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Sparkman D.,Water for People
Water and Wastewater International | Year: 2011

The wastewater challenges in Bolivia, a region with over 60% of the population lacking adequate sanitation, including a case study of the peri-urban Cochabamba region and a new approach to sanitation involving the private sector, are discussed. various organizations have built thousands of toilets in Bolivia for the last fifty years, and despite these efforts, less than 10% of rural Bolivians have safe, private toilets to take care of their needs. District 9 (D-9), a peri-urban area of Cochabamba where Water For People-Bolivia (WFP-B) is working has growth rates of nearly 10% per year and an estimated 90% practice open defecation. Results from the market analysis indicated that a smartly designed, non-water using, composting toilet could fulfil the needs of the current market in District 9. Throughout the peri-urban areas, WFP-B worked with local masons to build 10 elevated twin-pit composting toilets and arranged for funding.

Sugden S.,Water for People
Waterlines | Year: 2013

There is a lot more to designing a pit-emptying device than the technical, engineeringbased aspects. In order for a device to be successful it needs to be profitably manufactured, readily available, and actually be purchased by businesses that use it to make a living. The designer is caught between two immovable issues. On the one hand, the more complicated the technology's design the more it will cost, the more difficult it will be to manufacture in the country where it is to be used, and the harder it will be to establish a supply chain. On the other hand, the simpler the device the less power it will have, the less likely it is that it will be capable of removing heavy sludge, and the less successful it will be at providing a pit-emptying solution. The complexity of the problems are compounded by the fragmented, weak, and informal nature of the pit-emptying profession. This paper explores the issues around developing pit-emptying devices that meet both the needs and the constraints of the marketplace. © Practical Action Publishing, 2013.

Sorensen J.P.R.,British Geological Survey | Sadhu A.,The Green Office | Sampath G.,The Green Office | Sugden S.,Water for People | And 4 more authors.
Water Research | Year: 2016

Open defecation is practised by over 600 million people in India and there is a strong political drive to eliminate this through the provision of on-site sanitation in rural areas. However, there are concerns that the subsequent leaching of excreta from subsurface storage could be adversely impacting underlying groundwater resources upon which rural populations are almost completely dependent for domestic water supply. We investigated this link in four villages undergoing sanitary interventions in Bihar State, India. A total of 150 supplies were sampled for thermotolerant (faecal) coliforms (TTC) and tryptophan-like fluorescence (TLF): an emerging real-time indicator of faecal contamination. Sanitary risk inspections were also performed at all sites, including whether a supply was located within 10 m of a toilet, the recommended minimum separation. Overall, 18% of water supplies contained TTCs, 91% of which were located within 10 m of a toilet, 58% had TLF above detection limit, and sanitary risk scores were high. Statistical analysis demonstrated TLF was an effective indicator of TTC presence-absence, with a possibility of TTCs only where TLF exceeded 0.4 μg/L dissolved tryptophan. Analysis also indicated proximity to a toilet was the only significant sanitary risk factor predicting TTC presence-absence and the most significant predictor of TLF. Faecal contamination was considered a result of individual water supply vulnerability rather than indicative of widespread leaching into the aquifer. Therefore, increasing faecal contamination of groundwater-derived potable supplies is inevitable across the country as uptake of on-site sanitation intensifies. Communities need to be aware of this link and implement suitable decentralised low-cost treatment of water prior to consumption and improve the construction and protection of new supplies. © 2015 British Geological Survey, NERC.

The dominant paradigm in rural water provision in Bolivia has focused on the provision of infrastructure, whether by government agencies or international cooperation groups. However, the investment in infrastructure has led neither to universal access for all Bolivians nor to consistently high levels of services for those who do have access to a water system. This paper will describe the transition of one international non-profit organisation, Water For People, from supporting dispersed water projects throughout the country towards targeted support of water services at the municipal level, aiming to support permanent universal services. The institutional evolution - including changes in governance, implementation strategy, donor base, and indicators of success - that allowed field programmes to shift from projects to services provides the context for the change of approach in Bolivia. A discussion of the various aspects that have changed in the organisation's operations in seven municipalities in Bolivia, from the scale of intervention, to municipal-wide planning information and tools, to support to service providers and service authorities, and an increased focus on post-construction monitoring, demonstrates how the Everyone, Forever approach is resulting in a more service- delivery-oriented approach in Bolivia.

Radford J.T.,Mott MacDonald Ltd. | Malinga S.,Water for People | Drummond G.,Sanitation Solutions Group | Atayo H.,Water for People | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Water Sanitation and Hygiene for Development | Year: 2015

A simple and low-cost test to measure the physical strength of faecal sludge simulants is presented and used in the development of improved desludging pumps in Kampala, Uganda. The technical performance of two variants of the Gulper manual pump have for the first time been quantitatively assessed under controlled conditions. The time taken to prime and the average flow rate in the following 30 seconds are reported for both pumps on two different strengths of faecal sludge, demonstrating a distinct improvement in the redesigned Gulper II. This pump is now undergoing field trials across East Africa with a view to it being marketed and sold to pit-emptying entrepreneurs by Sanitation Solutions Group. © IWA Publishing 2015.

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