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Lekkerkerker-Teunissen K.,Dunea | Lekkerkerker-Teunissen K.,Technical University of Delft | Chekol E.T.,UNESCO-IHE Institute for Water Education | Maeng S.K.,Sejong University | And 9 more authors.
Water Science and Technology: Water Supply | Year: 2012

Organic micropollutants (OMPs) are detected in sources for drinking water and treatment possibilities are investigated. Innovative removal technologies are available such as membrane filtration and advanced oxidation, but also biological treatment should be considered. By combining an advanced oxidation process with managed aquifer recharge (MAR), two complementary processes are expected to provide a hybrid system for OMP removal, according to the multiple barrier approach. Laboratory scale batch reactor experiments were conducted to investigate the removal of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and 14 different pharmaceutically active compounds (PhACs) from MAR influent water and water subjected to oxidation, under different process conditions. A DOC removal of 10% was found in water under oxic (aerobic) conditions for batch reactor experiments, a similar value for DOC removal was observed in the field. Batch reactor experiments for the removal of PhACs showed that the removal of pharmaceuticals ranged from negligible to more than 90%. Under oxic conditions, seven out of 14 pharmaceuticals were removed over 90% and 12 out of 14 pharmaceuticals were removed at more than 50% during 30 days of experiments. Under anoxic conditions, four out of 14 pharmaceuticals were removed over 90% and eight out of 14 pharmaceuticals were removed at more than 50% over 30 days' experiments. Carbamazepine and phenazone were persistent both under oxic and anoxic conditions. The PhACs removal efficiency with oxidized water was, for most compounds, comparable to the removal with MAR influent water. Copyright © IWA Publishing 2012.

James W.,Process Development Team | Molla S.,Process Development Team | Craik S.,Water Laboratory | Gammie L.,Quality Assurance | And 2 more authors.
Water Quality Technology Conference and Exposition 2010 | Year: 2010

EPCOR Water Services Inc. has demonstrated a substantial reduction in coagulant requirements and residuals production through the conversion of their water treatment plants to direct filtration mode in winter. The utility operates two water treatment plants (WTP) supplied by the North Saskatchewan River in Edmonton, Alberta. Both plants normally operate in coagulation-sedimentation- filtration mode with alum as the primary coagulant.While year-round direct filtration is not feasible due to the challenging spring and summer raw water quality, the river is ice-covered between November and February, making the raw water quality consistently acceptable (Avg. turbidity = 3.2 NTU, St Dev. = 1.8; Avg. colour = 5.1 TCU, St Dev. = 2.2). Following several weeks of pilot tests and one week of demonstrations at the Rossdale WTP during winter 2008-09, EPCOR proceeded stepwise to convert both WTPs to direct filtration operation during winter 2009-10. The alum dose was set at 5 mg/L, less than 1/5 of the average dose used for conventional winter operation. This change resulted in little depression of pH and caustic dosing was discontinued. Cationic filter polymer was dosed in the range of 0.15 to 0.3 mg/L. Extensive monitoring over several weeks tracked changes in operating parameters (filter ripening times, run times, and flow reduction rates), filter effluent quality and residuals production. Average filter ripening times were almost unaffected, but run times were reduced by approximately 1/3. Subtle increases in post-filter concentrations of total aluminum, trihalomethanes, and colour were detected, but these parameters remained well within regulatory guidelines. Filter effluent turbidity and particle counts met EPCOR's water quality targets and there was no detectable effect on log removal of Giardia or Cryptosporidium with the change to direction filtration. Because water was routed through existing clarifier basins en route to the filters, a small fraction of suspended solids was removed by sedimentation in spite of the large reduction in coagulant dose. Nearly 100% of the expected residual solids were accounted for in filter backwashes at the E. L. Smith WTP, compared to approximately 80% at the Rossdale WTP where there was a longer pre-filter residence time. On average, converting the WTPs to direct filtration reduced the total daily production of residual solids by approximately 50%. Coagulant dose was reduced by 80%, caustic dosing was discontinued and daily chemical costs decreased by 84%. 2010 © American Water Works Association WQTC Conference Proceedings All Rights Reserved.

