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St. Louis, MO, United States

Washington University in St. Louis is a private research university located in St. Louis, Missouri, United States. Founded in 1853, and named after George Washington, the university has students and faculty from all 50 U.S. states and more than 120 countries. Twenty-two Nobel laureates have been affiliated with Washington University, nine having done the major part of their pioneering research at the university. Washington University's undergraduate program is ranked 14th in the nation and 7th in admissions selectivity by U.S. News and World Report. The university is ranked 30th in the world by the Academic Ranking of World Universities. In 2006, the university received $434 million in federal research funds, ranking seventh among private universities receiving federal research and development support, and in the top four in funding from the National Institutes of Health.Washington University is made up of seven graduate and undergraduate schools that encompass a broad range of academic fields. Officially incorporated as "The Washington University," the university is occasionally referred to as "WUSTL," an acronym derived from its initials. More commonly, however, students refer to the university as "Wash. U." To prevent confusion over its location, the Board of Trustees added the phrase "in St. Louis" in 1976. Wikipedia.

Kostakioti M.,Washington University in St. Louis
Cold Spring Harbor perspectives in medicine | Year: 2013

Biofilm formation constitutes an alternative lifestyle in which microorganisms adopt a multicellular behavior that facilitates and/or prolongs survival in diverse environmental niches. Biofilms form on biotic and abiotic surfaces both in the environment and in the healthcare setting. In hospital wards, the formation of biofilms on vents and medical equipment enables pathogens to persist as reservoirs that can readily spread to patients. Inside the host, biofilms allow pathogens to subvert innate immune defenses and are thus associated with long-term persistence. Here we provide a general review of the steps leading to biofilm formation on surfaces and within eukaryotic cells, highlighting several medically important pathogens, and discuss recent advances on novel strategies aimed at biofilm prevention and/or dissolution. Source

Chelaru F.,Washington University in St. Louis
Nature methods | Year: 2014

Visualization is an integral aspect of genomics data analysis. Algorithmic-statistical analysis and interactive visualization are most effective when used iteratively. Epiviz (http://epiviz.cbcb.umd.edu/), a web-based genome browser, and the Epivizr Bioconductor package allow interactive, extensible and reproducible visualization within a state-of-the-art data-analysis platform. Source

Fay J.C.,Washington University in St. Louis
Current Opinion in Genetics and Development | Year: 2013

The power of yeast genetics has now been extensively applied to phenotypic variation among strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. As a result, over 100 genes and numerous sequence variants have been identified, providing us with a general characterization of mutations underlying quantitative trait variation. Most quantitative trait alleles exert considerable phenotypic effects and alter conserved amino acid positions within protein coding sequences. When examined, quantitative trait alleles influence the expression of numerous genes, most of which are unrelated to an allele's phenotypic effect. The profile of quantitative trait alleles has proven useful to reverse quantitative genetics approaches and supports the use of systems genetics approaches to synthesize the molecular basis of trait variation across multiple strains. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Chase J.M.,Washington University in St. Louis
Science | Year: 2010

Net primary productivity is a principal driver of biodiversity; large-scale regions with higher productivity generally have more species. This pattern emerges because β-diversity (compositional variation across local sites) increases with productivity, but the mechanisms underlying this phenomenon are unknown. Using data from a long-term experiment in replicate ponds, I show that higher βdiversity at higher productivity resulted from a stronger role for stochastic relative to deterministic assembly processes with increasing productivity. This shift in the relative importance of stochasticity was most consistent with the hypothesis of more intense priority effects leading to multiple stable equilibria at higher productivity. Thus, shifts in community assembly mechanisms across a productivity gradient may underlie one of the most prominent biodiversity gradients on the planet. Source

Foston M.,Washington University in St. Louis
Current Opinion in Biotechnology | Year: 2014

Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy is a well-established analytical and enabling technology in biofuel research. Over the past few decades, lignocellulosic biomass and its conversion to supplement or displace non-renewable feedstocks has attracted increasing interest. The application of solid-state NMR spectroscopy has long been seen as an important tool in the study of cellulose and lignocellulose structure, biosynthesis, and deconstruction, especially considering the limited number of effective solvent systems and the significance of plant cell wall three-dimensional microstructure and component interaction to conversion yield and rate profiles. This article reviews common and recent applications of solid-state NMR spectroscopy methods that provide insight into the structural and dynamic processes of cellulose that control bulk properties and biofuel conversion. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. Source

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