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Mostafa S.S.M.,Water and Environment Research Institute | El-Gendy N.Sh.,Egyptian Petroleum Research Institute
Arabian Journal of Chemistry | Year: 2013

Biodiesel is an attractive alternative fuel for diesel engines due to its technical, environmental and strategic advantages. The most widely produced biodiesel is the esters of vegetable oils, animal fats or waste cooking oils. In this study, the feasibility of biodiesel production from microalga Spirulina platensis has been investigated. The physico-chemical characteristics of the produced biodiesel were studied according to the standards methods of analysis (ASTM) and evaluated according to their fuel properties as compared to Egyptian petro-diesel. Blends of microalgae biodiesel and petro-diesel (B2, B5, B10 and B20) were prepared on a volume basis and their physico-chemical characteristics have been also studied. The obtained results showed that; with the increase of biodiesel concentration in the blends; the viscosity, density, total acid number, initial boiling point, calorific value, flash point, cetane number and diesel index increase. While the pour point, cloud point, carbon residue and sulfur, ash and water contents decrease. The observed properties of the blends were within the recommended petro-diesel standard specifications and they are in favor of better engine performance. © 2013.

Salem Attia T.M.,Tongji University | Salem Attia T.M.,Water and Environment Research Institute | Hu X.L.,Tongji University | Yin D.Q.,Tongji University
Chemosphere | Year: 2013

The contamination of fresh water with pharmaceutical and personal care products (PPCPs) has risen during the last few years. The adsorption of some PPCPs namely, Diclofenac-Na, Naproxen, Gemfibrozil and Ibuprofen from aqueous solution has been studied, magnetic nanoparticles coated zeolite (MNCZ) has been used as the adsorbent. Batch adsorption experiment was conducted to study the influences of different adsorption parameters such as contact time, solution pH and PPCPs concentrations in order to optimize the reaction conditions. The removal was favored at low pH values. Thus, as pH turns from acidic to basic conditions these compounds were less efficiently removed. The initial concentration does not appear to exert a noticeable effect on the removal efficiency of the studied PPCPs at low concentrations, but it showed less removal efficiency during high concentration of PPCPs especially for Ibuprofen. The removal of Diclofenac-Na was independent on time, while the contact time was of significant effect on the adsorption of Naproxen, Gemfibrozil and Ibuprofen even though these compounds were removed up to 95% during 10. min using MNCZ. From the isotherm adsorption study, the adsorption of PPCPs studied on MNCZ was best fitted with Freundlich isotherm equation. Pseudo-second order model providing the best fit model with the experimental data. Column adsorption study was conducted to compare the removal efficiency of MNCZ with other processes used at drinking water treatment plants (DWTPs), MNCZ showed high removal efficiency (>99%) than other used processes at DWTPs. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

Abdelhafez A.A.,Tongji University | Abdelhafez A.A.,Water and Environment Research Institute | Li J.,Tongji University
Soil and Sediment Contamination | Year: 2014

China's rapid industrialization and mining activities have led to rigorous deterioration in the quality of soil and water. This study aimed at evaluating the environmental impacts of industrial activities around the Jinxi River using geochemical and statistical methods. To attain this aim, water and sediment samples were collected from 14 sites along the Jinxi River and around Lake Qingshan, and analyzed for their concentrations of heavy metals using ICP-mass. The results show that the concentrations of studied heavy metals didn't exceed the maximum permissible limits (MPL) in water, except for Fe and Cu. For sediment analysis, according to sediment quality guidelines (SQGs), the studied sediment samples varied from non-polluted to heavy rate for Cr, Ni, Cu, As, Mn, Zn, and Fe and non-polluted for Cd and Pb. In addition, the sites adjacent to Lina'n City were significantly enriched with Cr, Cu, Cd, and Zn and extremely enriched with As and Se. Principal component analysis (PCA) and correlation analyses revealed that an anthropogenic source was the main source for heavy metals in the river system. We concluded that geochemical and statistical analyses can provide useful information for water quality assessment. Furthermore, the Chinese government should formulate strict laws to prevent the water streams from contamination. © 2014 Copyright © Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.

