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Burt J.,University of Windsor | Burt J.,Abu Dhabi University | Feary D.,Water Health International | Usseglio P.,Water Health International | And 2 more authors.
Bulletin of Marine Science | Year: 2010

Breakwaters dominate shorelines in many coastal urban areas, providing substantial hard-bottom habitat upon which diverse and abundant reef communities develop. In recognition of their potential ecological and economic importance, there is increasing interest in understanding how design features can influence community development. We investigated the influence of wave exposure on breakwater coral communities in Dubai, United Arab Emirates. Coral community composition, cover, size structure, recruitment, mortality, and growth rates were compared quarterly between two windward and two leeward breakwater sites for 1 yr to explore the influence of wave exposure on coral community development. Comparisons also were made with a natural coral reef to gain an understanding of how community structure and dynamics compare between these habitats. Benthic and water column sediment particle sizes were also analyzed. Leeward breakwaters contained a low-cover coral community dominated by small colonies with high mortality compared with windward breakwaters and the natural reef. Windward breakwater coral communities had comparable recruitment, mortality, and growth rates as the natural reef. Fine sediments (< 63 μm) dominated the benthos and water column on leeward breakwaters, while windward breakwaters and the natural reef were dominated by sediments with larger size classes (> 125 μm), likely as a result of differences in wave action among reef types. Overall, these results suggest that leeward breakwaters represent sub-optimal habitats for coral community development. However, with appropriate design, breakwaters can develop diverse and abundant coral communities with comparable coral cover, demographics, and growth rates to those on the natural reef in Dubai. © 2010 Rosenstiel School of Marine and Atmospheric Science of the University of Miami.

PubMed | University of Sydney, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, Water Health International, Cyprus University of Technology and University of Groningen
Type: | Journal: Environment international | Year: 2015

The high reactivity of bisphenol A (BPA) with disinfectant chlorine is evident in the instantaneous formation of chlorinated BPA derivatives (ClxBPA) in various environmental media that show increased estrogen-activity when compared with that of BPA. The documented health risks associated with BPA exposures have led to the gradual market entry of BPA structural analogs, such as bisphenol S (BPS), bisphenol F (BPF), bisphenol B (BPB), etc. A suite of exposure sources to ClxBPA and BPA analogs in the domestic environment is anticipated to drive the nature and range of halogenated BPA derivatives that can form when residual BPA comes in contact with disinfectant in tap water and/or consumer products. The primary objective of this review was to survey all available studies reporting biomonitoring protocols of ClxBPA and structural BPA analogs (BPS, BPF, BPB, etc.) in human matrices. Focus was paid on describing the analytical methodologies practiced for the analysis of ClxBPA and BPA analogs using hyphenated chromatography and mass spectrometry techniques, because current methodologies for human matrices are complex. During the last decade, an increasing number of ecotoxicological, cell-culture and animal-based and human studies dealing with ClxBPA exposure sources and routes of exposure, metabolism and toxicity have been published. Up to date findings indicated the association of ClxBPA with metabolic conditions, such as obesity, lipid accumulation, and type 2 diabetes mellitus, particularly in in-vitro and in-vivo studies. We critically discuss the limitations, research needs and future opportunities linked with the inclusion of ClxBPA and BPA analogs into exposure assessment protocols of relevant epidemiological studies.

Scheierling S.M.,The World Bank | Mara D.D.,University of Leeds | Drechsel P.,Water Health International
Water International | Year: 2011

This paper sets out the trends and challenges of wastewater use in agriculture; identifies the risks and benefits of wastewater irrigation; describes the risk-assessment and management framework adopted by the World Health Organization, the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations and other international and national organizations; and proposes measures for applying the framework to reduce health risks by moving from unplanned to a planned, integrated, approach to wastewater use for irrigation. © 2011 International Water Resources Association.

PubMed | Cyprus University of Technology and Water Health International
Type: | Journal: The Science of the total environment | Year: 2014

Changes in disinfectant type could trigger a cascade of reactions releasing pipe-anchored metals/metalloids into finished water. However, the effect of pre-formed disinfection by-products on the release of sorbed contaminants (arsenic-As in particular) from drinking water distribution system pipe scales remains unexplored. A bench-scale study using a factorial experimental design was performed to evaluate the independent and interaction effects of trihalomethanes (TTHM) and haloacetic acids (HAA) on arsenic (As) release from either scales-only or scale-biofilm conglomerates (SBC) both anchored on asbestos/cement pipe coupons. A model biofilm (Pseudomonas aeruginosa) was allowed to grow on select pipe coupons prior experimentation. Either TTHM or HAA individual dosing did not promote As release from either scales only or SBC, detecting <6 g AsL(-1) in finished water. In the case of scales-only coupons, the combination of the highest spike level of TTHM and HAA significantly (p<0.001) increased dissolved and total As concentrations to levels up to 16 and 95 g L(-1), respectively. Similar treatments in the presence of biofilm (SBC) resulted in significant (p<0.001) increase in dissolved and total recoverable As up to 20 and 47 g L(-1), respectively, exceeding the regulatory As limit. Whether or not, our laboratory-based results truly represent mechanisms operating in disinfected finished water in pipe networks remains to be investigated in the field.

