Setegn S.G.,Global Water for Sustainability |
Setegn S.G.,Florida International University |
Melesse A.M.,Florida International University |
Haiduk A.,Water Resources Authority |
And 4 more authors.
Catena | Year: 2014
Freshwater resources and healthy coast lines are the basis of ecotourism in the Caribbean islands. The vulnerability of these islands to natural and human-induced disasters and their inability to cope with the problem necessitate the understanding of the hydrological processes and responses of the watersheds to various stressors. The main objective of this study is to characterize, model and analyze the temporal variability of hydrological processes in the Rio Cobre watershed, Jamaica using the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT). Determination of the temporal hydrological water balance and the spatial distribution of hydrological processes in the Rio Cobre watershed are discussed. The ability of a watershed model to accurately predict the hydrological processes is evaluated through parameter sensitivity analysis, model calibration and validation. Sequential Uncertainty Fitting (SUFI-2) calibration and uncertainty analysis methods were used for the set-up of the SWAT model. The model evaluation statistics for streamflow prediction show that there is a good agreement between the measured and simulated flows that was verified by the coefficient of determination (R2) and Nash Sutcliffe efficiency greater than 0.5. Past studies suggested that the prediction efficiency of the calibrated model can be judged as satisfactory if R2 and NSE values are >0.5. Model simulation results are subject to uncertainties due to input data, model structure and errors in parameter estimates. The choice of the retention parameter estimation method, routing method, evapotranspiration estimation methods might significantly affect the prediction of surface runoff and then the water balance. The hydrological water balance analysis indicated that above 52% of the annual precipitation is lost by evapotranspiration in the basin. Surface runoff contributes more than 12%, whereas the ground water contributes more than 42% to the total water yield. The calibrated model can be used for further analysis of the effect of climate and land use change as well as other different management scenarios on streamflow and other hydrological components. The model output can be used as a tool to develop appropriate adaption strategy to the effect of land use and climate changes. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.
Mandal A.,University of the West Indies |
Haiduk A.,Water Resources Authority
Environmental Earth Sciences | Year: 2011
The Kingston Basin in Jamaica is an important hydrologic basin in terms of both domestic and industrial sector. The Kingston hydrologic basin covers an area of approximately 258 km 2 of which 111 km 2 underlain by an alluvium aquifer, 34 km 2 by a limestone aquifer and the remainder underlain by low permeability rocks with insignificant groundwater resources. Rapid development in recent years has led to an increased demand for water, which is increasingly being fulfilled by groundwater abstraction. A detailed knowledge of the water quality can enhance understanding of the hydrochemical system, promoting sustainable development and effective management of groundwater resources. To achieve this, a hydrochemical investigation was carried out in the Kingston Basin. Results showed that the water is Na-Ca-Cl-HCO 3 and Na-Ca-HCO 3 type with higher concentrations of nitrate, sodium and chloride as the leading causes of contamination in most of the wells. High concentrations of nitrate correlate with wells from areas of high population density and could be attributed to anthropogenic causes, mainly involving improper sewage treatment methodologies or leaking sewer lines. Jamaica, owing to its island nature, has the continuous problem of saline water intrusion, and this is reflected in the higher levels of chloride, sodium and conductivity in the water samples collected from the wells. The wells studied show higher concentrations of chloride ranging from around 10.2 mg/l in wells located approximately (4931.45 m) from the coast to around 234 mg/l in the well located near to the coast. The conductivity values also closely correlate with the chloride levels found in the wells. © 2010 Springer-Verlag.
Haiduk A.,Water Resources Authority |
Ishemo A.,University of Technology, Jamaica
International Journal of Water Resources Development | Year: 2011
Jamaica's water supply sector is recognized as the largest electricity consumer in the island's public sector. This paper evaluates whether replacing high-cost groundwater abstraction with surface water treatment and distribution is a viable option to minimize electricity consumption in the water sector. The findings suggest that a change from groundwater abstraction to surface water treatment and distribution by conveying surface water around the island incurs higher electricity costs compared to the present supply model (reliance on ground water). However, as part of a strategy for a more efficient water sector it is recommended that the above approach be further evaluated with more economic considerations, engineering designs and possible storage facilities to reduce the time of pumping of ground water. © 2011 Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.