St. Louis, MO, United States

Washington University in St. Louis
St. Louis, MO, United States

Washington University in St. Louis is a private research university located in St. Louis, Missouri, United States. Founded in 1853, and named after George Washington, the university has students and faculty from all 50 U.S. states and more than 120 countries. Twenty-two Nobel laureates have been affiliated with Washington University, nine having done the major part of their pioneering research at the university. Washington University's undergraduate program is ranked 14th in the nation and 7th in admissions selectivity by U.S. News and World Report. The university is ranked 30th in the world by the Academic Ranking of World Universities. In 2006, the university received $434 million in federal research funds, ranking seventh among private universities receiving federal research and development support, and in the top four in funding from the National Institutes of Health.Washington University is made up of seven graduate and undergraduate schools that encompass a broad range of academic fields. Officially incorporated as "The Washington University," the university is occasionally referred to as "WUSTL," an acronym derived from its initials. More commonly, however, students refer to the university as "Wash. U." To prevent confusion over its location, the Board of Trustees added the phrase "in St. Louis" in 1976. Wikipedia.

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Washington University in St. Louis | Date: 2017-01-25

The present invention relates to mutant peptides of the E protein of the West Nile virus and other flaviviruses useful for discriminating flaviviral infections, as well as kits, methods and uses related thereto.

Washington University in St. Louis | Date: 2017-01-23

Disclosed herein are methods for transferring carbon nanotubes on a hydrogel scaffold. Carbon nanotubes are formed on a substrate and directly transferred onto a hydrogel surface. Carbon nanotubes transferred according to the present disclosure can be used in tissue engineering applications and electrode coating applications.

University of Kansas and Washington University in St. Louis | Date: 2017-04-05

A mutant HSV-1 (referred to herein as KOS-NA) was generated. KOS-NA contains novel mutations in the UL39 gene, which encodes for a protein that is a large subunit of ribonucleotide reductase (i.e., ICP6). These UL39 mutations were found to alter two amino acids in ICP6 (R950H and L393P) and are responsible for attenuation of KOS-NA in vivo, and resulted in diminished ICP6 protein levels. These novel UL39 mutations regulate the expression and/or stability of ICP6 and severely impact HSV-1 pathogenesis. Mutant HSV viruses containing these mutations appear to protect against HSV infection and can serve as therapeutic vaccines to help combat preexisting HSV infection in infected individuals.

Washington University in St. Louis, Eli Lilly and Company | Date: 2017-04-05

A method to treat conditions characterized by formation of amyloid plaques both grophylactically and therapeutically is described. The method employs humanized antibodies which sequester soluble A peptide from human biological fluids or which preferably specifically bind an epitope contained within position 13-28 of the amyloid beta peptide A.

Washington University in St. Louis and The Regents Of The University Of California | Date: 2017-04-26

The present invention is a method or system for acceptance testing and commissioning of a LINAC and treatment planning system (TPS). For a LINAC commissioning, the present invention collects reference data from a fully calibrated LINAC and compares the reference data with machine performance data collected from a testing LINAC. The compared results are analyzed to assess accuracy of the testing LINAC. For a TPS commissioning, the present invention collects standard reference data from standard treatment plans and standard input data and compares the standard reference data with results from standard tests that are performed by a testing treatment plan system. The compares results are analyzed to assess accuracy of the testing treatment plan system.

Petersen S.E.,Washington University in St. Louis | Posner M.I.,University of Oregon
Annual Review of Neuroscience | Year: 2012

Here, we update our 1990 Annual Review of Neuroscience article, "The Attention System of the Human Brain." The framework presented in the original article has helped to integrate behavioral, systems, cellular, and molecular approaches to common problems in attention research. Our framework has been both elaborated and expanded in subsequent years. Research on orienting and executive functions has supported the addition of new networks of brain regions. Developmental studies have shown important changes in control systems between infancy and childhood. In some cases, evidence has supported the role of specific genetic variations, often in conjunction with experience, that account for some of the individual differences in the efficiency of attentional networks. The findings have led to increased understanding of aspects of pathology and to some new interventions. © 2012 by Annual Reviews. All rights reserved.

Braver T.S.,Washington University in St. Louis
Trends in Cognitive Sciences | Year: 2012

A core component of cognitive control - the ability to regulate thoughts and actions in accordance with internally represented behavioral goals - might be its intrinsic variability. In this article, I describe the dual mechanisms of control (DMC) framework, which postulates that this variability might arise from qualitative distinctions in temporal dynamics between proactive and reactive modes of control. Proactive control reflects the sustained and anticipatory maintenance of goal-relevant information within lateral prefrontal cortex (PFC) to enable optimal cognitive performance, whereas reactive control reflects transient stimulus-driven goal reactivation that recruits lateral PFC (plus a wider brain network) based on interference demands or episodic associations. I summarize recent research that demonstrates how the DMC framework provides a coherent explanation of three sources of cognitive control variation - intra-individual, inter-individual and between-groups - in terms of proactive versus reactive control biases. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.

Westbrook A.,Washington University in St. Louis | Braver T.S.,Washington University in St. Louis
Neuron | Year: 2016

Cognitive control is subjectively costly, suggesting that engagement is modulated in relationship to incentive state. Dopamine appears to play key roles. In particular, dopamine may mediate cognitive effort by two broad classes of functions: (1) modulating the functional parameters of working memory circuits subserving effortful cognition, and (2) mediating value-learning and decision-making about effortful cognitive action. Here, we tie together these two lines of research, proposing how dopamine serves "double duty", translating incentive information into cognitive motivation. Temporally extended, goal-directed behavior often involves subjectively effortful cognition. Westbrook and Braver review two broad, complementary roles by which DA translates incentive information into cognitive motivation: (1) modulating working memory circuit parameters and (2) training decision value functions for cognitive engagement. © 2016 Elsevier Inc.

VanEssen D.C.,Washington University in St. Louis
Neuron | Year: 2013

The past 25 years have seen great progress in parcellating the cerebral cortex into a mosaic of many distinct areas in mice, monkeys, and humans. Quantitative studies of interareal connectivity have revealed unexpectedly many pathways and a wide range of connection strengths in mouse and macaque cortex. In humans, advances in analyzing "structural" and "functional" connectivity using powerful but indirect noninvasive neuroimaging methods are yielding intriguing insights about brain circuits, their variability across individuals, and their relationship to behavior.

Padoa-Schioppa C.,Washington University in St. Louis
Neuron | Year: 2013

To investigate the mechanisms through which economic decisions are formed, I examined the activity of neurons in the orbitofrontal cortex while monkeys chose between different juice types. Different classes of cells encoded the value of individual offers (. offer value), the value of the chosen option (. chosen value), or the identity of the chosen juice (. chosen juice). Choice variability was partly explained by the tendency to repeat choices (choice hysteresis). Surprisingly, near-indifference decisions did not reflect fluctuations in the activity of offer value cells. In contrast, near-indifference decisions correlated with fluctuations in the preoffer activity of chosen juice cells. After the offer, the activity of chosen juice cells reflected the decision difficulty but did not resemble a race-to-threshold. Finally, chosen value cells presented an "activity overshooting" closely related to the decision difficulty and possibly due to fluctuations in the relative value of the juices. This overshooting was independent of choice hysteresis.

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