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News Article | May 10, 2017
Site: www.prnewswire.com

The ACA and AHCA: Repeal, Replace, and Impact on Employer-Based Health Plans Ron E. Peck Senior Vice President and General Counsel The Phia Group, Braintree, Mass. Healthcare reform continues to be a hot topic, though what that means varies from person to person. Regardless of your view on healthcare, it cannot be denied that the majority of Americans have, and continue to receive, healthcare through their employer. How the cost of healthcare, existing and new laws, and other innovative methodologies impact employer based health plans, and the evolving nature of these plans -- today and in the future -- are topics Peck is available to discuss: "In the United States of America, our lawmakers have and continue to focus entirely on 'who' pays for healthcare. Ensuring every American has health insurance has not, and will not, solve the problem. The issue is that healthcare costs too much in this country. The only solution will come from a combination of consumerism on the part of patients -- who must care about the cost of care they receive -- creative processes implemented by payers, and more efficient, cost-effective providers. The industry must solve the problem of cost, as lawmakers seem unable or unwilling to challenge those who game the system, and dip deeply into what is perceived to be the bottomless pocket that is insurance." ProfNet Profile: http://www.profnetconnect.com/ronpeck Website: www.phiagroup.com Contact: Matthew Painten, mpainten@phiagroup.com Immigration and the Trump Administration Juan Carlos Gómez Director of Clinical Programs; Director of the Carlos A. Costa Immigration and Human Rights Clinic Florida International University, Miami Gómez was recently quoted on NBC 6 in Florida regarding Trump's executive order on immigration (article: http://tinyurl.com/l4dwyrt): "I think the community, while worried, should not panic. They should go get the correct information, understanding that this is only the beginning of a new policy but due process still exists in the United States." Gómez has been defending the rights of individuals in immigration matters for the last 20 years. During this time, he has represented persons before the United States Court of Appeals for the Eleventh Circuit, the United States Departments of Justice and Homeland Security in complex immigration matters. Within the field of immigration law, he has helped thousands of individuals in situations including removal and deportation proceedings, family immigration, and the transfer of professionals and executives to the United States. Gómez counsels international and national corporations on compliance with immigration laws. He also has coordinated teams of attorneys in multi-forum conflicts to effectively resolve clients' problems. As an attorney for a Central American Refugee Project, he coordinated the representation of thousands of individuals in the Southeastern United States in a national class action. He has represented refugees from every part of the world where there have been conflicts over the last two decades. As director of East Little Havana Legal Services, he led a team of attorneys to resolve the series of problems faced by clients in a holistic manner. Gómez is a highly sought-out attorney by other immigration attorneys for consultation on complex matters. In addition to having taught at a law school, he frequently lectures on immigration matters before professional organizations. He recently participated in a roundtable discussion on this topic: Part 1: http://tinyurl.com/mfeqezz, Part 2: http://tinyurl.com/lcfb53s, Part 3: http://tinyurl.com/mvv7tof Contact: Jessica Drouet, Jdrouet@fiu.edu GOP Reform/Repeal of Dodd-Frank Act Michael Imerman Assistant Professor of Finance Lehigh University Dr. Imerman is available to discuss proposals to reform or repeal the Dodd-Frank Act, passed in 2010 to provide financial regulation: "Both Dodd-Frank and the proposed replacement, the Financial CHOICE Act, seek to end Too-Big-To-Fail, reduce systemic risk, hold Wall Street accountable, improve transparency of complex markets, and protect the American taxpayer from government bailouts. I absolutely do not think that the Dodd-Frank Act needs to be repealed and replaced, and these attempts to do so are purely a matter of partisan politics. Is the Dodd-Frank Act perfect? Certainly not. But the answer would be to refine those areas that are not holding up so well, not eliminate the whole thing. Too-Big-To-Fail still is a real problem. In a soon-to-be-released paper, I show one of the most effective ways to combat TBTF is to require the largest banks to hold more capital. If banks find this to be too expensive, they can sell off assets and scale down their size; otherwise, they should be required to hold disproportionately more capital to reduce the risk of a taxpayer-sponsored bailout." Dr. Imerman's research focuses on credit risk modeling, banking and financial institutions, risk management, and derivatives. Bio: http://cbe.lehigh.edu/faculty/finance/michael-b-imerman Contact: Amy White, abw210@lehigh.edu Following are experts from the ProfNet network who are available for interviews regarding Trump's tax reform plan: Trump's Tax Plan Rebecca Kysar Professor of Law Brooklyn Law School Kysar is available for comment on Trump's tax plan. Here is an excerpt from a January op-ed she wrote for Slate: "It is not realistic to expect the tax code to be set in stone. But the pillars of tax reform should be stable enough to form the basis of long-term investment and growth. Radical, partisan tax reform will prove short-lived and ineffective. Reform that gives the lion's share of its benefits to the wealthy and adds trillions to the debt runs the risk of exacerbating inequality within and between generations, perhaps alienating Trump voters who elevated him to the White House based on his populist rhetoric." Kysar teaches and researches in