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Watanabe M.,Watanabe Oyster Laboratory Co. | Tamano H.,University of Shizuoka | Kikuchi T.,Watanabe Oyster Laboratory Co. | Takeda A.,University of Shizuoka
Neurochemistry International | Year: 2010

Dietary zinc deficiency elicits abnormal behavior in stressful environment. It is possible that abnormal corticosterone secretion in zinc deficiency is linked to abnormal behavior. To understand the increase in depression-like behavior in zinc deficiency, in the present study, serum corticosterone concentration was checked in young rats fed a zinc-deficient diet for 2 weeks after exposure to acute stress. Serum corticosterone concentration was higher in zinc-deficient rats after exposure to water-immersed and forced swim stress. Immobility time in the forced swim test was significantly increased in zinc-deficient rats, but not in pair-fed rats, suggesting that the increase in depression-like behavior is due to zinc deficiency rather than decreased food intake. The increase in immobility time in zinc deficiency was restored to the control level by feeding of the control diet. In dexamethasone suppression test, serum corticosterone concentration was markedly decreased in both the control and zinc-deficient rats. These results suggest that excessive corticosterone secretion after exposure to stress is linked to the increase in depression-like behavior in zinc deficiency. It has been reported that exposure to stress and glucocorticoids facilitates the increase in extracellular glutamate in the hippocampus. When the hippocampus was stimulated with 100 mM KCl, the concentration of extracellular glutamate was more increased in zinc-deficient rats. In hippocampal slices from zinc-deficient rats, the decrease in FM4-64 fluorescence (exocytosis) was more facilitated. It is likely that zinc deficiency excessively excites glutamatergic neurons in the hippocampus after exposure to acute stress. This excessive excitation seems to contribute to susceptibility to stress after 2-week zinc deprivation and its related behavior such as the increase in depression-like behavior. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd.


Takata M.,Soka University | Fukushima K.,Watanabe Oyster Laboratory Co. | Kino-Kimata N.,Soka University | Nagao N.,University Putra Malaysia | And 2 more authors.
Science of the Total Environment | Year: 2012

In Japan, a revised Food Recycling Law went into effect in 2007 to promote a "recycling loop" that requires food industries to purchase farm products that are grown using food waste-derived compost/animal feed. To realize and expand food recycling, it is necessary to evaluate how the recycling facilities work in the recycling loop. The purpose of this study is to assess the environmental and economic efficiency of the food recycling facilities that are involved in the recycling loop, which are also known as looped facilities. The global warming potential and running cost of five looped facilities were evaluated by LCA (life cycle assessment) and LCC (life cycle cost) approaches: machine integrated compost, windrow compost, liquid feed, dry feed, and bio-gasification. The LCA results showed low total GHG (greenhouse gas) emissions of -126 and -49kg-CO2/t-waste, respectively, for dry feed and bio-gasification facilities, due to a high substitution effect. The LCC study showed a low running cost for composting facilities of -15,648 and -18,955yen/t-waste, respectively, due to high revenue from the food waste collection. It was found that the mandatory reporting of food waste emitters to the government increased collection fees; however, the collection fee in animal feed facilities was relatively low because food waste was collected at a low price or nutritious food waste was purchased to produce quality feed. In the characterisation survey of various treatment methods, the composting facilities showed a relatively low environmental impact and a high economic efficiency. Animal feed facilities had a wide distribution of the total GHG emissions, depending on both the energy usage during the drying process and the substitution effect, which were related to the water content of the food waste and the number of recycled products. In comparison with incineration, the majority of the food recycling facilities showed low GHG emissions and economic effectiveness. This paper also reported on the effects of recycling loops by comparing looped and non-looped animal feed facilities, and confirmed that the looped facilities were economically effective, due to an increased amount of food waste collection. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.


Fuda H.,Hokkaido University | Watanabe M.,Watanabe Oyster Laboratory Co. | Hui S.-P.,Hokkaido University | Joko S.,Hokkaido University | And 6 more authors.
Food Chemistry | Year: 2015

The antioxidant, and hepatoprotective properties of 3,5-dihydroxy-4-methoxybenzyl alcohol (DHMBA), a natural phenolic antioxidant isolated from the Pacific oyster, were defined using cultured human hepatocyte-derived cells (C3A). DHMBA showed no cytotoxicity at 62.5-500 μM, as well as chlorogenic acid (CGA), vitamin C, and vitamin E. However, butylated hydroxytoluene, eicosapentaenoic acid, docosahexaenoic acid and catechin reduced cell viability. In the presence of the prooxidant 2,2′-azobis(2-amidinopropane) dihydrochloride (AAPH), DHMBA at 125-500 μM improved cell viability, whereas CGA had no effect. DNA ladder formation and flow-cytometric studies indicated that DHMBA inhibited AAPH-induced apoptosis and necrosis. CGA was ineffective. Thus, DHMBA is a novel, potent antioxidant, effectively protecting cultured hepatocytes from apoptosis and necrosis caused by oxidative stress. Additionally, the concentration of DHMBA was determined by mass spectrometry to be 24.4 μmol/kg wet oyster meat, and three polyphenols (gentisic acid, daidzein, and matairesinol) were newly identified in the oyster extracts. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Takata M.,Soka University | Fukushima K.,Watanabe Oyster Laboratory Co. | Kawai M.,Soka University | Nagao N.,University Putra Malaysia | And 3 more authors.
Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews | Year: 2013

