Water Quality Monitoring Center

Beijing, China

Water Quality Monitoring Center

Beijing, China
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Zhang M.-L.,Beijing Technology and Business University | Zhang M.-L.,Tsinghua University | Liu W.-J.,Tsinghua University | Li C.-P.,Tsinghua University | And 2 more authors.
Zhongguo Huanjing Kexue/China Environmental Science | Year: 2015

To evaluate the microbial safety during the source water switch in a drinking water treatment plant in Beijing, bacterial community compositions and potential pathogensin the raw water and finished water were analyzed by pyrosequencing. The bacterial diversity of finished water was significantly lower than raw water. Proteobacteria were observed as one of the most dominant populations both in raw water and finished water, ranging from 11.99% to 95.48%. Alphaproteobacteria, Betaproteobacteria and Gammaproteobacteria dominated in this group. However, the relative abundance varied in raw water and finished water. Cyanobacteria were found in raw water and finished water after water switch. Several potential pathogens were detected in the finished water and the majorbacteria were Acinetobacterand Delftia. The occurrence of pathogens was associated with increased health risk. PCoA results showed that bacterial community structure in raw water before switch was significantly different from that after water switch, but water switch had little effect on the bacterial composition of finished water. The water treatment plant operated stably during water switch. ©, 2015, Chinese Society for Environmental Sciences. All right reserved.


PubMed | Tsinghua University, Water Quality Monitoring Center, Beijing Technology and Business University and University of Illinois at Urbana - Champaign
Type: | Journal: Journal of environmental sciences (China) | Year: 2017

Understanding the spatial and temporal dynamics of microbial communities in drinking water systems is vital to securing the microbial safety of drinking water. The objective of this study was to comprehensively characterize the dynamics of microbial biomass and bacterial communities at each step of a full-scale drinking water treatment plant in Beijing, China. Both bulk water and biofilm samples on granular activated carbon (GAC) were collected over 9months. The proportion of cultivable cells decreased during the treatment processes, and this proportion was higher in warm season than cool season, suggesting that treatment processes and water temperature probably had considerable impact on the R2A cultivability of total bacteria. 16s rRNA gene based 454 pyrosequencing analysis of the bacterial community revealed that Proteobacteria predominated in all samples. The GAC biofilm harbored a distinct population with a much higher relative abundance of Acidobacteria than water samples. Principle coordinate analysis and one-way analysis of similarity indicated that the dynamics of the microbial communities in bulk water and biofilm samples were better explained by the treatment processes rather than by sampling time, and distinctive changes of the microbial communities in water occurred after GAC filtration. Furthermore, 20 distinct OTUs contributing most to the dissimilarity among samples of different sampling locations and 6 persistent OTUs present in the entire treatment process flow were identified. Overall, our findings demonstrate the significant effects that treatment processes have on the microbial biomass and community fluctuation and provide implications for further targeted investigation on particular bacteria populations.


Zhou B.,University of Science and Technology Beijing | Yuan R.,University of Science and Technology Beijing | Shi C.,University of Science and Technology Beijing | Yu L.,University of Science and Technology Beijing | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Environmental Sciences | Year: 2011

Three strains of Gram-negative bacteria capable of removing geosmin from drinking water were isolated from biologically active carbon and identified to be Chryseobacterium sp., Sinorhizobium sp. and Stenotrophomonas sp. based on physio-biochemistry analysis and 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. Removal efficiencies of 2 mg/L geosmin in mineral salts medium were 84.0%, 80.2% and 74.4% for Chryseobacterium sp., Sinorhizobium sp. and Stenotrophomonas sp., respectively, while removal efficiencies of 560 ng/L geosmin in filter influent were 84.8%, 82.3% and 82.5%, respectively. The biodégradation of geosmin was determined to be a pseudo first-order reaction, with rate constants at 2 mg/L and 560 ng/L being 0.097 and 0.086 day-1, 0.089 and 0.084 day-1, 0.074 and 0.098 day-1 for the above mentioned degraders, respectively. The biomass of culture in the presence of geosmin was much higher than that in the absence of geosmin. © 2011 The Research Centre for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences.


Li D.,CAS Research Center for Eco Environmental Sciences | Li Z.,CAS Research Center for Eco Environmental Sciences | Yu J.,CAS Research Center for Eco Environmental Sciences | Cao N.,Water Quality Monitoring Center | And 2 more authors.
Applied and Environmental Microbiology | Year: 2010

