Water and Soil Quality Research Group

Sant Jordi Desvalls, Spain

Water and Soil Quality Research Group

Sant Jordi Desvalls, Spain
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Corcellas C.,Water and Soil Quality Research Group | Andreu A.,CSIC - Doñana Biological Station | Manez M.,CSIC - Doñana Biological Station | Sergio F.,CSIC - Doñana Biological Station | And 4 more authors.
Environmental Pollution | Year: 2017

Recent studies demonstrated that the common pyrethroid insecticides are present in aquatic biota tissues. In this study, 123 samples of unhatched eggs of 16 wild bird species collected from 2010 to 2012 in Doñana National and Natural Park were analysed to determine 13 pyrethroids. This study represents the first time that pyrethroids are detected in tissues of terrestrial biota, 93% of these samples being positive to those pollutants. Levels of total pyrethroids ranged from not detected to 324 ng g−1 lw. The samples were characterized by stable isotope analysis. Species with diets based on anthropogenic food showed higher levels of pyrethroids and lower values of δ15N. Finally, we characterized the isomers of pyrethroids and discerned some isomeric- and enantiomeric-specific accumulations. In particular, tetramethrin and cyhalothrin showed an enantiomeric-selective accumulation of one enantiomer, highlighting the need to assess toxicological effects of each enantiomer separately to be able to make a correct risk assessment of pyrethroids in birds. © 2017 Elsevier Ltd


Pignotti E.,Bologna UniversityBranch Office Ravenna | Farre M.,Water and Soil Quality Research Group | Barcelo D.,Water and Soil Quality Research Group | Barcelo D.,Catalan Institute for Water Research | Dinelli E.,Bologna UniversityBranch Office Ravenna
Environmental Science and Pollution Research | Year: 2017

Endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) are a wide group of contaminants of emerging concern known to be harmful for organisms. The aim of the study was to assess the occurrence and distribution of six EDCs (estrone—E1, ß-estradiol—E2, 17α-ethinylestradiol—EE2, bisphenol A—BPA, perfluooctanoic acid—PFOA, perfluorooctane sulfonate—PFOS) in the Apenninic rivers and groundwaters of the Romagna area (North of Italy). Groundwaters were unaffected by EDC contamination, while all classes of compounds were detected at concentrations above the method quantification limit (MQL) in the majority of the river bodies. In detail, PFOA and PFOS concentrations varied between


Acena J.,Water and Soil Quality Research Group | Perez S.,Water and Soil Quality Research Group | Eichhorn P.,Water and Soil Quality Research Group | Sole M.,Science 37 | Barcelo D.,Water and Soil Quality Research Group
Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry | Year: 2017

The widespread occurrence of pharmaceuticals in the aquatic environment has raised concerns about potential adverse effects on exposed wildlife. Very little is currently known on exposure levels and clearance mechanisms of drugs in marine fish. Within this context, our research was focused on the identification of main metabolic reactions, generated metabolites, and caused effects after exposure of fish to carbamazepine (CBZ) and ibuprofen (IBU). To this end, juveniles of Solea senegalensis acclimated to two temperature regimes of 15 and 20 °C for 60 days received a single intraperitoneal dose of these drugs. A control group was administered the vehicle (sunflower oil). Bile samples were analyzed by ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography–high-resolution mass spectrometry on a Q Exactive (Orbitrap) system, allowing to propose plausible identities for 11 metabolites of CBZ and 13 metabolites of IBU in fish bile. In case of CBZ metabolites originated from aromatic and benzylic hydroxylation, epoxidation, and ensuing O-glucuronidation, O-methylation of a catechol-like metabolite was also postulated. Ibuprofen, in turn, formed multiple hydroxyl metabolites, O-glucuronides, and (hydroxyl)-acyl glucuronides, in addition to several taurine conjugates. Enzymatic responses after drug exposures revealed a water temperature-dependent induction of microsomal carboxylesterases. The metabolite profiling in fish bile provides an important tool for pharmaceutical exposure assessment. [Figure not available: see fulltext.] © 2017 The Author(s)


Eljarrat E.,Water and Soil Quality Research Group | Gorga M.,Water and Soil Quality Research Group | Gasser M.,Ramon Llull University | Diaz-Ferrero J.,Ramon Llull University | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry | Year: 2014

A study was performed to assess exposure of the Spanish population to hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD). Based on consumption data statistics, food items from six food groups, i.e., fish and seafood, meat, animal fat, dairy products, eggs, and vegetable oils, were sampled and analyzed for HBCD followed by per capita intake calculations. The highest levels of HBCD were found in the fish and seafood samples (mean value of 11.6 ng/g lw), followed by meat samples (mean value of 2.68 ng/g lw), eggs (mean value of 1.75 ng/g lw), dairy products (mean value of 0.78 ng/g lw), animal fat (mean value of 0.74 ng/g lw), and vegetable oils (mean value of 0.45 ng/g lw). The daily ingestion rate of HBCD was estimated at 2.58 ng (kg of body weight)-1 day-1. HBCD mainly came from fish and seafood (56%), but also dairy products (14%) and meat (12%) contributed. © 2014 American Chemical Society.


