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van Overloop P.J.,Technical University of Delft | Clemmens A.J.,Water Management and Conservation Research Unit | Strand R.J.,Water Management and Conservation Research Unit | Wagemaker R.M.J.,DHV Engineering Consultancy Shanghai Co. | Bautista E.,Water Management and Conservation Research Unit
Journal of Irrigation and Drainage Engineering | Year: 2010

Water resources are limited in many agricultural areas. One method to improve the effective use of water is to improve delivery service from irrigation canals. This can be done by applying automatic control methods that control the gates in an irrigation canal. The model predictive control (MPC) is one such advanced control method. In this article, the MPC is used to deliver irrigation water to the WM Canal at the Maricopa-Stanfield Irrigation and Drainage District. The tests show that the water is efficiently delivered to the users and water level deviations at all locations are small. The control is compared to the results from an advanced Linear Quadratic Regulator control method, also tested on the actual canal. © 2010 ASCE. Source


Clemmens A.J.,Water Management and Conservation Research Unit | Strand R.J.,Water Management and Conservation Research Unit
Journal of Irrigation and Drainage Engineering | Year: 2010

On steep canals, distant downstream-water-level control can be challenging. The Software for Automated Canal Management was developed, in part, to test various distant downstream water-level controllers. It was implemented on the WM canal of the Maricopa Stanfield Irrigation and Drainage District, Stanfield, Ariz. to compare the performance of various controllers. In 2004, Clemmens and Schuurmans used optimization to determine the coefficients for a variety of controllers. These controllers vary in their complexity from a series of simple, single-input-single-output, proportional-integral controllers to a fully centralized, multiple-input-multiple-output, optimal controller. The controller design also varies regarding which pools are under downstream, or upstream, control and according to the conditions (e.g., flow rate) assumed for controller design. These controllers were tested under actual operating conditions and with unscheduled disturbances. The results of these tests are presented in this paper. © 2010 ASCE. Source


Clemmens A.J.,Water Management and Conservation Research Unit | Strand R.J.,Water Management and Conservation Research Unit
Journal of Irrigation and Drainage Engineering | Year: 2010

Simulation studies have demonstrated that automatic control of canals is more effective when feedforward scheduling, or routing of know demand changes, is combined with centralized, automatic, distant, downstream water level control. In practice, few canals use this approach. To help further develop and test this strategy, the writers developed SacMan, or Software for Automatic Canal Management. The software was tested on the WM lateral of the Maricopa Stanfield Irrigation and Drainage District, Stanfield, Arizona. Initial testing was done during 2002 and 2003. In 2004, SacMan was used to operate the canal nearly continuously for a period of 30 days. Tests were conducted during normal operations, during which more than 50 delivery changes to users were scheduled and implemented with SacMan. In addition, SacMan responded to unscheduled changes such as emergency shut off and power outages that reduced well flow that had been pumping into the canal. Additional "manufactured" tests were conducted to compare different control methods. This paper describes the overall SacMan control scheme and presents a summary of the tests conducted and typical results. Companion papers examine the results of these tests in more detail. © 2010 ASCE. Source


Clemmens A.J.,Water Management and Conservation Research Unit | Strand R.J.,Water Management and Conservation Research Unit | Bautista E.,Water Management and Conservation Research Unit
Journal of Irrigation and Drainage Engineering | Year: 2010

Most canals have either long travel times or insufficient in-canal storage to operate on demand. Thus most flow changes must be routed through the canal. Volume compensation has been proposed as a method for easily applying feedforward control to irrigation canals. Software for automated canal management (SacMan) includes both feedforward routing with volume compensation and distant downstream-water-level control. SacMan was implemented on the WM canal of the Maricopa-Stanfield Irrigation and Drainage District, Stanfield, Ariz. Field testing was conducted for a 30 day period during 2004 where more than 50 deliveries to users were made with feedforward control. This paper presents results from some of these field tests and demonstrates the degree of water-level control achievable with combined feedforward (routing)-feedback control. © 2010 ASCE. Source

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