The role of bacteria in the occasional emergence of red water, which has been documented worldwide, has yet to be determined. To better understand the mechanisms that drive occurrences of red water, the bacterial community composition and the relative abundance of several functional bacterial groups in a water distribution system of Beijing during a large-scale red water event were determined using several molecular methods. Individual clone libraries of the 16S rRNA gene were constructed for three red water samples and one sample of normal water. Beta-, Alpha-, and Gammaproteobacteria comprised the major bacterial communities in both red water and normal water samples, in agreement with previous reports. A high percentage of red water clones (25.2 to 57.1%) were affiliated with or closely related to a diverse array of iron-oxidizing bacteria, including the neutrophilic microaerobic genera Gallionella and Sideroxydans, the acidophilic species Acidothiobacillus ferrooxidans, and the anaerobic denitrifying Thermomonas bacteria. The genus Gallionella comprised 18.7 to 28.6% of all clones in the three red water libraries. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis showed that the 16S rRNA gene copy concentration of Gallionella spp. was between (4.1 ± 0.9) × 107 (mean ± standard deviation) and (1.6 ± 0.3) × 108 per liter in red water, accounting for 13.1% ± 2.9% to 17.2% ± 3.6% of the total Bacteria spp. in these samples. By comparison, the percentages of Gallionella spp. in the normal water samples were 0.1% or lower (below the limit of detection), suggesting an important role of Gallionella spp. in the formation of red water. Copyright © 2010, American Society for Microbiology.


Wang Y.-R.,Jilin University | Wang Y.-R.,Changchun University of Technology | Li W.-Y.,Water Quality Monitoring Center | Zhou B.,Jilin University | Zhao X.,Jilin University
Chemical Research in Chinese Universities | Year: 2013

With Ti(SO4)2, SnCl4·5H2O and urea as raw materials, SnO2-TiO2 nanocomposites were synthesized via low temperature hydrothermal method at 80-100 °C in aqueous solutions. The morphologies of the products were altered systematically by varying the Ti/Sn molar ratio of the reactants, and rutile-phase particles were obtained with an average diameter of about 52.2 nm at a molar ratio of Ti/Sn=7.5. The surface composition of the composite was revealed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy(XPS) and X-ray diffraction(XRD) to be solely TiO2 with a rutile structure. This new composite material exhibits a high ultraviolet absorption capacity, and its photocatalytic activity for phenol oxidation is much lower than that of the commercial titania nanoparticles(P25). © 2013 Jilin University, The Editorial Department of Chemical Research in Chinese Universities and Springer-Verlag GmbH.


Yuan R.-F.,University of Science and Technology Beijing | Tian Y.,University of Science and Technology Beijing | Shi C.-H.,University of Science and Technology Beijing | Zhou B.-H.,University of Science and Technology Beijing | And 2 more authors.
Research of Environmental Sciences | Year: 2013

The pollution of surface water is becoming more and more serious with the economic development. The requirements for the drinking water quality was higher than before since the "Standards for Drinking Water Quality" (GB/T 5749-2006) was implemented. In order to remove the organic pollutants, ozonation was employed as a tool in the drinking water treatment process, and the ozone contactor was used to make ozone diffused into the water. The ozone distribution is a key factor to the reaction efficiency between ozone and the organic pollutant in ozone contactor. The influence of ozone distribution in the ozone contactor on mass transfer efficiency, O3 content and organic removal efficiency was investigated, while water samples were collected from the Miyun Reservoir. The gas-liquid mass transfer was enhanced, and the removal efficiency of organic pollutant was improved when the number of aeration point increased. However, the mass transfer efficiency of ozone showed no significant increase when four-point aeration was used. Moreover, O3 content in the effluent water was too high for the following process. The mass transfer efficiency of ozone in the water was 78.1%, and the removal efficiency of oganics was 47.5% when three-point aeration was used, with the proportion of 3:3:1. When humic acid of 3 mg/L was added in the water samples, the mass transfer efficiency of ozone was 76.8%, and the removal efficiency of oganics was 40.3% using the same method. The O3 content in the effluent water was 0.26 mg/L, which would not destroy the biofilm on the surface of the activated carbon in biological activated carbon progress. At the proportion of 3:3:1, the utilization ratio of ozone value was the highest (60.1%), and the generation amount of bromate was the lowest. Therefore, the best method of gas distribution in ozone contactor was three-point aeration, with the proportion of 3:3:1.


Yuan R.,University of Science and Technology Beijing | Zhou B.,University of Science and Technology Beijing | Wu X.,Beijing Municipal Environmental Monitoring Center | Gu J.,Water Quality Monitoring Center | Zhang L.,Water Quality Monitoring Center
Research of Environmental Sciences | Year: 2015