Biological treatment of organic waste is environmentally friendly and a wide range of treatment methods exists. Integrated biological treatment systems with additional equipments, such as pre-treatment, wastewater treatment and deodorisation processes are currently in use. To promote and spread the application of biological waste treatment, a life cycle assessment (LCA) study was conducted on six biological treatment methods: integrated wet anaerobic digestion (AD), integrated dry AD, simple wet AD, simple dry AD, integrated composting and simple composting systems. The impacts of operating rate and wastewater treatment, which affect GHG emissions, were also quantitatively analysed. Integrated wet AD showed the highest total GHG emissions due to the high energy consumption by additional equipments which occupy 80% of the whole process. Integrated composting also presented higher GHG emissions than simple composting because of the higher electricity consumption. Additional equipments are necessary for integrated systems installed in urban areas, and this study suggests that the reduction of energy consumption for these additional equipments is an important issue. Among the additional equipments for AD, wastewater treatment largely affected the GHG emissions. Dry AD normally generates less wastewater due to low moisture content in the waste. Thus, effective treatment of wastes with low environmental loads can be achieved by dry AD, where energy consumption from wastewater treatment is low. On the other hand, methane yield from food waste by dry AD is generally smaller than wet AD. Installing an advanced dry AD reactor with additional functions such as long solid retention time, and adjusting the moisture content of input waste by mixing paper waste will contribute to the efficient treatment of organic waste in urban areas. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.


To provide a method for producing an oyster meat essence that more amply incorporates an antioxidant substance with high ORAC value as follows. A portion of an oyster meat extract more amply incorporating an antioxidant substance with high ORAC value is selected. An extraction method that allows incorporating further large amount of antioxidant substance with high ORAC value is employed. The beneficial oyster meat extract can be efficiently extracted in large amounts. Object An oyster meat is stored in an extraction container where water is accumulated. An oyster meat essence is extracted to generate an extract liquid. The extract liquid is injected to a centrifuge, and concurrently the centrifuge is rotated at a centrifugal acceleration where an antioxidant substance with high antioxidative potency and ORAC value is separated and removed from the extract liquid. The antioxidant substance with higher antioxidative potency and ORAC value is separated. Thus, the oyster meat essence incorporating a large amount of antioxidant substance with high antioxidative potency and ORAC value is obtained.


To provide a method for producing an oyster meat essence that more amply incorporates an antioxidant substance with high ORAC value as follows. A portion of an oyster meat extract more amply incorporating an antioxidant substance with high ORAC value is selected. An extraction method that allows incorporating further large amount of antioxidant substance with high ORAC value is employed. The beneficial oyster meat extract can be efficiently extracted in large amounts. Object An oyster meat is stored in an extraction container where water is accumulated. An oyster meat essence is extracted to generate an extract liquid. The extract liquid is injected to a centrifuge, and concurrently the centrifuge is rotated at a centrifugal acceleration where an antioxidant substance with high antioxidative potency and ORAC value is separated and removed from the extract liquid. The antioxidant substance with higher antioxidative potency and ORAC value is separated. Thus, the oyster meat essence incorporating a large amount of antioxidant substance with high antioxidative potency and ORAC value is obtained.


Patent
Watanabe Oyster Laboratory Co. and Hokkaido University | Date: 2013-12-04

Problem To provide an antioxidant, an antioxidant composition, and a method for producing the antioxidant and the antioxidant composition, which feature a high content rate and degree of extraction of substances. These substances are taurine, glycogen, protein, so-called blood platelet anticoagulant with zinc, fat-soluble vitamin with a high activation such as vitamin D, and other useful substances. The antioxidant and the antioxidant composition also feature a so-called antioxidative property, which has recently attracted attention. Solution The present invention, for example, includes 3,5-dihydroxy-4-methoxybenzyl alcohol.


Patent
Watanabe Oyster Laboratory Co. | Date: 2010-07-29

The invention relates to the preparation of oyster flesh extracts. Raw oyster flesh is placed in an extractor with a solution stored in it. The extractor is closed up tight and pressurized to 1 atm or higher to extract oyster flesh extracts from the raw oyster flesh, and they are fed into the solution in the extractor. An extraction solution with the oyster flesh extracts fed in concentrated solution to precipitate out the oyster flesh extracts. The precipitates are dried into dry oyster flesh extracts.


Patent
Watanabe Oyster Laboratory Co. | Date: 2014-09-02

Problem The present invention is to provide a generation method that can generate 3,5-dihydroxy-4-methoxybenzyl alcohol, which was not found at all from raw oyster meat originally, at an extraction phase of oyster meat essence. Solution The present invention heats raw oyster meat from which 3,5-dihydroxy-4-methoxybenzyl alcohol is not detected in a raw state at 98 C. to 100 C. for six hours or more to generate 3,5-dihydroxy-4-methoxybenyl alcohol from oyster meat liquid on which the heating process has been performed.


Patent
Watanabe Oyster Laboratory Co. | Date: 2011-10-20

The invention relates to the preparation of oyster flesh extracts. Raw oyster flesh is placed in an extractor with a solution stored in it. The extractor is closed up tight and pressurized to 1 atm or higher to extract oyster flesh extracts from the raw oyster flesh, and they are fed into the solution in the extractor. An extraction solution with the oyster flesh extracts fed in concentrated solution to precipitate out the oyster flesh extracts. The precipitates are dried into dry oyster flesh extracts.

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