Accra, Ghana
Accra, Ghana

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Diener S.,Eawag - Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology | Semiyaga S.,Makerere University | Niwagaba C.B.,Makerere University | Muspratt A.M.,Waste Enterprisers Ltd. | And 5 more authors.
Resources, Conservation and Recycling | Year: 2014

There is currently a lack of access to affordable sanitation in urban areas of Sub-Saharan Africa. This study evaluated the potential for resource recovery from innovative faecal sludge treatment processes to generate a profit that could help sustain the sanitation service chain. A total of 242 interviews were conducted in Accra, Ghana; Dakar, Senegal; and Kampala, Uganda to compare markets in different cultural and regional contexts. Products identified to have potential market value include dry sludge as a fuel for combustion, biogas from anaerobic digestion, protein derived from sludge processing as animal feed, sludge as a component in building materials, and sludge as a soil conditioner. The market demand and potential revenue varied from city to city based on factors such as sludge characteristics, existing markets, local and regional industrial sectors, subsidies, and locally available materials. Use as a soil conditioner, which has been the most common end use of treated sludge, was not as profitable as other end uses. These findings should help policy and decision makers of sanitation service provision to design financially viable management systems based on resource recovery options. © 2014 The Authors.

Muspratt A.M.,Waste Enterprisers Ltd | Nakato T.,Makerere University | Niwagaba C.,Makerere University | Dione H.,University Cheikh Antadiop Of Dakar | And 5 more authors.
Journal of Water Sanitation and Hygiene for Development | Year: 2014

This research tested the viability of using faecal sludge (FS) as solid fuel - an end use that could unlock an environmentally and financially beneficial replacement for disposal-oriented FS management, while replacing fossil energy. FS samples were collected from pit latrines, septic tanks, drying beds and stabilization ponds in three cities, Kumasi, Dakar and Kampala. For each sample, the average calorific value, solids and water content, and their variation with source and age were determined. The average calorific value of untreated FS across the three cities was 17.3 MJ/kg total solids (TS), which compares well with other biomass fuels. The age of FS did not affect its calorific value, nor did the reduction in chemical oxygen demand (COD) that occurred while it was in drying beds. The TS content of FS depended on its source but ranged from 1 to 6% for sludge from septic tanks and pit latrines, respectively. Harnessing net energy from FS requires partial drying. The results indicate that sufficient drying occurs within two weeks in open-air drying beds, or in a matter of days with simple drying bed innovations.

Murray A.,Waste Enterprisers Ltd. | Cofie O.,International Water Management Institute | Drechsel P.,SRI International
Water International | Year: 2011

Opportunities for public-private partnerships based on cost recovery from the reuse of human waste remain unexplored. In this paper, the authors present four potential business models involving aquaculture, biogas recovery, compost production and the use of faecal sludge as an industrial fuel, and describe their associated financial flows. The business models are based on efficiency indicators that can provide decision support to local authorities and entrepreneurs in choosing options that are best suited to local conditions and needs. The ultimate target should be that a portion of revenues from reuse can help finance less-profitable sections of the sanitation service chain. © 2011 International Water Resources Association.

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