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Davtalab R.,Water Resources Management Company | Salamat A.,Urban Water Regional Center Tehran | Oji R.,University of Tehran
Irrigation and Drainage

The south coastal area of Iran, being adjacent to the humidity of the Persian Gulf and Oman Sea in addition to its high temperature and its high capacity for absorbing humidity, has a great potential for water harvesting from fog and air humidity. In this research, data have been collected from 10 synoptic stations adjacent to the Persian Gulf and Oman Sea, in order to investigate water harvesting from fog and air humidity. The data used in this study included hourly dry and wet temperature, relative humidity, wind direction and velocity and dew point temperature. By the use of these data, various parameters such as atmospheric water vapour pressure, saturated vapour pressure and the absolute humidity of the atmosphere were estimated. Finally, according to the investigations carried out in this study, it was clear that the cited regions had the potential to harvest fog water for 160-360days. This is whilst the average number of foggy days in the region is 41 maximally. In addition the annual mean water harvested through this technique varies between 6.7lm2day1 at Abadan station and 156lm2day1 at Chabahar station. It is worth noting that the maximum amount of water harvested from the stations near the coastal areas occurs during the summer while at stations far from the coastal areas this happens during the winter. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Source

Malveira V.T.C.,University of Fortaleza | Sousa L.N.,Water Resources Management Company
Dam Maintenance and Rehabilitation II - Proceedings of the 2nd International Congress on Dam Maintenance and Rehabilitation

The Jaburu I Dam can be pointed out as a classical case of safety dam granted by continuous monitoring and remedial process intervention. Since its first fulfillment, five years after its construction, a significant amount of anomalies associated to seepages through the foundation and the embankment has been recorded. The main event occurred in 1983 when the discharge on the left abutment reached 47 l/s and was followed by others, secondary in magnitude of discharge but, as dangerous as the first one concerning to the dam safety. Along the period of operation of the dam, seepage appeared also in the foundation and through the dam, events were monitored by flow gauges distributed along downstream toe of the dam. This paper presents the interventions adopted to release the seepage, comprehended grouting with cement and asphalt on the left abutment, grouting with bentonite on foundation, evaluation of the dam safety considering the collapse of the internal drainage system, reinforcement of drainage system and replacement of parts of the embankment due to the over settlement. © 2011 Taylor & Francis Group, London. Source

Batchelor C.,Water Resources Management Company | Reddy V.R.,Livelihoods and Natural Resource Management Institute | Linstead C.,WWF UK | Dhar M.,WWF India | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Hydrology

Water saving and conservation technologies (WCTs) have been promoted widely in India as a practical means of improving the water use efficiency and freeing up water for other uses (e.g. for maintaining environmental flows in river systems). However, there is increasing evidence that, somewhat paradoxically, WCTs often contribute to intensification of water use by irrigated and rainfed farming systems. This occurs when: (1) Increased crop yields are coupled with increased consumptive water use and/or (2) Improved efficiency, productivity and profitability encourages farmers to increase the area cropped and/or to adopt multiple cropping systems. In both cases, the net effect is an increase in annual evapotranspiration that, particularly in areas of increasing water scarcity, can have the trade-off of reduced environmental flows. Recognition is also increasing that the claimed water savings of many WCTs may have been overstated. The root cause of this problem lies in confusion over what constitutes real water saving at the system or basin scales. The simple fact is that some of the water that is claimed to be 'saved' by WCTs would have percolated into the groundwater from where it can be and often is accessed and reused. Similarly, some of the “saved“ runoff can be used downstream by, for example, farmers or freshwater ecosystems. This paper concludes that, particularly in areas facing increasing water scarcity, environmental flows will only be restored and maintained if they are given explicit (rather than theoretical or notional) attention. With this in mind, a simple methodology is proposed for deciding when and where WCTs may have detrimental impacts on environmental flows. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. Source

Reddy V.R.,Livelihoods and Natural Resources Management Institute | Jayakumar N.,Center for Economic and Social Studies | Venkataswamy M.,Center for Economic and Social Studies | Snehalatha M.,Center for Economic and Social Studies | Batchelor C.,Water Resources Management Company
Journal of Water Sanitation and Hygiene for Development

This paper illustrates the usefulness of the life-cycle costs approach (LCCA) framework and methodology in addressing slippage and sustainability issues in the Water, Sanitation and Hygiene (WASH) sector in the State of Andhra Pradesh (AP), India. Source sustainability, poor operation and maintenance and water quality are the main reasons for slippage in India. The paper examines the actual cost of provision in 43 villages spread over two agro-climatic zones by cost components that cause slippage and identifies the gaps in (public) investments and how these gaps are responsible for poor, inequitable and unsustainable service delivery. The analysis brings out clearly that government expenditure on WASH is almost exclusively capital expenditure on infrastructure while other important cost components like planning and designing, capital maintenance, source sustainability, water quality, etc., receive little or no allocation. The key message of the paper is that allocations to rural drinking water sector are low at the design and implementation stage but more ends up being spent due to ad hoc interventions and funding allocations for rural water are distorted. It is argued that adoption of LCCA would enhance the efficiency and effectiveness of budget allocations to the drinking water sector. © IWA Publishing 2012. Source

Reddy V.R.,Livelihoods and Natural Resource Management Institute | Batchelor C.,Water Resources Management Company
Water Policy

Water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) service levels remain stubbornly low in rural India despite high levels of public expenditure recently. In many areas, this is because service levels have slipped back for reasons including inadequate protection of water sources (quantity and quality) and more attention given to capital expenditure than expenditure on operational and capital maintenance. This paper argues that adoption of a life-cycle cost approach (LCCA) could play a significant role in rectifying this by providing a framework for identifying and plugging gaps in the present pattern of expenditure. It is argued that LCCA will provide a sound basis for implementing the WASH Guidelines released by the Rajiv Gandhi National Drinking Water Mission in 2010. These guidelines signal a shift away from viewing the provision of WASH services as primarily an engineering challenge to one that requires activities that include source protection, institution building and long-term support and pro-poor planning, all of which need to be budgeted for by WASH service providers and/or users. Preliminary findings indicate that LCCA can be used to assess actual life-cycle costs of sustainable, equitable and efficient WASH service delivery. The challenge now is to investigate how best LCCA can be mainstreamed into WASH planning and other governance processes. © IWA Publishing 2012. Source

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