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Apeldoorn, Netherlands

Lekkerkerker-Teunissen K.,Dunea | Lekkerkerker-Teunissen K.,Technical University of Delft | Chekol E.T.,UNESCO-IHE Institute for Water Education | Maeng S.K.,Sejong University | And 9 more authors.
Water Science and Technology: Water Supply | Year: 2012

Organic micropollutants (OMPs) are detected in sources for drinking water and treatment possibilities are investigated. Innovative removal technologies are available such as membrane filtration and advanced oxidation, but also biological treatment should be considered. By combining an advanced oxidation process with managed aquifer recharge (MAR), two complementary processes are expected to provide a hybrid system for OMP removal, according to the multiple barrier approach. Laboratory scale batch reactor experiments were conducted to investigate the removal of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and 14 different pharmaceutically active compounds (PhACs) from MAR influent water and water subjected to oxidation, under different process conditions. A DOC removal of 10% was found in water under oxic (aerobic) conditions for batch reactor experiments, a similar value for DOC removal was observed in the field. Batch reactor experiments for the removal of PhACs showed that the removal of pharmaceuticals ranged from negligible to more than 90%. Under oxic conditions, seven out of 14 pharmaceuticals were removed over 90% and 12 out of 14 pharmaceuticals were removed at more than 50% during 30 days of experiments. Under anoxic conditions, four out of 14 pharmaceuticals were removed over 90% and eight out of 14 pharmaceuticals were removed at more than 50% over 30 days' experiments. Carbamazepine and phenazone were persistent both under oxic and anoxic conditions. The PhACs removal efficiency with oxidized water was, for most compounds, comparable to the removal with MAR influent water. Copyright © IWA Publishing 2012. Source

Hut R.,Technical University of Delft | Van De Giesen N.,Technical University of Delft | Houtman C.J.,Water Laboratory
Environmental Research Letters | Year: 2013

The relation between pharmaceutical residues along the river Rhine and the demographic characteristics of the upstream population was studied. A sampling campaign was performed in which water samples from the Rhine were taken at 42 locations. Measurements were compared to a two parameter model with regional demographic data as main input. For 12 out of the 21 studied pharmaceuticals, a significant dominant demographic group could be identified. For 3 out of these 12 pharmaceuticals the male elderly were the most contributing demographic group. A Monte Carlo analysis showed a high level of significance for the results of this study (p < 0.01). By combining environmental water quality data and demographic data, better insight was gained in the interplay between humans and their environment, showing the medicinal footprint of the population of the Rhine basin. © 2013 IOP Publishing Ltd. Source

Ahmadzadeh Kokya T.,University of Tehran | Pejman A.H.,University of Tehran | Mahin Abdollahzadeh E.,University of Tehran | Ahmadzadeh Kokya B.,Water Laboratory | Nazariha M.,University of Tehran
International Journal of Environmental Research | Year: 2011

In this study some thermodynamic parameters including freezing point, boiling point and the vapor pressure of Urmia Lake salt water were investigated as some important environmentally monitored physicochemical properties of Urmia Lake. In this regard salt concentration is chiefly responsible for the modification of the thermodynamic properties of Urmia Lake water which affects its overall environmental and ecological characteristics. On the other hand, the Urmia Lake is now supposed to be the most convenient place for many rare aquatic species and therefore interpreted to be unique from the viewpoint of qualitative characteristics. For the goals of this study water sampling and analysis where performed in two wet and dry periods of the lake in order to represent the extremes of the lake's environmental variability. Prevailing chemical ions in the water body were determined and used for the estimation of the relative thermodynamic coefficients of salt water for the acquisition of the freezing point, boiling point and the vapor pressure of the Urmia Lake water. Interpolated calibration curves were plotted for the changes in the studied parameters versus a variety of salt concentrations indicating a linear relationship between the investigated parameters and the prevailing salt concentration of the Urmia Lake. The calibration curves were then formulated to simplify the estimation of the thermodynamic parameters of the Urmia Lake for any salinity conditions. Real sample analysis also showed a very good agreement between the estimated and observed values. Source

Lekkerkerker-Teunissen K.,Dunea Duin en Water | Lekkerkerker-Teunissen K.,Technical University of Delft | Knol A.H.,Dunea Duin en Water | Derks J.G.,Technical University of Delft | And 4 more authors.
Water Quality Technology Conference and Exposition 2010 | Year: 2010