Gros M.,Catalan Institute for Water Research | Gros M.,CSIRO | Cruz-Morato C.,Autonomous University of Barcelona | Marco-Urrea E.,Autonomous University of Barcelona | And 8 more authors.
Water Research | Year: 2014

This paper describes the degradation of the X-ray contrast agent iopromide (IOP) and the antibiotic ofloxacin (OFLOX) by the white-rot-fungus Trametes versicolor. Batch studies in synthetic medium revealed that between 60 and 80% of IOP and OFLOX were removed when spiked at approximately 12mgL-1 and 10mgL-1, respectively. A significant number of transformation products (TPs) were identified for both pharmaceuticals, confirming their degradation. IOP TPs were attributed to two principal reactions: (i) sequential deiodination of the aromatic ring and (ii) N-dealkylation of the amide at the hydroxylated side chain of the molecule. On the other hand, OFLOX transformation products were attributed mainly to the oxidation, hydroxylation and cleavage of the piperazine ring.Experiments in 10L-bioreactor with fungal biomass fluidized by air pulses operated in batch achieved high percentage of degradation of IOP and OFLOX when load with sterile (87% IOP, 98.5% OFLOX) and unsterile (65.4% IOP, 99% OFLOX) hospital wastewater (HWW) at their real concentration (μgL-1 level). Some of the most relevant IOP and OFLOX TPs identified in synthetic medium were also detected in bioreactor samples. Acute toxicity tests indicated a reduction of the toxicity in the final culture broth from both experiments in synthetic medium and in batch bioreactor. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.


PubMed | University of Barcelona, Water and Soil Quality Research Group, Catalan Institution for Research and Advanced Studies, University of Valencia and 2 more.
Type: | Journal: Environmental pollution (Barking, Essex : 1987) | Year: 2016

Land use type, physical and chemical stressors, and organic microcontaminants were investigated for their effects on the biological communities (biofilms and invertebrates) in several Mediterranean rivers. The diversity of invertebrates, and the scores of the first principal component of a PCA performed with the diatom communities were the best descriptors of the distribution patterns of the biological communities against the river stressors. These two metrics decreased according to the progressive site impairment (associated to higher area of agricultural and urban-industrial, high water conductivity, higher dissolved organic carbon and dissolved inorganic nitrogen concentrations, and higher concentration of organic microcontaminants, particularly pharmaceutical and industrial compounds). The variance partition analyses (RDAs) attributed the major share (10%) of the biological communities response to the environmental stressors (nutrients, altered discharge, dissolved organic matter), followed by the land use occupation (6%) and of the organic microcontaminants (2%). However, the variance shared by the three groups of descriptors was very high (41%), indicating that their simultaneous occurrence determined most of the variation in the biological communities.


Acuna V.,Catalan Institute for Water Research | von Schiller D.,Catalan Institute for Water Research | Garcia-Galan M.J.,Catalan Institute for Water Research | Rodriguez-Mozaz S.,Catalan Institute for Water Research | And 9 more authors.
Science of the Total Environment | Year: 2014

A multitude of pharmaceuticals enter surface waters via discharges of wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), and many raise environmental and health concerns. Chemical fate models predict their concentrations using estimates of mass loading, dilution and in-stream attenuation. However, current comprehension of the attenuation rates remains a limiting factor for predictive models. We assessed in-stream attenuation of 75 pharmaceuticals in 4 river segments, aiming to characterize in-stream attenuation variability among different pharmaceutical compounds, as well as among river segments differing in environmental conditions. Our study revealed that in-stream attenuation was highly variable among pharmaceuticals and river segments and that none of the considered pharmaceutical physicochemical and molecular properties proved to be relevant in determining the mean attenuation rates. Instead, the octanol-water partition coefficient (. Kow) influenced the variability of rates among river segments, likely due to its effect on sorption to sediments and suspended particles, and therefore influencing the balance between the different attenuation mechanisms (biotransformation, photolysis, sorption, and volatilization). The magnitude of the measured attenuation rates urges scientists to consider them as important as dilution when aiming to predict concentrations in freshwater ecosystems. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.