News Article | March 2, 2017
Site: www.eurekalert.org

New state-of-the-art new facilities to upgrade the nation's infrastructure will be created at 11 universities as part of the UK Collaboratorium for Research on Infrastructure and Cities (UKCRIC). UKCRIC will be established at 14 universities to conduct world-leading research through a network of experimental facilities and urban laboratories. The Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC) has supported the establishment of UKCRIC with an investment of £125 million, and in total more than £216.6 million is being invested in the new facilities by EPSRC and partner organisations. Government support for UKCRIC was first announced in the 2015 Budget. With inadequate infrastructure estimated to cost the UK £2 million a day, UKCRIC will allow academia, industry, government and end users to collaborate to upgrade infrastructure and reduce its cost to the nation. UKCRIC will lead to the development of new materials, techniques and novel technologies, as well as research into issues such as investment in rail systems, roads and flood and water management. It will also facilitate the introduction of smart sensors and systems to generate data to optimise the use of assets and networks, while computation and big data infrastructure will be established for the modelling, simulation and visualisation of cities and infrastructure. EPSRC's Chief Executive, Professor Philip Nelson, said: "Upgrading the UK's infrastructure is a key priority and will help to deliver prosperity for the nation. "UKCRIC provides a unique opportunity for the universities to coordinate on best practice, share data and lessons learned, as well as providing a focus for industrial engagement. It will help to develop a commercial resource with a considerable export potential. "The research undertaken at these new facilities will help us to understand how we can make the nation's infrastructure more resilient to extreme events and more adaptable to changing circumstances, and how it can provide services that are more affordable, accessible and useable for the whole population." Professor Brian Collins, Professor of Engineering Policy at UCL and convenor of the initial UKCRIC partners who represent the UK's major university-based infrastructure, civil and construction engineering research groups in the UK, said: "Understanding how to invest in, build, operate and maintain resilient and adaptable high-quality infrastructure based services, such as good public health, safe mobility, heating, lighting and sustainable economic activity, is vital to the wellbeing of citizens in the UK and across the world. "UKCRIC will provide the science, engineering and research base for delivering that understanding in a low carbon context in UK industry and Government, and for international partners." Summaries of the new facilities This soil-structure interaction laboratory will test fully-instrumented buried pipes, culverts and other structures at full-scale and larger, deeper structures such as shallow tunnels and barrier walls, at near full-scale. Research will also be conducted into air-flow in tunnels focusing on air pollution, pressure transients and sonic booms. A major new building will house double and single-height laboratories for the testing of large-scale structures, components and materials at a range of scales and under a range of environmental conditions and temperatures, with a major focus on transport infrastructure, particularly rail. The new building will also feature an advanced geomechanics laboratory with scaled and full-scale physical testing capabilities. Laboratories at three universities will be refurbished to form a networked facility for underpinning materials research: the Advanced Infrastructure Materials (AIM) Lab at Imperial college London will focus on producing, processing, imaging, analysing and testing infrastructure materials; the Facility for Infrastructure Materials Durability at the University of Leeds will host a field exposure site and facilities to study materials ageing from the nano- to the macro scale, plus facilities for infrastructure robotics and geo-energy; and the Fire and Impact Laboratory for Resilient Infrastructure Materials at the University of Manchester will feature critical loading and characterisation facilities to enable physical testing of infrastructure materials under realistic fire and impact loading conditions. Led by: Professor Nick Buenfeld, Imperial College London; Dr Leon Black, University of Leeds; Professor Yong Wang, University of Manchester EPSRC grant: £16,600,000 Total capital cost: £19,400,000 The laboratory will conduct experiments on large to full-scale examples of bridge supports, building foundations, retaining walls, embankments, and similar problems where earth interacts with structures. The unique facility will allow a wide range of static, vibration and earthquake-like loads to be applied. Modules will be transportable to other sites, allowing for in situ testing of actual structures. The facility will enable important industry problems to be answered that cannot be resolved by conventional, smaller sized experiments. Located in the Civil Engineering building at Cambridge's new Engineering campus, the Facility will focus on the development, testing and deployment of sensors for infrastructure. This interdisciplinary hub will work across a range of length scales, from nanoscale sensor development to multi-metre full-scale testing of large components. A particular focus will be on the practical deployment of sensors in physical infrastructure, with the Facility housing a highly-skilled deployment team and providing training for industry and researchers. Existing laboratories will be extended to create the Urban Water Hub at Cranfield University, which will support research into urban water infrastructure and assets; the National Urban Water Laboratory, a dedicated experimental facility at the Science Central site in the heart of Newcastle-upon-Tyne will house urban transport, urban energy and urban ICT infrastructure facilities as well as the Newcastle Urban Observatory; and the Distributed Water Infrastructure Laboratory at the University of Sheffield will feature a containment chamber incorporating facilities to construct and test at full scale infrastructure such as water pipes and sewer pipes/chambers. This new facility will feature test rigs at 1:1 scale for the study of human interactions with infrastructure, such as tube trains, stations, airports, and urban environments in controlled conditions. For further information please contact the EPSRC Press Office on 01793 444 404 or email pressoffice@epsrc.ac.uk The Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC) As the main funding agency for engineering and physical sciences research, our vision is for the UK to be the best place in the world to Research, Discover and Innovate. By investing £800 million a year in research and postgraduate training, we are building the knowledge and skills base needed to address the scientific and technological challenges facing the nation. Our portfolio covers a vast range of fields from healthcare technologies to structural engineering, manufacturing to mathematics, advanced materials to chemistry. The research we fund has impact across all sectors. It provides a platform for future economic development in the UK and improvements for everyone's health, lifestyle and culture. We work collectively with our partners and other Research Councils on issues of common concern via Research Councils UK. http://www.

