University | Singh R.,Water Technology Center for Eastern Region
Journal of Food Process Engineering | Year: 2012

Baby corn is highly perishable and requires appropriate postharvest technologies such as modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) to extend its shelf ife and maintain the nutritional content. However, MAP requires repetitive experimentation to arrive at suitable desired in-pack partial pressures of O 2 and CO 2 for application of appropriate MAP mode viz. nonperforated, macroperforated or microperforated one. Microperforated MAP is an expensive proposition and so far has limited commercial applicability, except for high-value commodities; therefore, macroperforated MAP is being tried to achieve higher gaseous diffusion across the film packages. Predictive modeling represents a physical phenomenon by means of mathematical equations; whose numerical solution can reliably predict transient and steady-state parameters in a dynamic system and can avoid the need of repetitive experimentation. However, representation of the respiratory behavior of a crop is also of utmost importance as wrong selection or very straightforward assumptions can lead to inadequate predictions. In this study, the respiratory behavior and associated inhibition by CO 2 as per established enzyme kinetics theory was first assessed within the temperature range of 5-15C for baby corn; which was then used to model-predict the in-pack partial pressures of O 2 and CO 2 at 10 and 15C; in nonperforated and macroperforated polypropylene film packages; utilizing baby corn, polymeric film, package and the storage environment parameters as input. Model validation during actual storage at 10 and 15C indicated that the model-predicted, in-pack partial pressures of O 2 and CO 2 agreed fairly well with the experimental observations at the selected temperatuers, which showed the appropriateness of the evaluated inhibitory mechanism of headspace CO 2. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Mandal K.G.,Indian Institute of Science | Mandal K.G.,Water Technology Center for Eastern Region | Hati K.M.,Indian Institute of Science | Misra A.K.,Indian Institute of Science | And 2 more authors.
Irrigation Science | Year: 2010

A 3-year study was carried out to assess the root biomass production, crop growth rate, yield attributes, canopy temperature and water-yield relationships in Indian mustard grown under combinations of irrigation and nutrient application for revealing the dynamic relationship of crop yield (Y) and seasonal evapotranspiration (ET). Three post-sowing irrigation treatments viz. no irrigation (I 1), one irrigation at flowering (I 2) and two irrigations one each at rosette and flowering stage (I 3), three nutrient treatments viz. no fertilizer or manure (F 1), 100% recommended NPK i. e., 60 kg N, 13. 1 kg P and 16. 6 kg K ha -1 (F 2) and 100% recommended NPK plus farmyard manure @ 10 Mg ha -1 (F 3) were tested in a split-plot design. Root biomass was significantly greater in I 3 than I 2 and I 1, and in F 3 than F 2 and F 1. The I 3 × F 3, I 2 × F 3 and I 3 × F 2 combinations maintained significantly greater crop growth rate, plant height, yield components, ET and crop yield and better plant water status in terms of canopy temperature, canopy-air temperature difference (CATD) and relative leaf water content (RLWC). Number of siliqua plant -1 and seeds siliqua -1 were the major contributors to the seed yield. Marginal analysis of water production function was used to establish Y-ET relationship. The elasticity of water production (E wp) provides a means to assess relative changes in Y and ET, and gives an indication of improvement of Y due to nutrient application. The ET-Y relationships were linear with marginal water use efficiency (WUE m) of 3. 09, 4. 23 and 3. 95 kg ha -1 mm -1 in F 1, F 2 and F 3, respectively, and the corresponding E wp were 0. 63, 0. 71 and 0. 61. This implies that the scope for improving yield and WUE with 100% NPK was little compared with 100% NPK + farmyard manure. The crop yield was highest in I 3 × F 3 combination, and the similar yield was obtained in I 2 × F 3 and I 3 × F 2 combinations. Application of organic manure along with 100% NPK fertilizers maintained greater crop growth rate, better water relation in plants, yield attributes and saved one post-sowing irrigation. © 2009 Springer-Verlag.

Thakur A.K.,Water Technology Center for Eastern Region | Rath S.,Water Technology Center for Eastern Region | Kumar A.,Water Technology Center for Eastern Region
Archives of Agronomy and Soil Science | Year: 2011