Acena J.,Water and Soil Quality Research Group | Stampachiacchiere S.,University of Rome La Sapienza | Perez S.,Water and Soil Quality Research Group | Barcelo D.,Water and Soil Quality Research Group | Barcelo D.,Catalan Institute for Water Research
Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry | Year: 2015

This review summarizes the advances in environmental analysis by liquid chromatography–high-resolution mass spectrometry (LC–HRMS) during the last decade and discusses different aspects of their application. LC–HRMS has become a powerful tool for simultaneous quantitative and qualitative analysis of organic pollutants, enabling their quantitation and the search for metabolites and transformation products or the detection of unknown compounds. LC–HRMS provides more information than low-resolution (LR) MS for each sample because it can accurately determine the mass of the molecular ion and its fragment ions if it can be used for MS–MS. Another advantage is that the data can be processed using either target analysis, suspect screening, retrospective analysis, or non-target screening. With the growing popularity and acceptance of HRMS analysis, current guidelines for compound confirmation need to be revised for quantitative and qualitative purposes. Furthermore, new commercial software and user-built libraries are required to mine data in an efficient and comprehensive way. The scope of this critical review is not to provide a comprehensive overview of the many studies performed with LC–HRMS in the field of environmental analysis, but to reveal its advantages and limitations using different workflows. © 2015 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg


Lucas D.,Catalan Institute for Water Research | Barcelo D.,Catalan Institute for Water Research | Barcelo D.,Water and Soil Quality Research Group | Rodriguez-Mozaz S.,Catalan Institute for Water Research
Science of the Total Environment | Year: 2016

The elimination of 81 pharmaceuticals (PhACs) by means of a biological treatment based on the fungus Trametes versicolor was evaluated in this work. PhAC removal studied in different types of wastewaters (urban, reverse osmosis concentrate, hospital, and veterinary hospital wastewaters) were reviewed and compared with conventional activated sludge (CAS) treatment. In addition, hazard indexes were calculated based on the exposure levels and ecotoxicity for each compound and used for the evaluation of the contaminants removal. PhAC elimination achieved with the fungal treatment (mean value 76%) was similar or slightly worse than the elimination achieved in the CAS treatment (85%). However, the fungal reactor was superior in removing more hazardous compounds (antibiotics and psychiatric drugs) than the conventional activated sludge in terms of environmental risk reduction (93% and 53% of reduction respectively). Fungal treatment can thus be considered as a good alternative to conventional treatment technologies for the elimination of PhACs from wastewaters. © 2016 Elsevier B.V.


Feo M.L.,Water and Soil Quality Research Group | Baron E.,Water and Soil Quality Research Group | Aga D.S.,State University of New York at Buffalo | Eljarrat E.,Water and Soil Quality Research Group | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Chromatography A | Year: 2013

Recently, hydroxylated polybrominated diphenyl ethers (OH-PBDEs) have emerged as environmentally relevant pollutants due to recent reports of their natural production and metabolism. Recent mechanistic studies in human and rats have shown that some OH-PBDEs are more potent than parent compounds (PBDEs) and may contribute substantially to neurodevelopmental disorders by direct neurotoxicity, or indirectly through altered thyroid disruption. However, analytical methodologies for determination of OH-PBDEs are currently limited. In this study a robust liquid chromatography-electrospray tandem triple quadrupole-linear ion trap mass spectrometer (LC-ESI-QqLIT-MS-MS) in negative mode method was developed for the determination of eleven OH-tri- to OH-hexa-PBDEs. Two different columns were tested and compared for chromatographic separation: a C18 BetaBasic and a Purospher STAR RP 18, working at pH 8 and 10, respectively. Mobile phase (acetonitrile:water) was optimized by changing the pH of the aqueous phase and the concentration of the organic modifier (methanol). The MS-MS parameters (declustering potential (DP), collision energy (CE) and cell exit potential (CXP)) were optimized. Selected reaction monitoring (SRM) was used in order to increase sensitivity. Two SRM transitions ([M-H]->[Br]-) were selected for each OH-PBDE, one for quantification and the second one for confirmation. Under the optimized conditions, the instrumental limits of detection were between 0.17 and 0.72injectedpg. The method provided good linearity (r>0.99 for a concentration range of 0.30-100ng/mL), accuracy and precision (%Dev and %RSD≤20% for intra- and inter-assays). © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

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