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Zagreb, Croatia

Kremer D.,University of Zagreb | Cepo D.V.,University of Zagreb | Dunkic V.,University of Split | Muller I.D.,Water Supply and Drainage | And 3 more authors.
Natural Product Communications | Year: 2013

A study of types and distribution of trichomes, pollen morphology, chemical composition of essential oil, and the content of macroelements and trace elements was conducted on endemic and previously uninvestigated Geranium dalmaticum (Beck) Rech. f. and widely distributed G. macrorrhizum L. growing in Croatia. The essential oil of G. dalmaticum was characterized by a high concentration of monoterpenes (82.2%) and the oil of G. macrorrhizum by mainly sesquiterpenes (76.7%). Among the investigated macroelements, the content of Ca was the highest (19,125.6 mg/kg and 22,439.6 mg/kg in G. dalmaticum and G. macrorrhizum, respectively). The content of trace elements ranged from 0.16 (Cr) to 110.01 mg/kg (Al) in G. dalmaticum, and from 0.01 (Cd) to 101.8 mg/kg (Al) in G. macrorrhizum. Non-glandular trichomes and two (in G. dalmaticum three) types of capitate glandular trichomes (type 1 composed of one basal epidermal cell, and one head cell with subcuticular space; type 2 composed of one basal epidermal cell, one or two stalk cells, and one head cell with subcuticular space; type 3 composed of one basal epidermal cell, 2-6 stalk cells, and one head cell with subcuticular space) were observed on leaves, stems and calyxes. Source


Kremer D.,University of Zagreb | Muller I.D.,Water Supply and Drainage | Dunkic V.,University of Split | Vitali D.,University of Zagreb | And 4 more authors.
Central European Journal of Biology | Year: 2012

Chemical composition of the essential oil (analysed by GC-FID and GC-MS), the content of macroelements and trace elements (analysed by ICP-AES), and antimicrobial activities were investigated in Teucrium arduini L. from Mt Biokovo (Croatia). Additionally, a study on the types and distribution of glandular trichomes which produce essential oils was investigated. The oil was characterized by a high concentration of sesquiterpene hydrocarbons (68. 5%) of which β-caryophyllene (32. 9%) and germacrene D (16. 4%) being the major compounds. Among the macroelements, the content of calcium was the highest (9772 mg/kg), while the content of sodium was the smallest (117. 74 mg/kg). Among the micronutrients, the most represented element was iron (72. 07 mg/kg). The content of each investigated toxic metal (As, Hg, Pb, Cd and Cr) was below permissible levels. The essential oils showed antimicrobial activity against bacterial species tested, with MIC values ranging from 6. 25 mg/mL to 37. 50 mg/mL. Fungal species were susceptible with MIC values from 7. 81 mg/mL and 25. 00 mg/mL. © 2012 Versita Warsaw and Springer-Verlag Wien. Source


Kremer D.,University of Zagreb | Stabentheiner E.,University of Graz | Dunkic V.,University of Split | Muller I.D.,Water Supply and Drainage | And 5 more authors.
Chemistry and Biodiversity | Year: 2012

A study on the types and distribution of trichomes, pollen morphology, chemical composition of essential oil (analyzed by GC-FID and GC/MS), and the content of macroelements (Na, K, Ca, and Mg) and trace elements (B, Fe, Cu, Mn, Zn, Al, Pb, Cr, Cd, Ni, Hg, and As) analyzed by ICP-AES (=inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy) was conducted on Micromeria croatica (PERS. ) SCHOTT. Non-glandular trichomes, peltate trichomes (typical hairs of Lamiaceae), small capitate trichomes (composed of one basal epidermal cell and one head cell), and larger capitate trichomes (composed of one basal epidermal cell, two to three stalk cells, and one head cell with subcuticular space) were observed on leaves, stems, the calyx, and corolla. Pollen of M. croatica had six apertures (hexacolpate) which were set in the equatorial pollen belt (zonocolpate) and showed medium reticulate ornamentation (hetrobrochate type). The essential oil contained from 27 to 39 constituents, the most representative of which were caryophyllene oxide and E-caryophyllene. Among the investigated macroelements, the content of K was highest (8730-10080 mg/kg). The content of trace elements ranged from 0.12 mg/kg (Cr) to 78.00 mg/kg (Fe), while the content of Cd, Ni, Hg, and As were lower than the limit of quantification. © 2012 Verlag Helvetica Chimica Acta AG. Source


Dunkic V.,University of Split | Kremer D.,University of Zagreb | Dragojevic Muller I.,Water Supply and Drainage | Stabentheiner E.,University of Graz | And 6 more authors.
Chemistry and Biodiversity | Year: 2012

Satureja montana and S. subspicata are used as spice, pepper substitute, for preparing tea, juice, and as a medicine. Fourteen populations (seven per species) of Satureja montana L. and S. subspicata Vis. growing in Croatia were examined to determine the chemical composition of the essential oil (analyzed by GC-FID and GC/MS), the content of macroelements (Na, K, Ca, Mg) and trace elements (B, Fe, Cu, Mn, Zn, Al, Pb, Cr, Cd, Ni, Hg, As) analyzed by ICP-AES, antioxidant compounds (analyzed by UV/VIS spectrophotometer), and the types and distribution of trichomes (analyzed by scanning electron microscopy). The main constituents of the essential oil were carvacrol and thymol in S. montana (all populations belong to one phenol chemotype), while α-eudesmol, β-eudesmol, and spathulenol dominated in S. subspicata (three chemotypes could be distinguished). Both species possess considerably higher quantities of Ca and Mg, and moderate concentrations of K and Na, while Hg and As levels were below the limit of quantification. Non-glandular trichomes, peltate trichomes, and three types of capitate trichomes were observed on leaves, stem, calyx, and corolla. Copyright © 2012 Verlag Helvetica Chimica Acta AG, Zürich. Source


Kremer D.,University of Zagreb | Muller I.D.,Water Supply and Drainage | Stabentheiner E.,University of Graz | Vitali D.,University of Zagreb | And 5 more authors.
Natural Product Communications | Year: 2012

Micromeria pseudocroatica Šilić is an endemic species distributed in southern Croatia. Chemical composition of the essential oil (analysed by GC and GC-MS), and the content of macroelements and trace elements analysed by ICP-AES was conducted. Additionally, a study on the types and distribution of trichomes was done by scanning electron microscopy. The essential oil was characterized by a high concentration of oxygenated monoterpenes, whose major compounds are borneol (22.7% and 24.8%) and camphor (16.1% and 13.9%). The content of Ca was highest (13202.69 mg/kg and 13223.83 mg/kg) among the investigated macroelements, while Fe was the most represented element (100.68 and 326.48 mg/kg) among the micronutrients. The content of potentially toxic elements that is Se, Cu, and Hg was below the limit of quantification. Non-glandular trichomes, peltate trichomes, and two types of capitate trichomes (type 1: one basal epidermal cell, one head cell with subcuticular space; type 2: one basal epidermal cell, two stalk cells, and one head cell with subcuticular space) were observed on leaves, bracteoles, calyx, corolla and stem. Source

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