Ahmadzadeh Kokya T.,University of Tehran | Pejman A.H.,University of Tehran | Mahin Abdollahzadeh E.,University of Tehran | Ahmadzadeh Kokya B.,Water Laboratory | Nazariha M.,University of Tehran
International Journal of Environmental Research | Year: 2011

In this study some thermodynamic parameters including freezing point, boiling point and the vapor pressure of Urmia Lake salt water were investigated as some important environmentally monitored physicochemical properties of Urmia Lake. In this regard salt concentration is chiefly responsible for the modification of the thermodynamic properties of Urmia Lake water which affects its overall environmental and ecological characteristics. On the other hand, the Urmia Lake is now supposed to be the most convenient place for many rare aquatic species and therefore interpreted to be unique from the viewpoint of qualitative characteristics. For the goals of this study water sampling and analysis where performed in two wet and dry periods of the lake in order to represent the extremes of the lake's environmental variability. Prevailing chemical ions in the water body were determined and used for the estimation of the relative thermodynamic coefficients of salt water for the acquisition of the freezing point, boiling point and the vapor pressure of the Urmia Lake water. Interpolated calibration curves were plotted for the changes in the studied parameters versus a variety of salt concentrations indicating a linear relationship between the investigated parameters and the prevailing salt concentration of the Urmia Lake. The calibration curves were then formulated to simplify the estimation of the thermodynamic parameters of the Urmia Lake for any salinity conditions. Real sample analysis also showed a very good agreement between the estimated and observed values.

Taucer-Kapteijn M.,Water Laboratory | Taucer-Kapteijn M.,Technical University of Delft | Medema G.,Technical University of Delft | Medema G.,KWR Watercycle Research Institute | Hoogenboezem W.,Water Laboratory
Water Science and Technology: Water Supply | Year: 2013

Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionisation-Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) has increasingly been used for rapid and reliable identification of clinically relevant micro-organisms. To establish the applicability of this technique in (drinking) water quality analysis, the MALDI-TOF MS identification results for Enterococcus spp. isolated from various water environments were compared with those obtained using the commercial Rapid 32 ID Strep system. One hundred and one bacterial isolates were isolated from various types of water and determined as enterococci on the basis of their growth on Slanetz-Bartley agar in typical colonies. The isolates were identified by MALDI-TOF MS and the commercial biochemical test Rapid 32 ID Strep. Isolates yielding in discrepant identifications were genotyped using 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. For 86 isolates (85%), the results of Rapid ID 32 Strep were identical to those obtained with MALDI-TOF MS. Six isolates were impossible to be classified by means of the Rapid 32 ID Strep test. And for eight out of a total of nine discrepant results (89%), the 16S analyses confirmed the MALDI-TOF MS identification. MALDI-TOF MS produced highly reproducible results. These results indicated that the use of two different culture media had no effect on the identification. In addition, no significant differences (p = 0.32; n = 20) were evident between the scores obtained from a 20-fold measurement of the same isolate. The results of this study showed that MALDI-TOF MS identification (Bruker) is a reliable method for identifying E. faecium, E. faecalis, E. durans, E. hirae and E. casseliflavus isolated from water samples. E. mundtii and E. moraviensis were not included in the Rapid 32 ID Strep database and could therefore not be identified using that test set. However, MALDI-TOF MS and 16S identified all six isolates as members of these species. © IWA Publishing 2013.

Bertelkamp C.,Technical University of Delft | Lekkerkerker-Teunissen K.,Technical University of Delft | Knol A.H.,Dunea Duin en Water | Verberk J.Q.J.C.,Technical University of Delft | And 2 more authors.
Water Quality Technology Conference and Exposition 2010 | Year: 2010