With economic development, pollution of surface water has become more and more serious. In addition, the requirements for drinking water quality have become more stringent after the “Standards for Drinking Water Quality” (GB/T 5749-2006) were implemented. In order to remove organic pollutants, biological activated carbon was employed as an important process in drinking water treatment. The filtration rate, carbon media height, temperature and carbon agearethe key factors affecting the treatment effect of the carbon filter. With Danjiangkou Reservoir water used as raw water, coagulation, sedimentation and sand filtration were employed as the influent of the carbon filter, and the effects of new-carbon, 1-year-carbon, 3-year-carbon and 5-year-carbon (the carbon age in May 2011) taken from a waterworks in Beijing were investigated based on the permanganate index and UV254 removal efficiencies during the period between April 2011 and May 2013.The results showed that with the increase of filtration rate, the removal efficiency of organic matter decreased. When the filtration rate was 8 m/h, the removal efficiencies of permanganate index and UV254 reached 41.9% and 41.2%, respectively. With the deepening of the media depth of the carbon filter, the total UV254 removal efficiency increased, but the removal amount by each millimeter of carbon was reduced. In summer, with high temperature, and with the help of the 1-year-carbon in the carbon filter, the permanganate index and UV254 removal efficiencies were 44.2%-57.4% and 38.5%-53.1%, respectively, higher than those in winter (38.9%-51.1% and 31.7%-45.5%, respectively). At the beginning of the usage of the activated carbon, the organic matters were mainly removed through adsorption. Since the carbon was used longer, the biodegradation became the dominant effect, and the influence of the carbon age was smaller. Therefore, the life cycle of the biological activated carbon can be extended appropriately for cost saving. ©, 2015, Editorial Department of Molecular Catalysis. All right reserved.


Zhang M.,Tsinghua University | Liu W.,Tsinghua University | Nie X.,Tsinghua University | Li C.,Tsinghua University | And 3 more authors.
Microbes and Environments | Year: 2012

Microbial community structures in biofilms of a clearwell in a drinking water supply system in Beijing, China were examined by clone library, terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) and 454 pyrosequencing of the amplified 16S rRNA gene. Six biofilm samples (designated R1-R6) collected from six locations (upper and lower sites of the inlet, middle and outlet) of the clearwell revealed similar bacterial patterns by T-RFLP analysis. With respect to the dominant groups, the phylotypes detected by clone library and T-RFLP generally matched each other. A total of 9,543 reads were obtained from samples located at the lower inlet and the lower outlet sites by pyrosequencing. The bacterial diversity of the two samples was compared at phylum and genus levels. Alphaproteobacteria dominated the communities in both samples and the genus of Sphingomonas constituted 75.1%-99.6% of this phylum. A high level of Sphingomonas sp. was first observed in the drinking water biofilms with 0.6-1.0 mg L-1 of chlorine residual. Disinfectant-resistant microorganisms deserve special attention in drinking water management. This study provides novel insights into the microbial populations in drinking water systems and highlights the important role of Sphingomonas species in biofilm formation.


Yuan R.,University of Science and Technology Beijing | Zhou B.,University of Science and Technology Beijing | Shi C.,University of Science and Technology Beijing | Yu L.,University of Science and Technology Beijing | And 2 more authors.
Frontiers of Environmental Science and Engineering in China | Year: 2012

One of the most common taste and odour compounds (TOCs) in drinking water is 2-methylisoborneol (2-MIB) which cannot be readily removed by conventional water treatments. Four bacterial strains for degrading 2-MIB were isolated from the surface of a biological activated carbon filter, and were characterized as Micrococcus spp., Flavobacterium spp., Brevibacterium spp. and Pseudomonas spp. based on 16S rRNA analysis. The removal efficiencies of 2-MIB with initial concentrations of 515 ng·L -1 were 98.4%, 96.3%, 95.0%, and 92.8% for Micrococcus spp., Flavobacterium spp., Brevibacterium spp. and Pseudomonas spp., respectively. These removal efficiencies were slightly higher than those with initial concentration at 4.2 mg·L -1 (86.1%, 84.4%, 86.7% and 86.0%, respectively). The kinetic model showed that biodegradation of 2-MIB at an initial dose of 4.2 mg·L -1 was a pseudo-first-order reaction, with rate constants of 0.287, 0.277, 0.281, and 0.294 d -1, respectively. These degraders decomposed 2-MIB to form 2-methylenebornane and 2-methyl-2-bornane as the products. © 2011 Higher Education Press and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.


Zhou B.,University of Science and Technology Beijing | Yuan R.,University of Science and Technology Beijing | Yu L.,University of Science and Technology Beijing | Gu J.,Water Quality Monitoring Center | Zhang C.,Water Quality Monitoring Center
2010 International Conference on Mechanic Automation and Control Engineering, MACE2010 | Year: 2010

For the drinking water treatment, a methodology for isolation of the bacterium capable of removing 2-methylisoborneol (2-MIB) from water was proposed. The procedure of the method was as follows: the sample was gained from the activated carbon whose surface was covered with a mature microbiological membrane, and then continually treated with the mineral salt liquid culture in which 2-MIB was the only carbon source. Finally, four strains were isolated by plate streaks, which were characterized as Flavobacterium spp. and Pseudomonas spp. based on the physiology biochemistry experiment and the data of 16S rRNA analysis. ©2010 IEEE.

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