PubMed | Cyprus University of Technology and Water Health International
Type: Journal Article | Journal: The Science of the total environment | Year: 2015

Non-iodo-containing trihalomethanes (TTHM) are frequently detected in chlorinated tap water and currently regulated against their carcinogenic potential. Iodinated THM (ITHM) may also form in disinfected with chlorine waters that are high in iodine content, but little is known about their magnitude and variability within the drinking-water pipe distribution network of urban areas. The main objective of this study was to determine the magnitude and variability of ITHM and TTHM levels and their corresponding daily intake estimates within the drinking water distribution systems of Limassol and Nicosia cities of Cyprus, using tap samples collected from individual households (n=37). In Limassol, mean household tap water ITHM and TTHM levels was 0.58 and 38 g L(-1), respectively. Dichloroiodomethane (DCIM) was the dominant species of the two measured ITHM compounds accounting for 77% of total ITHM and in the range of 0.032 and 1.65 g L(-1). The range of DCIM concentrations in Nicosia tap water samples was narrower (0.032 - 0.848 g L(-1)). Mean total iodine concentration in tap water samples from the seaside city of Limassol was 15 g L(-1) and approximately twice to those observed in samples from the mainland Nicosia city. However, iodine concentrations did not correlate with the ITHM levels. The calculated chronic daily intake rates of ITHM were low when compared with those of TTHM, but because of their widespread occurrence in tap water and their enhanced mammalian cell toxicity, additional research is warranted to assess the magnitude and variability of human ITHM exposures.

Water Health International | Entity website

Pandula Venkateshwaramma lives in Kothuru Village with her aged mother in law, her two children and her husband. In addition to looking after her family, she is also the President of the womens Self Help Group - Sanjiveni ...

Water Health International | Entity website

Pandula Venkateshwaramma lives in Kothuru Village with her aged mother in law, her two children and her husband. In addition to looking after her family, she is also the President of the womens Self Help Group - Sanjiveni ...

PubMed | Center for Research and Technology Hellas, Cyprus University of Technology and Water Health International
Type: | Journal: Environmental research | Year: 2014

Domestic cleaning has been proposed as a determinant of trihalomethanes (THMs) exposure in adult females. We hypothesized that parental housekeeping activities could influence childrens passive exposures to THMs from their mere physical presence during domestic cleaning. In a recent cross-sectional study (n = 382) in Cyprus [41 children (< 18 y) and 341 adults ( 18 y)], we identified 29 children who met the studys inclusion criteria. Linear regression models were applied to understand the association between children sociodemographic variables, their individual practices influencing ingestion and noningestion exposures to THMs, and their urinary THMs levels. Among the children-specific variables, age alone showed a statistically significant inverse association with their creatinine-adjusted urinary THMs (rS = -0.59, p < 0.001). A positive correlation was observed between urinary THMs (ng g(-1)) of children and matched-mothers (rS = 0.52, p = 0.014), but this was not the case for their matched-fathers (rS = 0.39, p = 0.112). Time spent daily by the matched-mothers for domestic mopping, toilet and other cleaning activities using chlorine-based cleaning products was associated with their childrens urinary THMs levels (rS = 0.56, p = 0.007). This trend was not observed between children and their matched-fathers urinary THMs levels, because of minimum amount of time spent by the latter in performing domestic cleaning. The proportion of variance of creatinine-unadjusted and adjusted urinary THMs levels in children that was explained by the matched-mothers covariates was 76% and 74% (p < 0.001), respectively. A physiologically-based pharmacokinetic model adequately predicted urinary chloroform excretion estimates, being consistent with the corresponding measured levels. Our findings highlighted the influence of mothers domestic cleaning activities towards enhancing passive THMs exposures of their children. The duration of such activities could be further tested as a valid indicator of childrens THMs body burden.

News Article | September 20, 2011

Electrical technology and solutions provider Emco Ltd has appointed Sanjay Bhatnagar, former head of Enron South Asia, as independent director on the board, the company has disclosed in a statement to the Bombay Stock Exchange on Tuesday. Incorporated in 1964, Emco is into electrical technology and solutions in the transmission and distribution segment of the power sector. The company has five manufacturing plants across India. Bhatnagar is currently serving as the chief executive officer of Water Health International, which provides decentralised water purification solutions and focuses on providing community water solutions to the undeserved population across the globe. He is also a non-executive director on the board of the infrastructure firm Punj Lloyd. In January 2001, Bhatnagar had founded Thot Capital, a New York-based private equity firm. However, not much is known about the PE firm’s investments. Prior to joining Water Health, he was the CEO of Enron Broadband Services for the Middle East and Asia, based in Singapore. He had also served as chairman and CEO of Enron South Asia. Earlier, Bhatnagar had worked with Schlumberger as an engineer and manager, and operated in several countries.

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