Dunea Duin en Water, a drinking water company in South Holland the Netherlands, wants to provide a multiple barrier treatment against organic micro pollutants (OMPs). Dunea considers extending its surface water pre-treatment, consisting of coagulation, micro straining and dual media rapid filters, with an advanced oxidation process (AOP), consisting of UV and hydrogen peroxide. The rapid sand filtrate has a low UV transmission which is an indication for high energy consumption during AOP and probably more by-product formation including AOC and nitrite. To overcome this problem two different pre-treatment techniques were compared: granular activated carbon filtration (GAC) and ion exchange (IEX). The main objective of this comparison study was to determine the effect of different pre-treatment techniques on the conversion of OMPs in the AOP installation. Furthermore, it was tried to assess the advantages and limitations of the two pre-treatment techniques. Both pre-treatment techniques showed an increase in conversion of the OMPs which was mainly caused by the lower DOC concentration obtained with pre-treatment. The maximal energy savings for GAC pre-treatment with MP lamps were 0.76 kWh/m3 = 0.06 €/m 3 which was insufficient to compensate for the fixed and operational costs of GAC pretreatment 0.56 €/m3. These energy savings were obtained for a very low DOC concentration of 0.24 mg/L C, implying high operational costs for regeneration, and no other scavengers were removed with GAC pre-treatment. Ion exchange showed the most promising results, a DOC concentration of 2.2 -2.3 mg/L was obtained for about 37.500 BV. For this DOC concentration the maximal energy savings were 0.58 kWh/m3 = 0.05 €/m3. The total costs for IEX are 0.07 €/m3. It was concluded that IEX pre-treatment for the AOP installation at Dunea is not feasible from an economical perspective. In addition, the nitrite formation does not seem to be advantageous compared to the situation without pre-treatment. Scavengers are removed in the first few BV but subsequently show desorption. Since the IEX columns are not operated simultaneously the positive effect of the removal of certain scavengers in the first few BV will smoothen and therefore will not make a significant difference. In case the positive effect of the removal of certain scavengers is preserved this will lead to higher regeneration frequencies of the resin implying higher operational costs. IEX pre-treatment would only be a viable option in case: - the costs of IEX treatment (processing the brine) would decrease - if less AOC is formed than without IEX pre-treatment - if the requirement of 80% atrazine conversion is not reached without IEX pretreatment - or if it is decided to completely refurbish the current pre-treatment. 2010 © American Water Works Association WQTC Conference Proceedings All Rights Reserved.

Lekkerkerker-Teunissen K.,Dunea Duin en Water | Lekkerkerker-Teunissen K.,Technical University of Delft | Knol A.H.,Dunea Duin en Water | Derks J.G.,Technical University of Delft | And 4 more authors.
Water Quality Technology Conference and Exposition 2010 | Year: 2010

Dunea duin en water, the water company for The Hague and surroundings, has an objective of producing drinking water of impeccable quality, particularly with respect to organic micropollutans (OMPs). OMPs are only a minor part of the total natural organic matter (NOM) in raw water, posing a challenge in targeting removal of a very small, specific part of the NOM, without removing all of the NOM. In addition, OMPs encompass a broad field of physicochemical properties, which make their removal by a single treatment step difficult. By combining AOP with ARR, two complementary processes are expected to provide a synergistic hybrid system for removal of OMPs, according to the Dutch multiple barrier approach. Dunea produces drinking water from the Meuse River, which contains a variety of organic micropollutants as a result of upstream activity. Dunea is performing research to extend the current multiple barrier treatment (consisting of pre-treatment, artificial recharge and recovery (ARR), post-treatment) with advanced oxidation processes (AOP) via UV and hydrogen peroxide, situated at the pre-treatment location in Bergambacht, before ARR. The degradation of organic micropollutants as a result of advanced oxidation using low pressure (LP) and medium pressure (MP) mercury vapour ultraviolet lamps has been assessed by means of pilot-scale (5 m3/h) experiments using river water pre-treated by dual media rapid sand filtration. The UV doses were varied between 400 and 800 mJ/cm2, the peroxide dose were varied as 0, 5 and 10 ppm. Atrazine, Bromacil, Ibuprofen and NDMA were spiked (10-20 μg/L) and used as model compounds. Both lamp types obtained over the year an average atrazine degradation of 72% for LP and 75% for MP lamps. The installed power for the LP reactor was 0.26 kWh/m3 and for the MP reactor 0.88 kWh/m3. The electrical energy per order, the amount of energy to achieve 1 log reduction, was calculated for atrazine as 0.45 kWh/m3 for the LP reactor and 1.45 kWh/m3 for the MP reactor. In addition, in case of LP lamps the formation of nitrite can be considered negligible while in case of MP lamps nitrite levels increased up to 0.6 mg/l NO2-. 2010 © American Water Works Association WQTC Conference Proceedings All Rights Reserved.

Hut R.,Technical University of Delft | Van De Giesen N.,Technical University of Delft | Houtman C.J.,Water Laboratory
Environmental Research Letters | Year: 2013

The relation between pharmaceutical residues along the river Rhine and the demographic characteristics of the upstream population was studied. A sampling campaign was performed in which water samples from the Rhine were taken at 42 locations. Measurements were compared to a two parameter model with regional demographic data as main input. For 12 out of the 21 studied pharmaceuticals, a significant dominant demographic group could be identified. For 3 out of these 12 pharmaceuticals the male elderly were the most contributing demographic group. A Monte Carlo analysis showed a high level of significance for the results of this study (p < 0.01). By combining environmental water quality data and demographic data, better insight was gained in the interplay between humans and their environment, showing the medicinal footprint of the population of the Rhine basin. © 2013 IOP Publishing Ltd.

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