Komy Z.R.,Sohag University | Shaker A.M.,Sohag University | Heggy S.E.M.,Water and Environment Research Institute | El-Sayed M.E.A.,Water and Environment Research Institute
Chemosphere | Year: 2014

Equilibrium and kinetics of Cu2+ adsorption onto soil minerals (kaolinite and hematite) in the absence and presence of humic acid have been investigated under various conditions. The influences of ionic strength, pH and solution cations on the rate of the adsorption have been studied. The rate and the amount of adsorbed Cu2+ onto soil minerals in the absence or the presence of humic acid increased with decreasing ionic strength, increasing pH and in the presence of the background electrolyte K+ rather than Ca2+. Humic acid enhanced the rate and the amount of adsorbed Cu2+ onto soil minerals. The adsorption equilibrium data showed that adsorption behavior of Cu2+ could be described more reasonably by Langmiur adsorption isotherm than Freundlich isotherm in the absence or presence of humic acid. Pseudo first and pseudo second order models were used to evaluate the kinetic data and the rate constants. The results indicated that the adsorption of Cu2+ onto hematite and kaolinite in the absence and presence of humic acid is more conforming to pseudo second order kinetics. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

Shanab S.M.M.,Cairo University | Mostafa S.S.M.,Water and Environment Research Institute | Shalaby E.A.,Cairo University | Mahmoud G.I.,Cairo University
Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine | Year: 2012

Objective: To investigate the antioxidant and anticancer activities of aqueous extracts of nine microalgal species. Methods: Variable percentages of major secondary metabolites (total phenolic content, terpenoids and alkaloids) as well as phycobiliprotein pigments (phycocyanin, allophycocyanin and phycoerythrin) in the aqueous algal extracts were recorded. Antioxidant activity of the algal extracts was performed using 2, 2 diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) test and 2,2'- azino-bis (ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS.+) radical cation assay. Anticancer efficiency of the algal water extracts was investigated against Ehrlich Ascites Carcinoma cell (EACC) and Human hepatocellular cancer cell line (HepG2). Results: Antioxidant activity of the algal extracts was performed using DPPH test and ABTS.+ radical cation assays which revealed 30.1-72.4% and 32.0-75.9% respectively. Anticancer efficiency of the algal water extracts was investigated against Ehrlich Ascites Carcinoma Cell (EACC) and Human Hepatocellular cancer cell line (HepG2) with an activity ranged 87.25% and 89.4% respectively. Culturing the promising cyanobacteria species; Nostoc muscorum and Oscillatoria sp. under nitrogen stress conditions (increasing and decreasing nitrate content of the normal BG11 medium, 1.5 g/L), increased nitrate concentration (3, 6 and 9 g/L) led to a remarkable increase in phycobilin pigments followed by an increase in both antioxidant and anticancer activities in both cyanobacterial species. While the decreased nitrate concentration (0.75, 0.37 and 0.0 g/L) induced an obvious decrease in phycobilin pigments with complete absence of allophycocyanin in case of Oscillatoria sp. Conclusions: Nitrogen starvation (0.00 g/L nitrate) induced an increase and comparable antioxidant and anticancer activities to those cultured in the highest nitrate content. © 2012 Asian Pacific Tropical Biomedical Magazine.

Eleiwa M.E.,Cairo University | Hamed E.R.,National Research Center of Egypt | Shehata H.S.,Water and Environment Research Institute
African Journal of Ecology | Year: 2012

Pot experiment was conducted to study the effect of biofertilizers (inoculation with different bacterial isolates), foliar spraying with some micronutrients (Mn, Zn, Fe and Mn+Zn+Fe) and their interaction on growth, physiological parameters and nutrients content of wheat plants grown on reclaimed soil. Pot experiment was conducted in the greenhouse of National Research center, The experimental design was split plot with four replicates. Four biofertilizer treatments (un-inoculated, Bacillus polymyxa, Azotobacter chroococcum or Azosprillium barasilense) were used and randomly distributed in the main pots. The foliar treatments with micronutrients were randomly distributed in the sub plots. The growth parameters (plant height, leaf area, roots, shoots and whole plant dry weights and number of tillers & leaves per plant); some physiological parameters (soluble sugar %, protein %, polysaccharide %, chl. A+b μg cm -1 leaf per plant, carotenoids μg g -1, IAA mg kg -1 and psll mol DCPIP reduced per mg chl. per h) and nutrient contents (N, P, K, Mg, Mn, Zn and Cu) of wheat plants were significantly increased by inoculating wheat grains with different bacteria as compared with un-inoculated plants (control). The highest values of all the mentioned parameters were obtained by using Azospirillum brasilense followed by Azotobacter chroococcum and Bacillus polymyxa in decreasing order. Foliar spraying treatments significantly increased the growth parameters, physiological parameters as well as nutrients content of wheat plants as compared with control. Highest values were obtained by using (Mn+Fe+Zn) treatment followed by Zn, Fe and Mn in decreasing order. Micronutrients in wheat plants differed as the foliar treatments were differed, so application of any micronutrient individually significantly increased its content and enhanced the content of other micronutrients in wheat. Interaction between the used biofertilizers and foliar spraying with micronutrients significantly affected all the studied parameters of wheat plants, the highest were obtained by inoculating wheat grains with Azospirillum brasilense and spraying the plants with (Mn+Fe+Zn) treatment, while the lowest values were attained by un-inoculated grains (control) and spraying the wheat plants with tap water (control). Effective microorganisms in combination with micronutrients could be recommended to farmers to lead higher wheat yield. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

