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Osman M.A.,Water and Environment Research Institute
International Journal of ChemTech Research | Year: 2015

A field experiment was carried out at El- Ismailia Agriculture Research Station Farm in Ismailia Governorate, Egypt. The institute farm is located at 30° 35’41.9" N Latitude and 32° 16’ 45.8" E longitude during two successive winter seasons cultivated with Green Pea (Pisum sativum L.) crop grown on sandy soil under drip irrigation system to evaluate the possible use of rock phosphate in agriculture through partially acidulation with different concentration (the organic and mineral acids were added with three concentrations i.e. 5 ,10 and 20 %) (C1, C2 and C3). Acidulation with organic acids (humic, fulvic and citric) as compared to mineral acids (sulfuric), sulfur and compost extract on phosphorus release from rock phosphate(15 % P2O5) as compared to super phosphate(15 % P2O5) and their reflection on soil chemical properties and yield production of Green Pea. Results show that acidulation both of rock phosphate and super phosphate caused a significant decrease in soil pH as compared to control treatments (superphosphate only without acidulation) or rock phosphate only , also acidulated rock phosphate was superior for decreasing the soil pH as compared to superphosphate . Moreover, pH values decreased significantly along with increasing the concentration of acids, while all applied treatments increased the soil EC and nutrient availability (N, P and K) as compared to control treatment. This trend was more pronouns for rock phosphate as compared to superphosphate. With respect to the different acidulates, for both super and rock phosphate the sulfuric and fulvic acid were superior for securing a maximum availability of nutrient (N, P and K) as compared to the control and other treatments .The treatments arranged as follow ; sulfuric acid, fulvic acid, humic substance , sulfur ,citric acid and compost extract. Data also indicated that yield components (straw, pods and biological yield) of green pea crop increased significantly due to application of different acidulated treatments for superphosphate and rock phosphate as compared to control treatment at both tested season. Generally, acidulated rock phosphate was superior as compared to super phosphate in dry matter yield. Acidulation both of rock phosphate and super phosphate with sulfuric and fulvic acid was the superior for increasing the nutrient uptake and yield components. Also, phosphorus uptake increased with each increase in concentration of acids, also both yield and P- uptake for rock phosphate were higher when the pH decreased. Generally, Positive relationship was responded between the availability of nutrients in the soil and the uptake of nutrients with acidulation. Also, acidulation of both super phosphate and rock phosphate enhance the Phosphorus use efficiency of Pea yield especially for rock phosphate. Generally increasing the concentration of acids cause a significant increase in phosphorus use efficiency, the highest phosphorus use efficiency was obtained in presence of sulfuric and fulvic acid for both P- sources super phosphate and rock phosphate as compared to the other treatments, the opposite trend was obtained in presence of citric acid and compost extract. Finally, we can concluded that uses of acidulated rock phosphate became a pronounce alternative phosphate fertilizers because of its effect on increasing the availability of P, nutritional status and yield of green pea on certain Egyptian soil. © 2015, Sphinx Knowledge House, All rights reserved. Source

Abdelhafez A.A.,Tongji University | Abdelhafez A.A.,Water and Environment Research Institute | Li J.,Tongji University
Soil and Sediment Contamination | Year: 2014

China's rapid industrialization and mining activities have led to rigorous deterioration in the quality of soil and water. This study aimed at evaluating the environmental impacts of industrial activities around the Jinxi River using geochemical and statistical methods. To attain this aim, water and sediment samples were collected from 14 sites along the Jinxi River and around Lake Qingshan, and analyzed for their concentrations of heavy metals using ICP-mass. The results show that the concentrations of studied heavy metals didn't exceed the maximum permissible limits (MPL) in water, except for Fe and Cu. For sediment analysis, according to sediment quality guidelines (SQGs), the studied sediment samples varied from non-polluted to heavy rate for Cr, Ni, Cu, As, Mn, Zn, and Fe and non-polluted for Cd and Pb. In addition, the sites adjacent to Lina'n City were significantly enriched with Cr, Cu, Cd, and Zn and extremely enriched with As and Se. Principal component analysis (PCA) and correlation analyses revealed that an anthropogenic source was the main source for heavy metals in the river system. We concluded that geochemical and statistical analyses can provide useful information for water quality assessment. Furthermore, the Chinese government should formulate strict laws to prevent the water streams from contamination. © 2014 Copyright © Taylor & Francis Group, LLC. Source

Shanab S.M.M.,Cairo University | Mostafa S.S.M.,Water and Environment Research Institute | Shalaby E.A.,Cairo University | Mahmoud G.I.,Cairo University
Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine | Year: 2012

