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Bells Corners, Canada

Khan I.U.H.,Environment Canada | Khan I.U.H.,Agriculture and Agri Food Canada | Gannon V.,Public Health Agency of Canada | Jokinen C.C.,Public Health Agency of Canada | And 12 more authors.
Water Research | Year: 2014

The occurrence and diversity of thermophilic Campylobacter species (C. jejuni, coli, and lari) were studied in water samples from four river basins located across Canada. These basins located in Quebec (Bras d'Henri), Alberta (Oldman), Ontario (South Nation), and British Columbia (Sumas) represented some of the most intensive farming areas in Canada for hog, beef cattle, dairy cattle, and poultry, respectively. This study analyzed 769 water samples collected from 23 monitoring sites with agricultural influence, and four reference sites with limited or no agricultural influence. Water samples were collected bi-weekly over two years and analyzed for Campylobacter using a semi-quantitative minimum probable number (MPN) enrichment protocol. Putative isolates were confirmed by genus- and species-specific multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays. A total of 377 (49%) water samples were positive for campylobacters with 355 samples having a cell density ranging from 4 to 4000MPNL-1. Campylobacters were more common at agricultural than reference sites in each river basin, although this difference was not significant in the Oldman and South Nation (p>0.05). Campylobacter was significantly more common in the Bras d'Henri and Sumas (63%) compared to the South Nation (45%) and Oldman (33%) River basins (p<0.05). C. jejuni, C. coli and C. lari were detected in each river basin, and these species occurred in 45% (n=168), 34% (n=128) and 19% (n=73), of all Campylobacter positive samples, respectively. The remaining Campylobacter positive water samples without these three species (n=67; 18%) were identified as other Campylobacter species. C. jejuni was the predominant species occurring in the Sumas, Oldman and South Nation River basins. However, in the Bras d'Henri River basin with intensive hog production, C. coli was the predominant species. This study found campylobacters to be common in some agricultural systems with intensive livestock farming activities, and different river basins could have strikingly different profiles of either C. jejuni or C. coli as the predominant waterborne thermophilic Campylobacter species. © 2014. Source

Personal exposure studies of air pollution generally use self-reported diaries to capture individuals' time-activity data. Enhancements in the accuracy, size, memory and battery life of personal Global Positioning Systems (GPS) units have allowed for higher resolution tracking of study participants' locations. Improved time-activity classifications combined with personal continuous air pollution sampling can improve assessments of location-related air pollution exposures for health studies. Data was collected using a GPS and personal temperature from 54 children with asthma living in Montreal, Canada, who participated in a 10-day personal air pollution exposure study. A method was developed that incorporated personal temperature data and then matched a participant's position against available spatial data (i.e., road networks) to generate time-activity categories. The diary-based and GPS-generated time-activity categories were compared and combined with continuous personal PM2.5 data to assess the impact of exposure misclassification when using diary-based methods. There was good agreement between the automated method and the diary method; however, the automated method (means: outdoors = 5.1%, indoors other =9.8%) estimated less time spent in some locations compared to the diary method (outdoors = 6.7%, indoors other = 14.4%). Agreement statistics (AC1 = 0.778) suggest 'good' agreement between methods over all location categories. However, location categories (Outdoors and Transit) where less time is spent show greater disagreement: e.g., mean time "Indoors Other" using the time-activity diary was 14.4% compared to 9.8% using the automated method. While mean daily time "In Transit" was relatively consistent between the methods, the mean daily exposure to PM2.5 while "In Transit" was 15.9 μg/m3 using the automated method compared to 6.8 μg/m3 using the daily diary. Mean times spent in different locations as categorized by a GPS-based method were comparable to those from a time-activity diary, but there were differences in estimates of exposure to PM2.5 from the two methods. An automated GPS-based time-activity method will reduce participant burden, potentially providing more accurate and unbiased assessments of location. Combined with continuous air measurements, the higher resolution GPS data could present a different and more accurate picture of personal exposures to air pollution. Source

Cakmak S.,Environmental Health Science and Research Bureau | Dales R.E.,University of Ottawa | Dales R.E.,Ottawa Hospital Research Institute | Dales R.E.,Environmental Health Science and Research Bureau | And 5 more authors.
Environmental Pollution | Year: 2014

