Washington University in St. Louis is a private research university located in St. Louis, Missouri, United States. Founded in 1853, and named after George Washington, the university has students and faculty from all 50 U.S. states and more than 120 countries. Twenty-two Nobel laureates have been affiliated with Washington University, nine having done the major part of their pioneering research at the university. Washington University's undergraduate program is ranked 14th in the nation and 7th in admissions selectivity by U.S. News and World Report. The university is ranked 30th in the world by the Academic Ranking of World Universities. In 2006, the university received $434 million in federal research funds, ranking seventh among private universities receiving federal research and development support, and in the top four in funding from the National Institutes of Health.Washington University is made up of seven graduate and undergraduate schools that encompass a broad range of academic fields. Officially incorporated as "The Washington University," the university is occasionally referred to as "WUSTL," an acronym derived from its initials. More commonly, however, students refer to the university as "Wash. U." To prevent confusion over its location, the Board of Trustees added the phrase "in St. Louis" in 1976. Wikipedia.
Washington University in St. Louis, Eli Lilly and Company | Date: 2017-04-05
A method to treat conditions characterized by formation of amyloid plaques both grophylactically and therapeutically is described. The method employs humanized antibodies which sequester soluble A peptide from human biological fluids or which preferably specifically bind an epitope contained within position 13-28 of the amyloid beta peptide A.
Mardis E.R.,Washington University in St. Louis
Nature Protocols | Year: 2017
Recent advances in the field of genomics have largely been due to the ability to sequence DNA at increasing throughput and decreasing cost. DNA sequencing was first introduced in 1977, and next-generation sequencing technologies have been available only during the past decade, but the diverse experiments and corresponding analyses facilitated by these techniques have transformed biological and biomedical research. Here, I review developments in DNA sequencing technologies over the past 10 years and look to the future for further applications.
Washington University in St. Louis | Date: 2017-01-25
The present invention relates to mutant peptides of the E protein of the West Nile virus and other flaviviruses useful for discriminating flaviviral infections, as well as kits, methods and uses related thereto.
Chelaru F.,Washington University in St. Louis
Nature methods | Year: 2014
Visualization is an integral aspect of genomics data analysis. Algorithmic-statistical analysis and interactive visualization are most effective when used iteratively. Epiviz (http://epiviz.cbcb.umd.edu/), a web-based genome browser, and the Epivizr Bioconductor package allow interactive, extensible and reproducible visualization within a state-of-the-art data-analysis platform.
Kostakioti M.,Washington University in St. Louis
Cold Spring Harbor perspectives in medicine | Year: 2013
Biofilm formation constitutes an alternative lifestyle in which microorganisms adopt a multicellular behavior that facilitates and/or prolongs survival in diverse environmental niches. Biofilms form on biotic and abiotic surfaces both in the environment and in the healthcare setting. In hospital wards, the formation of biofilms on vents and medical equipment enables pathogens to persist as reservoirs that can readily spread to patients. Inside the host, biofilms allow pathogens to subvert innate immune defenses and are thus associated with long-term persistence. Here we provide a general review of the steps leading to biofilm formation on surfaces and within eukaryotic cells, highlighting several medically important pathogens, and discuss recent advances on novel strategies aimed at biofilm prevention and/or dissolution.
Chase J.M.,Washington University in St. Louis
Science | Year: 2010
Net primary productivity is a principal driver of biodiversity; large-scale regions with higher productivity generally have more species. This pattern emerges because β-diversity (compositional variation across local sites) increases with productivity, but the mechanisms underlying this phenomenon are unknown. Using data from a long-term experiment in replicate ponds, I show that higher βdiversity at higher productivity resulted from a stronger role for stochastic relative to deterministic assembly processes with increasing productivity. This shift in the relative importance of stochasticity was most consistent with the hypothesis of more intense priority effects leading to multiple stable equilibria at higher productivity. Thus, shifts in community assembly mechanisms across a productivity gradient may underlie one of the most prominent biodiversity gradients on the planet.
Fei R.,Washington University in St. Louis |
Yang L.,Washington University in St. Louis
Nano Letters | Year: 2014
Newly fabricated few-layer black phosphorus and its monolayer structure, phosphorene, are expected to be promising for electronic and optical applications because of their finite direct band gaps and sizable but anisotropic electronic mobility. By first-principles simulations, we show that this unique anisotropic free-carrier mobility can be controlled by using simple strain conditions. With the appropriate biaxial or uniaxial strain (4-6%), we can rotate the preferred conducting direction by 90°. This will be useful for exploring unusual quantum Hall effects and exotic electronic and mechanical applications based on phosphorene. © 2014 American Chemical Society.
Gautier E.L.,Washington University in St. Louis
Blood | Year: 2013
Chronic inflammatory diseases such as atherosclerosis are characterized by an accumulation of macrophages. To design therapies that would reduce macrophage burden during disease, understanding the cellular and molecular mechanisms that regulate macrophage removal from sites of resolving inflammation is critical. Although past studies have considered the local death of macrophages or the possibility that they emigrate out of inflammatory foci, methods to quantify death or emigration have never been employed. Here, we applied quantitative competition approaches and other methods to study resolution of thioglycollate-induced peritonitis, the model in which earlier work indicated that emigration to lymph nodes accounted for macrophage removal. We show that migration to lymph nodes occurred in a CC chemokine receptor 7-independent manner but, overall, had a quantitatively minor role in the removal of macrophages. Blocking migration did not significantly delay resolution. However, when macrophages resistant to death were competed against control macrophages, contraction of the macrophage pool was delayed in the apoptosis-resistant cells. These data refute the concept that macrophages are dominantly cleared through emigration and indicate that local death controls macrophage removal. This finding alters the emphasis on which cellular processes merit targeting in chronic diseases associated with accumulation of macrophages.
Yang L.,Washington University in St. Louis
Nano Letters | Year: 2011
We have performed first-principles calculations to study optical absorption spectra of doped graphene with many-electron effects included. Both self-energy corrections and electron-hole interactions are reduced due to the enhanced screening in doped graphene. However, self-energy corrections and excitonic effects nearly cancel each other, making the prominent optical absorption peak fixed around 4.5 eV under different doping conditions. On the other hand, an unexpected increase of the optical absorbance is observed within the infrared and visible-light frequency regime (1-3 eV). Our analysis shows that a combining effect from the band filling and electron-hole interactions results in such an enhanced excitonic effect on the optical absorption. These unique variations of the optical absorption of doped graphene are of importance to understand relevant experiments and design optoelectronic applications. © 2011 American Chemical Society.
Foston M.,Washington University in St. Louis
Current Opinion in Biotechnology | Year: 2014
Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy is a well-established analytical and enabling technology in biofuel research. Over the past few decades, lignocellulosic biomass and its conversion to supplement or displace non-renewable feedstocks has attracted increasing interest. The application of solid-state NMR spectroscopy has long been seen as an important tool in the study of cellulose and lignocellulose structure, biosynthesis, and deconstruction, especially considering the limited number of effective solvent systems and the significance of plant cell wall three-dimensional microstructure and component interaction to conversion yield and rate profiles. This article reviews common and recent applications of solid-state NMR spectroscopy methods that provide insight into the structural and dynamic processes of cellulose that control bulk properties and biofuel conversion. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.