Time filter

Source Type

Port Adelaide, Australia

Krishnamohan M.,University of Queensland | Seawright A.A.,University of Queensland | Moore M.R.,University of Queensland | Moore M.R.,Water Quality Research Australia | Ng J.C.,University of Queensland
WIT Transactions on Ecology and the Environment

Arsenic is a ubiquitous element in the environment and has been classified as a human carcinogen primarily based on epidemiological evidence. It has been estimated there are over 100 million people globally being exposed to elevated arsenic from both natural and anthropogenic sources. Surprisingly, positive carcinogenicity animal studies were lacking until recent years. We aim to validate inorganic arsenate carcinogenic effect in C57Bl/6J mice, and establish the dose-response relationship using environmental concentrations of arsenic similar to those found in typical endemic-areas. Mice were given 0, 100, 250 or 500 μg As/L in the form of sodium arsenate in drinking water ad libitum over 2 years. Tumours occurred after about 18 months of arsenic exposure otherwise the animals appeared to be normal in their appearance and behaviour. Incidences of all types of tumours and non-tumourous lesions in the treated groups were higher than those observed in the control group. The induction of tumours was in a dose-response manner for some tumour types. Enlargement of the mesenteric lymph node due to hyperplasia or neoplasia of lymphoid elements was commonly observed. Apart from abdominal cavity lymph nodes, tumours were frequently observed in the liver, spleen and intestinal wall, and to a lesser extent in the lung with various other tissues also occasionally affected. Of the non-tumourous lesions, haemorrhagic ovarian cysts occurred more frequently in the treated groups than in the control group. Our results suggest that the C57Bl/6J mouse model can be a useful adjunct for further mechanistic studies of arsenic carcinogenesis. This bioassay data may also be considered for the risk evaluation of chronic exposure to inorganic arsenic. © 2010 WIT Press. Source

Clarke B.O.,RMIT University | Clarke B.O.,Water Quality Research Australia | Porter N.A.,RMIT University | Porter N.A.,Water Quality Research Australia | And 4 more authors.
Science of the Total Environment

The aim of this study was to quantify the amount of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) released into the environment (biosolids, effluent) from a conventional Australian activated sludge treatment wastewater treatment plant (WWTP). The concentration of PBDE congeners was measured at various treatment stages and included four aqueous samples (raw, primary, secondary and tertiary effluents) and three sludges (primary, secondary and lime stabilized biosolids), collected at three sampling events over the course of the experiment (29 days). Semi-permeable membrane devices (SPMDs) were also installed for the duration of the experiment, the first time that SPMDs have been used to measure PBDEs in a WWTP. Over 99% of the PBDEs entering the WWTP were removed through the treatment processes, principally by sedimentation. The main congeners detected were BDE 47, 99 and 209, which are characteristic of the two major commercial formulations viz penta-BDE and deca-BDE. All the PBDE congeners measured were highly correlated with each other, suggesting a similar origin. In this case, the PBDEs are thought to be from domestic sources since domestic wastewater is the main contribution to the in-flow (~95%). The mean concentration of ΣPBDEs in chemically stabilized sewage sludge (biosolids) was 300 μg kg-1 dry weight. It is calculated that 2.3±0.3 kg of PBDEs are disposed of each year with biosolids generated from the WWTP. If all Australian sewage sludge is contaminated to at least this concentration then at least 110 kg of PBDEs are associated with Australian sewage sludge annually. Less than 10 g are released annually into the environment via ocean outfall and field irrigation; this level of contamination is unlikely to pose risk to humans or the environment. The environmental release of treated effluent and biosolids is not considered a large source of PBDE environmental emissions compared to the quantities used annually in Australia. © 2009 Elsevier B.V. Source

Clarke B.O.,RMIT University | Clarke B.O.,Water Quality Research Australia | Porter N.A.,RMIT University | Porter N.A.,Water Quality Research Australia | And 2 more authors.
Environment International

A study was completed to investigate temporal trends of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs; aldrin, chlordane, dieldrin, heptachlor, hexachlorbenzene, and DDT) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in sewage sludge. Between 2004 and 2006 the concentration of OCPs and PCBs in Australian sewage sludge (n=829) was consistently <1000μgkg-1 dry solids DS. Dieldrin, chlordane and DDE were detected in 68%, 27% and 13% at maximum concentrations of 770, 290 and 270 μgkg-1 DS, respectively.Time series analysis (1995-2006) of OCPs and PCBs sewage sludge concentrations (n=. 2266) taken from six wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) of the same geographic region found that lindane, aldrin HCB, heptachlor, DDT, DDD and PCBs were infrequently detected (<8%). A correlation between dieldrin and chlordane levels was found (P<0.05) which provides evidence of similar environmental mechanisms facilitating movement of dieldrin and chlordane through environment compartments. It has taken more than 10 years for dieldrin and chlordane to reduce to less than detectable concentrations in freshly generated sewage sludge in Australia following government restrictions.Internationally, reported sewage sludge OCP concentrations were consistently low and often less than detection limits. Therefore, OCPs are not considered to be a contaminant of regulatory concern for countries that phased out OCP use several decades ago. Concentrations of PCBs in sewage sludge were also consistently low and rarely exceeded European contaminant limits and therefore, regulatory limits may warrant review. The authors recommend that Australian authorities revise regulatory requirements for OCP and PCBs contaminant levels in sewage sludge destined for beneficial reuse as biosolids. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Discover hidden collaborations