A field experiment was conducted at Deras Research Farm, Khurda district, Bhubaneswar, Orissa, India, to evaluate the performance of different rice varieties managed under System of Rice Intensification (SRI) compared with the current transplanting system (CTS). Five rice varieties were used for the study: (i) Khandagiri (early-duration, 90 days); (ii) Lalat (early-medium duration, 110 days); (iii) Surendra (late-medium duration, 130 days); (iv) Hybrid CRHR-7 (late-medium duration, 135 days); and (v) Savitri (long-duration, 145 days). It was seen that SRI practices significantly (p 5 0.05) improved the harvest index, percentage of effective tillers, panicle length, and various yield components in all the varieties. SRI hills having an open-canopy structure with higher leaf area index (LAI) resulted in greater light interception than the conventional transplanting methods. At the ripening stage, SRI plants had better root growth and a higher xylem exudation rate than CTS plants. This was associated with higher levels of chlorophyll in the lower leaves and a higher photosynthesis rate. Delayed senescence with enhanced photosynthesis in the lower leaves was also responsible for supplying more assimilates toward the roots for maintaining their higher activity. These features might also contribute to the improvement of grain filling and grain weight in SRI-grown plants as all the varieties performed better in terms of grain yield (12-42% higher) with this alternative management. © 2011 Taylor & Francis.

Mishra A.,Water Technology Center for Eastern Region | Ghosh S.,Water Technology Center for Eastern Region | Nanda P.,Water Technology Center for Eastern Region | Kumar A.,Water Technology Center for Eastern Region
Irrigation and Drainage | Year: 2011

This paper presents a case study on the impact of rehabilitation and irrigation management transfer (IMT) on irrigation, agriculture and functioning of a water user association (WUA) from farmers' perspectives. The study was carried out in three selected minor irrigation projects (MIPs) in Orissa, India, which were rehabilitated by the state government obtaining financial assistance from European Commission during 1995-2005. A total number of 207 farmers were selected as respondents for this study following the probability proportionate random sampling method. The impact on irrigation was assessed with a set of 11 indicators on a 5-point continuum scale and it is revealed that the overall irrigation impact value lies between 3 and 4. A paradigm shift in water delivery from supply driven to demand driven was observed. Impact on agriculture is reflected through an increase in cultivated area by 9.6-22%, cropping intensity by 10-26%, irrigated area by 18-107%, irrigation intensity by 15-57% and a diversified cropping pattern with higher productivity. Functioning of the WUA was studied with a group dynamic effectiveness index (GDEI) having 10 parameters. GDEI value ranged from 6.28 to 6.82 on a scale of 0 to 10. The lessons learnt from the study and measures for further improvement in the system's performance are presented. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Das M.,Water Technology Center for Eastern Region | Kumar A.,Water Technology Center for Eastern Region | Mohapatra M.,Water Technology Center for Eastern Region | Muduli S.D.,Water Technology Center for Eastern Region
Environmental Monitoring and Assessment | Year: 2010

Groundwater is a major source of drinking water in urban areas. Because of the growing threat of debasing water quality due to urbanization and development, monitoring water quality is a prerequisite to ensure its suitability for use in drinking. But analysis of a large number of properties and parameter to parameter basis evaluation of water quality is not feasible in a regular interval. Multivariate techniques could streamline the data without much loss of information to a reasonably manageable data set. In this study, using principal component analysis, 11 relevant properties of 58 water samples were grouped into three statistical factors. Discriminant analysis identified "pH influence" as the most distinguished factor and pH, Fe, and NO -{3}{-} as the most discriminating variables and could be treated as water quality indicators. These were utilized to classify the sampling sites into homogeneous clusters that reflect location-wise importance of specific indicator/s for use to monitor drinking water quality in the whole study area. © 2009 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

Mohapatra A.,Fakir Mohan University | Mohanty R.K.,Water Technology Center for Eastern Region | Mohanty S.K.,Fisheries consultant | Dey S.K.,Fakir Mohan University
Indian Journal of Marine Sciences | Year: 2010

Carapace width (CW)-weight relationship, condition factor (K), relative condition factor (Kn) and gonado-somatic index (GSI) for meaty and post-moulted crabs of both sexes of the two mud crab species, Scylla serrata (Forskal) and S. tranquebarica (Fabricius) co-existing in Chilika lagoon, Orissa, India, were studied during August, 2005 to July, 2007. CW-weight equations and correlation co-efficient (r) obtained for both sexes of meaty and water crabs of the two species were significant (P< 0.05-0.01). Regression slopes (b) were higher for males and fattened crabs in both the species. The K and Kn values recorded in each month for different size groups of both sexes of the two species were higher in male and values were relatively higher in S. tranquebarica than S. serrata. Increase in Kn values beyond 1.0 from 81-91 mm CW in S. serrata and 111-120 mm CW in S. tranquebarica indicated the size at first maturity. Higher monthly values indicated that breeding period was extended from August-November and March-July in S. serrata and S. tranquebarica respectively. Species-specific study aimed at establishing difference in biological characters between two species of Scylla[a'] from same brackishwater habitat. CW-weight relationship may be useful in setting feeding rates for a particular species in aquaculture.

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