Objective: To investigate the antioxidant and anticancer activities of aqueous extracts of nine microalgal species. Methods: Variable percentages of major secondary metabolites (total phenolic content, terpenoids and alkaloids) as well as phycobiliprotein pigments (phycocyanin, allophycocyanin and phycoerythrin) in the aqueous algal extracts were recorded. Antioxidant activity of the algal extracts was performed using 2, 2 diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) test and 2,2'- azino-bis (ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS.+) radical cation assay. Anticancer efficiency of the algal water extracts was investigated against Ehrlich Ascites Carcinoma cell (EACC) and Human hepatocellular cancer cell line (HepG2). Results: Antioxidant activity of the algal extracts was performed using DPPH test and ABTS.+ radical cation assays which revealed 30.1-72.4% and 32.0-75.9% respectively. Anticancer efficiency of the algal water extracts was investigated against Ehrlich Ascites Carcinoma Cell (EACC) and Human Hepatocellular cancer cell line (HepG2) with an activity ranged 87.25% and 89.4% respectively. Culturing the promising cyanobacteria species; Nostoc muscorum and Oscillatoria sp. under nitrogen stress conditions (increasing and decreasing nitrate content of the normal BG11 medium, 1.5 g/L), increased nitrate concentration (3, 6 and 9 g/L) led to a remarkable increase in phycobilin pigments followed by an increase in both antioxidant and anticancer activities in both cyanobacterial species. While the decreased nitrate concentration (0.75, 0.37 and 0.0 g/L) induced an obvious decrease in phycobilin pigments with complete absence of allophycocyanin in case of Oscillatoria sp. Conclusions: Nitrogen starvation (0.00 g/L nitrate) induced an increase and comparable antioxidant and anticancer activities to those cultured in the highest nitrate content. © 2012 Asian Pacific Tropical Biomedical Magazine. Source

Salem Attia T.M.,Tongji University | Salem Attia T.M.,Water and Environment Research Institute | Hu X.L.,Tongji University | Yin D.Q.,Tongji University
Chemosphere | Year: 2013

The contamination of fresh water with pharmaceutical and personal care products (PPCPs) has risen during the last few years. The adsorption of some PPCPs namely, Diclofenac-Na, Naproxen, Gemfibrozil and Ibuprofen from aqueous solution has been studied, magnetic nanoparticles coated zeolite (MNCZ) has been used as the adsorbent. Batch adsorption experiment was conducted to study the influences of different adsorption parameters such as contact time, solution pH and PPCPs concentrations in order to optimize the reaction conditions. The removal was favored at low pH values. Thus, as pH turns from acidic to basic conditions these compounds were less efficiently removed. The initial concentration does not appear to exert a noticeable effect on the removal efficiency of the studied PPCPs at low concentrations, but it showed less removal efficiency during high concentration of PPCPs especially for Ibuprofen. The removal of Diclofenac-Na was independent on time, while the contact time was of significant effect on the adsorption of Naproxen, Gemfibrozil and Ibuprofen even though these compounds were removed up to 95% during 10. min using MNCZ. From the isotherm adsorption study, the adsorption of PPCPs studied on MNCZ was best fitted with Freundlich isotherm equation. Pseudo-second order model providing the best fit model with the experimental data. Column adsorption study was conducted to compare the removal efficiency of MNCZ with other processes used at drinking water treatment plants (DWTPs), MNCZ showed high removal efficiency (>99%) than other used processes at DWTPs. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Abd El-Daim I.A.,Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences | Abd El-Daim I.A.,Water and Environment Research Institute | Bejai S.,Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences | Meijer J.,Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences
Plant and Soil | Year: 2014

Aim: To investigate if rhizosphere bacteria can improve heat tolerance of wheat. Methods: Wheat (Triticum aestivum) seeds of the cultivars Olivin and Sids1 were treated with Bacillus amyloliquefaciens UCMB5113 or Azospirillum brasilense NO40 and young seedlings tested for management of short term heat stress. Results: Bacterial treatment improved heat stress management of wheat. Olivin showed higher heat tolerance than Sids1 both with non-inoculated and inoculated seeds. Heat increased transcript levels of several stress related genes in the leaves, while expression was lower in inoculated plants but elevated compared with the control. Enzymes of the ascorbate-glutathione redox cycle were activated in leaves after heat challenge but showed a lower response in inoculated plants. Metabolite profiling distinguished different treatments dependent on analysis technique with respect to primary and secondary metabolites. Analysis of some plant stress regulatory genes showed that bacterial treatment increased transcript levels while effects of heat treatment varied. Conclusions: The improvement of heat tolerance by bacteria seems associated with reduced generation of reactive oxygen species (and consequently less cell damage), small changes in the metabolome while preactivation of certain heat shock transcription factors seems important. Seed inoculation with beneficial bacteria seems a promising strategy to improve heat tolerance of wheat. © 2014 Springer International Publishing Switzerland. Source

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