Abd El-Daim I.A.,Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences | Abd El-Daim I.A.,Water and Environment Research Institute | Bejai S.,Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences | Meijer J.,Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences
Plant and Soil | Year: 2014

Aim: To investigate if rhizosphere bacteria can improve heat tolerance of wheat. Methods: Wheat (Triticum aestivum) seeds of the cultivars Olivin and Sids1 were treated with Bacillus amyloliquefaciens UCMB5113 or Azospirillum brasilense NO40 and young seedlings tested for management of short term heat stress. Results: Bacterial treatment improved heat stress management of wheat. Olivin showed higher heat tolerance than Sids1 both with non-inoculated and inoculated seeds. Heat increased transcript levels of several stress related genes in the leaves, while expression was lower in inoculated plants but elevated compared with the control. Enzymes of the ascorbate-glutathione redox cycle were activated in leaves after heat challenge but showed a lower response in inoculated plants. Metabolite profiling distinguished different treatments dependent on analysis technique with respect to primary and secondary metabolites. Analysis of some plant stress regulatory genes showed that bacterial treatment increased transcript levels while effects of heat treatment varied. Conclusions: The improvement of heat tolerance by bacteria seems associated with reduced generation of reactive oxygen species (and consequently less cell damage), small changes in the metabolome while preactivation of certain heat shock transcription factors seems important. Seed inoculation with beneficial bacteria seems a promising strategy to improve heat tolerance of wheat. © 2014 Springer International Publishing Switzerland.

El-Naggar N.E.-A.,Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology Research Institute | El-Hersh M.S.,Water and Environment Research Institute
Journal of Microbiology | Year: 2011

Saccharification of five cellulosic wastes, i. e. rice husks, wheat bran, corn cobs, wheat straw and rice straw by three cellulytic fungi, i. e. Aspergillus glaums MN1, Aspergillus oryzae MN2 and Penicillium purpurogenum MN3, during solid-state fermentation (SSF) was laboratory studied. Rice husks, wheat bran, and corn cobs were selected as inducers of glucose production in the tested fungi. An incubation interval of 10 days was optimal for glucose production. Maximal activities of the cellulases FP-ase, CMC-ase, and β-glucosidase were detected during SSF of rice husks by P. purpurogenum; however, α-amylase activity (7. 2 U/g) was comparatively reduced. Meanwhile, the productivities of FP-ase, CMC-ase, and β-glucosidase were high during SSF of rice husks by A glaucus; however, they decreased during SSF of corn cobs by P. purpurogenum. Addition of rock phosphate (RP) (75 mg P 2O 5) decreased the pH of SSF media. (NH 4) 2SO 4 was found to be less inducer of cellulytic enzymes, during SSF of rice husks by A. glaucus or A. oryzae; it also induced phytase production and solubilization of RP. The organic acids associated with saccharification of the wastes studied have also been investigated. The highest concentration of levulinic acid was detected (46. 15 mg/g) during SSF of corn cobs by P. purpurogenum. Likewise, oxalic acid concentration was 43. 20 mg/g during SSF of rice husks by P. purpurogenum. © 2011 The Microbiological Society of Korea and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

Osman M.A.,Water and Environment Research Institute
International Journal of ChemTech Research | Year: 2015