Dunea duin en water, the water company for The Hague and surroundings, has an objective of producing drinking water of impeccable quality, particularly with respect to organic micropollutans (OMPs). OMPs are only a minor part of the total natural organic matter (NOM) in raw water, posing a challenge in targeting removal of a very small, specific part of the NOM, without removing all of the NOM. In addition, OMPs encompass a broad field of physicochemical properties, which make their removal by a single treatment step difficult. By combining AOP with ARR, two complementary processes are expected to provide a synergistic hybrid system for removal of OMPs, according to the Dutch multiple barrier approach. Dunea produces drinking water from the Meuse River, which contains a variety of organic micropollutants as a result of upstream activity. Dunea is performing research to extend the current multiple barrier treatment (consisting of pre-treatment, artificial recharge and recovery (ARR), post-treatment) with advanced oxidation processes (AOP) via UV and hydrogen peroxide, situated at the pre-treatment location in Bergambacht, before ARR. The degradation of organic micropollutants as a result of advanced oxidation using low pressure (LP) and medium pressure (MP) mercury vapour ultraviolet lamps has been assessed by means of pilot-scale (5 m3/h) experiments using river water pre-treated by dual media rapid sand filtration. The UV doses were varied between 400 and 800 mJ/cm2, the peroxide dose were varied as 0, 5 and 10 ppm. Atrazine, Bromacil, Ibuprofen and NDMA were spiked (10-20 μg/L) and used as model compounds. Both lamp types obtained over the year an average atrazine degradation of 72% for LP and 75% for MP lamps. The installed power for the LP reactor was 0.26 kWh/m3 and for the MP reactor 0.88 kWh/m3. The electrical energy per order, the amount of energy to achieve 1 log reduction, was calculated for atrazine as 0.45 kWh/m3 for the LP reactor and 1.45 kWh/m3 for the MP reactor. In addition, in case of LP lamps the formation of nitrite can be considered negligible while in case of MP lamps nitrite levels increased up to 0.6 mg/l NO2-. 2010 © American Water Works Association WQTC Conference Proceedings All Rights Reserved. Source

Bertelkamp C.,Technical University of Delft | Lekkerkerker-Teunissen K.,Technical University of Delft | Knol A.H.,Dunea Duin en Water | Verberk J.Q.J.C.,Technical University of Delft | And 2 more authors.
Water Quality Technology Conference and Exposition 2010 | Year: 2010

Dunea Duin en Water, a drinking water company in South Holland the Netherlands, wants to provide a multiple barrier treatment against organic micro pollutants (OMPs). Dunea considers extending its surface water pre-treatment, consisting of coagulation, micro straining and dual media rapid filters, with an advanced oxidation process (AOP), consisting of UV and hydrogen peroxide. The rapid sand filtrate has a low UV transmission which is an indication for high energy consumption during AOP and probably more by-product formation including AOC and nitrite. To overcome this problem two different pre-treatment techniques were compared: granular activated carbon filtration (GAC) and ion exchange (IEX). The main objective of this comparison study was to determine the effect of different pre-treatment techniques on the conversion of OMPs in the AOP installation. Furthermore, it was tried to assess the advantages and limitations of the two pre-treatment techniques. Both pre-treatment techniques showed an increase in conversion of the OMPs which was mainly caused by the lower DOC concentration obtained with pre-treatment. The maximal energy savings for GAC pre-treatment with MP lamps were 0.76 kWh/m3 = 0.06 €/m 3 which was insufficient to compensate for the fixed and operational costs of GAC pretreatment 0.56 €/m3. These energy savings were obtained for a very low DOC concentration of 0.24 mg/L C, implying high operational costs for regeneration, and no other scavengers were removed with GAC pre-treatment. Ion exchange showed the most promising results, a DOC concentration of 2.2 -2.3 mg/L was obtained for about 37.500 BV. For this DOC concentration the maximal energy savings were 0.58 kWh/m3 = 0.05 €/m3. The total costs for IEX are 0.07 €/m3. It was concluded that IEX pre-treatment for the AOP installation at Dunea is not feasible from an economical perspective. In addition, the nitrite formation does not seem to be advantageous compared to the situation without pre-treatment. Scavengers are removed in the first few BV but subsequently show desorption. Since the IEX columns are not operated simultaneously the positive effect of the removal of certain scavengers in the first few BV will smoothen and therefore will not make a significant difference. In case the positive effect of the removal of certain scavengers is preserved this will lead to higher regeneration frequencies of the resin implying higher operational costs. IEX pre-treatment would only be a viable option in case: - the costs of IEX treatment (processing the brine) would decrease - if less AOC is formed than without IEX pre-treatment - if the requirement of 80% atrazine conversion is not reached without IEX pretreatment - or if it is decided to completely refurbish the current pre-treatment. 2010 © American Water Works Association WQTC Conference Proceedings All Rights Reserved. Source

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