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East Sahuarita, AZ, United States

Ramirez D.M.,University of Arizona | Ramirez-Andreotta M.D.,Water and Environmental Science | Vea L.,Sonora Environmental Research Institute Inc | Estrella-Sanchez R.,University of Arizona | And 4 more authors.
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health | Year: 2015

Government-led pollution prevention programs tend to focus on large businesses due to their potential to pollute larger quantities, therefore leaving a gap in programs targeting small and home-based businesses. In light of this gap, we set out to determine if a voluntary, peer education approach led by female, Hispanic community health workers (promotoras) can influence small and home-based businesses to implement pollution prevention strategies on-site. This paper describes a partnership between promotoras from a non-profit organization and researchers from a university working together to reach these businesses in a predominately Hispanic area of Tucson, Arizona. From 2008 to 2011, the promotora-led pollution prevention program reached a total of 640 small and home-based businesses. Program activities include technical trainings for promotoras and businesses, generation of culturally and language appropriate educational materials, and face-to-face peer education via multiple on-site visits. To determine the overall effectiveness of the program, surveys were used to measure best practices implemented on-site, perceptions towards pollution prevention, and overall satisfaction with the industry-specific trainings. This paper demonstrates that promotoras can promote the implementation of pollution prevention best practices by Hispanic small and home-based businesses considered “hard-to-reach” by government-led programs. © 2015 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.

Springer A.C.,Saguaro National Park | Swann D.E.,Saguaro National Park | Crimmins M.A.,Water and Environmental Science
Journal of Arid Environments | Year: 2015

Severe freeze events have been identified as a primary limiting factor for the saguaro cactus at high elevations in the southwestern United States. With the observed increase in minimum temperatures, it may be expected that saguaros will expand their elevational range. To better understand the factors influencing potential range expansion, we developed a logistic regression model to help explain saguaro presence along its current uppermost elevation. We find that the occurrence of fire decreases the odds of saguaro presence by 78 percent. While less frequent freeze events could allow saguaros to push their current elevational limit, our model suggests that increased fire activity related to the establishment and spread of invasive species could inhibit this range expansion. © 2015.

Jardine K.J.,University of Arizona | Sommer E.D.,University of Arizona | Harley P.C.,U.S. National Center for Atmospheric Research | Abrell L.,Water and Environmental Science
Environmental Science and Technology | Year: 2010

Pyruvic acid, central to leaf carbon metabolism, is a precursor of many volatile organic compounds (VOCs) that impact air quality and climate. Although the pathways involved in the production of isoprenoids are well-known, those of several oxygenated VOCs remain uncertain. We present concentration and flux measurements of pyruvic acid and other VOCs within the tropical rainforest (TRF) biome at Biosphere 2. Pyruvic acid concentrations varied diurnally with midday maxima up to 15 ppbv, perhaps due to enhanced production rates and suppression of mitochondrial respiration in the light. Branch fluxes and ambient concentrations of pyruvic acid correlated with those of acetone, acetaldehyde, ethanol, acetic acid, isoprene, monoterpenes, and sesquiterpenes. While pyruvic acid is a known substrate for isoprenoid synthesis, this correlation suggests that the oxygenated VOCs may also derive from pyruvic acid, an idea supported by leaf feeding experiments with sodium pyruvate which resulted in large enhancements in emissions of both isoprenoids and oxygenated VOCs. While feeding with sodium pyruvate-2-13C resulted in large emissions of both 13C-labeled isoprenoids and oxygenated VOCs, feeding with sodium pyruvate-1-l3C resulted in only relabeled isoprenoids. This suggests that acetaldehyde, ethanol, and acetic acid are produced from pyruvic acid via the pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) bypass system (in which the 1-C carbon of pyruvic acid is lost as CO2) and that acetone is also derived from the decarboxylation of pyruvic acid. © 2010 American Chemical Society.

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