Exposure to residential volatile organic compounds (VOCs) is ubiquitous in homes, and may influence respiratory health with important public health implications. To investigate the association between VOCs measured in residential indoor air and lung function in the Canadian population Cycle 2 of the Canadian Health Measures Survey - a population based cross-sectional survey designed to be representative of the Canadian population - was carried out between 2009 and 2011. Of the 84 VOCs measured, 47 were detectable in at least 50% of homes and ten were negatively associated with lung function: decanal, 2-furancarboxaldehyde, hexanal, nonanal, octanal, benzene, styrene, α-pinene, 2-methyl-1,2-butadiene and naphthalene. Differences were observed between males and females, as well as by age, and significant associations were most frequent in those under 17 years. These results provide evidence that some VOCs measured indoors are negatively associated with lung function in the Canadian population.© 2014 Published by Elsevier Ltd. Source

Wheeler A.J.,Water and Air Quality Bureau
Environmental health : a global access science source | Year: 2014

Naphthalene exposures for most non-occupationally exposed individuals occur primarily indoors at home. Residential indoor sources include pest control products (specifically moth balls), incomplete combustion such as cigarette smoke, woodstoves and cooking, some consumer and building products, and emissions from gasoline sources found in attached garages. The study aim was to assess naphthalene exposure in pregnant women from Canada, using air measurements and biomarkers of exposure. Pregnant women residing in Ottawa, Ontario completed personal and indoor air sampling, and questionnaires. During pregnancy, pooled urine voids were collected over two 24-hour periods on a weekday and a weekend day. At 2-3 months post-birth, they provided a spot urine sample and a breast milk sample following the 24-hour air monitoring. Urines were analyzed for 1-naphthol and 2-naphthol and breast milk for naphthalene. Simple linear regression models examined associations between known naphthalene sources, air and biomarker samples. Study recruitment rate was 11.2% resulting in 80 eligible women being included. Weekday and weekend samples were highly correlated for both personal (r = 0.83, p < 0.0001) and indoor air naphthalene (r = 0.91, p < 0.0001). Urine specific gravity (SG)-adjusted 2-naphthol concentrations collected on weekdays and weekends (r = 0.78, p < 0.001), and between pregnancy and postpartum samples (r = 0.54, p < 0.001) were correlated.Indoor and personal air naphthalene concentrations were significantly higher post-birth than during pregnancy (p < 0.0001 for signed rank tests); concurrent urine samples were not significantly different. Naphthalene in breast milk was associated with urinary 1-naphthol: a 10% increase in 1-naphthol was associated with a 1.6% increase in breast milk naphthalene (95% CI: 0.2%-3.1%). No significant associations were observed between naphthalene sources reported in self-administered questionnaires and the air or biomarker concentrations. Median urinary concentrations of naphthalene metabolites tended to be similar to (1-naphthol) or lower (2-naphthol) than those reported in a Canadian survey of women of reproductive age. Only urinary 1-naphthol and naphthalene in breast milk were associated. Potential reasons for the lack of other associations include a lack of sources, varying biotransformation rates and behavioural differences over time. Source

Chepelev N.L.,Environmental Health Science and Research Bureau | Chepelev N.L.,Environmental Health Center | Moffat I.D.,Environmental Health Science and Research Bureau | Moffat I.D.,Environmental Health Center | And 10 more authors.
Critical Reviews in Toxicology | Year: 2015

The use of short-term toxicogenomic tests to predict cancer (or other health effects) offers considerable advantages relative to traditional toxicity testing methods. The advantages include increased throughput, increased mechanistic data, and significantly reduced costs. However, precisely how toxicogenomics data can be used to support human health risk assessment (RA) is unclear. In a companion paper (Moffat et al. 2014), we present a case study evaluating the utility of toxicogenomics in the RA of benzo[a]pyrene (BaP), a known human carcinogen. The case study is meant as a proof-of-principle exercise using a well-established mode of action (MOA) that impacts multiple tissues, which should provide a best case example. We found that toxicogenomics provided rich mechanistic data applicable to hazard identification, dose-response analysis, and quantitative RA of BaP. Based on this work, here we share some useful lessons for both research and RA, and outline our perspective on how toxicogenomics can benefit RA in the short- and long-term. Specifically, we focus on (1) obtaining biologically relevant data that are readily suitable for establishing an MOA for toxicants, (2) examining the human relevance of an MOA from animal testing, and (3) proposing appropriate quantitative values for RA. We describe our envisioned strategy on how toxicogenomics can become a tool in RA, especially when anchored to other short-term toxicity tests (apical endpoints) to increase confidence in the proposed MOA, and emphasize the need for additional studies on other MOAs to define the best practices in the application of toxicogenomics in RA. © 2015 Informa UK Ltd. Source

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