A field experiment was carried out at El- Ismailia Agriculture Research Station Farm in Ismailia Governorate, Egypt. The institute farm is located at 30° 35’41.9" N Latitude and 32° 16’ 45.8" E longitude during two successive winter seasons cultivated with Green Pea (Pisum sativum L.) crop grown on sandy soil under drip irrigation system to evaluate the possible use of rock phosphate in agriculture through partially acidulation with different concentration (the organic and mineral acids were added with three concentrations i.e. 5 ,10 and 20 %) (C1, C2 and C3). Acidulation with organic acids (humic, fulvic and citric) as compared to mineral acids (sulfuric), sulfur and compost extract on phosphorus release from rock phosphate(15 % P2O5) as compared to super phosphate(15 % P2O5) and their reflection on soil chemical properties and yield production of Green Pea. Results show that acidulation both of rock phosphate and super phosphate caused a significant decrease in soil pH as compared to control treatments (superphosphate only without acidulation) or rock phosphate only , also acidulated rock phosphate was superior for decreasing the soil pH as compared to superphosphate . Moreover, pH values decreased significantly along with increasing the concentration of acids, while all applied treatments increased the soil EC and nutrient availability (N, P and K) as compared to control treatment. This trend was more pronouns for rock phosphate as compared to superphosphate. With respect to the different acidulates, for both super and rock phosphate the sulfuric and fulvic acid were superior for securing a maximum availability of nutrient (N, P and K) as compared to the control and other treatments .The treatments arranged as follow ; sulfuric acid, fulvic acid, humic substance , sulfur ,citric acid and compost extract. Data also indicated that yield components (straw, pods and biological yield) of green pea crop increased significantly due to application of different acidulated treatments for superphosphate and rock phosphate as compared to control treatment at both tested season. Generally, acidulated rock phosphate was superior as compared to super phosphate in dry matter yield. Acidulation both of rock phosphate and super phosphate with sulfuric and fulvic acid was the superior for increasing the nutrient uptake and yield components. Also, phosphorus uptake increased with each increase in concentration of acids, also both yield and P- uptake for rock phosphate were higher when the pH decreased. Generally, Positive relationship was responded between the availability of nutrients in the soil and the uptake of nutrients with acidulation. Also, acidulation of both super phosphate and rock phosphate enhance the Phosphorus use efficiency of Pea yield especially for rock phosphate. Generally increasing the concentration of acids cause a significant increase in phosphorus use efficiency, the highest phosphorus use efficiency was obtained in presence of sulfuric and fulvic acid for both P- sources super phosphate and rock phosphate as compared to the other treatments, the opposite trend was obtained in presence of citric acid and compost extract. Finally, we can concluded that uses of acidulated rock phosphate became a pronounce alternative phosphate fertilizers because of its effect on increasing the availability of P, nutritional status and yield of green pea on certain Egyptian soil. © 2015, Sphinx Knowledge House, All rights reserved.

Saber W.I.A.,Water and Environment Research Institute | El-Metwally M.M.,Water and Environment Research Institute | El-Hersh M.S.,Water and Environment Research Institute
Research Journal of Microbiology | Year: 2010

The rapid growth of poultry industry has linked with increased output of keratin containing wastes. Keratinous wastes can be readily fermented to useful products and commodity chemicals by the appropriate microbes. The present research concerning biodegradation of keratinous wastes. From 82 fungal isolates, 27 isolates have keratinolytic activity. Identification tests indicated that the potent isolates were Alternaria tenuissima K2 and Aspergillus nidulans K7. Using chicken feather powder as a sole source of carbon and nitrogen, keratinase productivity were 53.4 and 55.8 U mL-1 by Alt. tenuissima K2 and A. nidulans K7 at the 6th and 5th day of incubation, respectively. Using additional carbon and nitrogen sources were not found to promote keratinase productivity, except when using starch and maltose. pH 7.5, 35°C and 7.5% inoculum ratio were the best for both keratinase production and feather solubilization by both fungi. Among different keratin containing wastes, chicken, duck and goose feathers were the most degradable keratinous wastes by Alt. tenuissima K2 and A. nidulans K7. During the course of investigation, keratinase production and degradation of keratinous wastes were positively and significantly correlated. Incubation of the produced keratinases at the optimum pH (8.5) and temperature (40°C) with different keratinous wastes led to about 70% hydrolysis of chicken, duck, goose and turkey feathers after 24 h of incubation. Goat hair, sheep wool and buffalo horn showed lower response towards keratinolytic hydrolysis. Therefore, keratinous wastes can be biologically degraded by either isolated fungi or their keratinases into useful products. © 2010 Academic Journals Inc.

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