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Gallego-Ayala J.,Water Research Institute of Mozambique | Juizo D.,Eduardo Mondlane University
Physics and Chemistry of the Earth | Year: 2012

In the Southern African Development Community region, Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM) principles and tools are being implemented through the existing regional framework for water resources development and management. The IWRM approach is applied at river basin level seeking a balance between the economic efficiency, social equity and environmental sustainability in water resources management and development. This paper uses composite indexes to analyze the performance of River Basin Organizations (RBOs) as key implementing agents of the IWRM framework. The assessment focuses on three RBOs that fall under the Regional Water Administration for Southern Mozambique (ARA-Sul) jurisdiction, namely: Umbeluzi, Incomati and Limpopo River Basin Management Units. The analysis focus on the computation of a set of multidimensional key performance indicators developed by Hooper (2010) but adapted to the Mozambican context. This research used 24 out of 115 proposed universal key performance indicators. The indicators for this case study were selected based on their suitability to evaluate performance in line with the legal and institutional framework context that guides the operations of RBOs in Mozambique. Finally these indicators were integrated in a composite index, using an additive and multiplicative aggregation method coupled with the Analytic Hierarchy Process technique employed to differentiate the relative importance of the various indicators considered. The results demonstrate the potential usefulness of the methodology developed to analyze the RBOs performance and proved useful in identifying the main performance areas in need of improvement for better implementation of IWRM at river basin level in Mozambique. This information should support both the IWRM framework adaptation to local context and the implementation at river basin level in order to improve water governance. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

The CAP Health Check introduces a set of support measures to assist vulnerable agricultural sectors, with the aim of minimizing the effects of the implementation of total decoupling payments in less competitiveness sectors. This paper analyzes the impact of a support program for rain-fed agriculture, through the National Plan for Encouragement of Crops Rotations. The case study is focused on Castilla y León (Spain) rain-fed agriculture. The simulation results based on Positive Mathematical Programming technique for each farming district analyzed, reveal the influence of the traditional crops rotations in the analyzed areas to adhere to the National Plan for Encouragement of Crops Rotations. The analysis of the results allow us to conclude that there is need for simplification of the mechanisms designed to carry out this program, bearing in mind that the support efficiency in many cases is limited.

Gallego-Ayalal J.,Water Research Institute of Mozambique | Gomez-Limon J.A.,Institute Investigacion y Formacion Agraria y Pesquera IFAPA | Arriaza M.,Institute Investigacion y Formacion Agraria y Pesquera IFAPA
Spanish Journal of Agricultural Research | Year: 2011

The Water Framework Directive (WFD) requires all EU member states to implement water tariffs to recover the costs of water services. This paper analyzes the potential consequences of different instruments for irrigation water pricing (area, volumetric, two-part tariff and block-rate), studying their impact on the sustainability of irrigated areas. The application performed focuses on the Campos district in the Spanish province of Palencia, using simulation models based on positive mathematical programming to simulate farmers' behavior in response to the above-mentioned pricing instruments. A multidimensional set of sustainability indicators (economic, social and environmental) for each instrument is obtained, making it possible to construct a composite indicator for irrigated agriculture (CIIA) in order to measure the overall sustainability performance of irrigated farms. Results show that pricing irrigation water will have a negative impact on overall sustainability, since economic (profitability) and social (generation of employment) sustainability will decline, while only a slight improvement in environmental sustainability will be obtained. However, we show that in order to fulfill WFD requirements, block-rate pricing results in high rates of public-sector revenues derived from irrigation water payments and promotes a significant reduction in the demand for irrigation water with the lowest reductions in farm sustainability measured in terms of the CIIA.

Gallego-Ayala J.,Water Research Institute of Mozambique | Juizo D.,Eduardo Mondlane University
Physics and Chemistry of the Earth | Year: 2011

The Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM) paradigm has become an important framework in development and management of water resources. Many countries in the Southern Africa region have begun water sector reforms to align the sector with the IWRM concepts. In 2007 the Mozambican Government started to update the policy and the legal framework of the water sector to foster the application of IWRM concept as a basis for achieving sustainable development. However the steps towards the implementation of this national framework are still in preparation. This research aims to identify and establish a priority ranking of the fundamental factors likely to affect the outcome of the IWRM reforms in Mozambique. This study uses the hybrid multi-criteria decision method A'WOT, a methodology coined by Kurttila et al. (2000). This method relies on the combination of the Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats (SWOT) technique and the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) technique. Using this procedure it is possible to identify and rank the factors affecting the functioning of a system. The key factors affecting the implementation of the IWRM, analysed in this study, were identified through an expert group discussion. These factors have been grouped into different categories of SWOT. Subsequently, the AHP methodology was applied to obtain the relative importance of each factor captured in the SWOT analysis; to this end the authors interviewed a panel of water resources management experts and practitioners. As a result, of this study and the application of the A'WOT methodology, the research identified and ranked the fundamental factors for the success of the IWRM strategy in Mozambique. The results of this study suggest that in Mozambique a planning strategy for the implementation of the IWRM should be guided mainly by combination of interventions in factors falling under opportunity and weakness SWOT groups. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.

Gallego-Ayala J.,Water Research Institute of Mozambique
Mathematical and Computer Modelling | Year: 2012

Public decision-makers in charge of designing and implementing the irrigation water pricing policy required by the Water Framework Directive have a difficult task to select between a set of possible alternatives. The main objective of this study is to develop a multi-methodological approach that allows supporting decision makers to choose the alternative that achieves the best compromise solution in irrigated areas between a set of socio-economic and environmental attributes. To this end, a case study is applied in two irrigation districts in the province of Palencia (Spain). The proposed approach takes the following steps: (a) selection of potential alternatives to be evaluated, (b)classification of farmers into homogeneous groups, (c) simulation of irrigated farmers behaviour when facing different water pricing alternatives via positive mathematical programming models, (d) selection of the socioeconomic and environmental criteria for the analysis and (e) application of a hybrid multi-criteria decision making model to rank the alternatives integrating the Analytic Hierarchy Process and the modified Technique for Order Preference by Similarity to Ideal Solution. The results show the effectiveness and potential utility of the proposed methodological framework for irrigation water pricing instruments' selection. The empirical results of this research indicate that those pricing instruments which consider the current consumption of irrigation water allow for a better compromise solution instead of the tools that price water irrespective of current consumption. Furthermore, the results also suggest that the irrigation water pricing policy could be implemented in function of the different farming districts, rather than establishing one single type of irrigation water pricing instrument and tariff level for a whole river basin, as these would not allow to achieve the same degree of compromise solution in different farming-districts. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.

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