the areas of federal income tax, international tax, and the federal budget and tax legislative processes. Her recent scholarship examines tax treaties, as well as the tax legislative process. Her articles have appeared in the Cornell Law Review, the Iowa Law Review, the Notre Dame Law Review, the University of Pennsylvania Law Review, the Washington University Law Review, and the Yale Journal of International Law, among others. Bio: https://www.brooklaw.edu/faculty/directory/facultymember/biography?id=rebecca.kysar Contact: John Mackin, john.mackin@brooklaw.edu President Trump's Tax Reform Proposal Robert Duquette Professor of Practice in Accounting Lehigh University Duquette is available to discuss President Trump's tax reform proposal, as well as the House proposal and the need for tax reform. He can comment on who benefits from these proposals, their projected impact on economic growth and national debt, whether they will pass, and why true tax reform is needed: "President Trump's plan consists of three individual tax brackets: 10 percent, 25 percent and 35 percent; and a doubling of the standard deduction. That would mean, for example, the first $24,000 of a couple's taxable income would be exempt from taxes. The House's version also provides for new, higher combined exemption deductions of $12,000 for singles ($18,000 with children), and $24,000 for couples filing jointly, and consists of three tax rates: 12 percent, 25 percent and 33 percent. Who benefits the most from these plans? The Tax Foundation projects that taxpayers would see an average increase in their after-tax income of between 1 percent and 10 percent in total over 10 years. However, the top 1 percent would benefit the most, with the wealthiest taxpayers seeing an increase in their after-tax income of 5 percent to 20 percent. What is the impact on economic growth and the national debt? A significant part of the cost would be offset by broadening the tax base through elimination of many deductions and credit, loss of business interest deductibility, loss of the domestic manufacturing deduction, and possibly a tax on some type of imports. All independent analyses of the proposals indicate there would probably be trillions of dollars added to the federal debt over the next 10 years. I'm not optimistic of passage of this tax reform in Congress. Even if it does pass, no reputable study has yet suggested it can help mitigate the growth in the national debt from the present $20 million to $30 trillion over the next 10 years." In addition to teaching taxation and accounting, Duquette is a CPA and has worked in tax and audit advising for three decades. Blog: http://cbe.lehigh.edu/blog Bio: http://cbe.lehigh.edu/faculty/accounting/robert-duquette Contact: Amy White, abw210@lehigh.edu Corporate, Trust and Estate Planning-Related Questions Michael Kosnitzky Partner Pillsbury Winthrop Shaw Pittman LLP "The Trump tax proposal to reduce rates on business income from flow through entities like S corporations and domestic limited liability companies has the potential to cause tax inequities. However, the Treasury and the IRS have ample tools under existing law to police this unfairness. Taxpayers should look to IRS policy on 'reasonable compensation' and the existing tax regimes under the so-called passive activity rules and net investment income tax rules for guidance on how the government will deal with aggressive taxpayers in similar situations." Bio: https://www.pillsburylaw.com/en/lawyers/michael-kosnitzky.html Contact: Matt Hyams, Matt.hyams@pillsburylaw.com Tax Rates for Businesses Larry Elkin, CFP, CPA President Palisades Hudson Financial Group, Fort Lauderdale, Fla. "President Trump thinks income generated by privately held Palisades Hudson Financial Group should be taxed at the same rate as income generated by Alphabet Inc., Google's publicly traded parent company. And he thinks the rate for both businesses should be an attractively low 15 percent. You might expect me to be delighted by this news. I am a Republican, and we Republicans generally believe tax rates should be as low as possible. I also happen to be the owner of Palisades Hudson Financial Group. And I would be delighted with Trump's proposal, except for one thing: It's a phenomenally bad idea. Trump's proposal that all business income be taxed at the same (low) rate makes rhetorical sense, but not logical sense. To see why, consider the two companies I just mentioned. Alphabet is what tax nerds call a C corporation. It pays its own income taxes and then, when it distributes remaining income to shareholders in the form of dividends, that income is taxed again at the shareholders' rate. This means that by the time a single dollar of Alphabet's pretax income reaches a shareholder, federal taxes have reduced it to as little as 52 cents. But Palisades Hudson is not taxed that way. Like nearly all owner-operated businesses, it does not pay its own taxes as a separate entity. Instead, its net income is included on the owner's tax return and is only taxed once. This is what is meant by a 'pass-through' entity. Cutting my taxes on Palisades Hudson's net income to 15 percent would mean my income would be taxed at half the rate of the wages I pay many of my employees, or even less. And this would be the case for many firms nationwide under the proposed rules, including some much larger than mine." Website: www.palisadeshudson.com Contact: Henry Stimpson, henry@stimpsoncommunications.com 'Pass-Through Rate' and 'One-Time Repatriation Tax' Michael Faulkender Professor of Finance and Associate Dean of Master's Programs University of Maryland's Robert H. Smith School of Business On the pass-through rate: "President Trump's 'pass-through' proposal asks for abuse. Small-business owners could easily reclassify expenses to be net income and vice versa. If one mechanism has a lower tax rate than the other, the reclassifications will take place. Ideally, all income is subject to the same rate at the personal level, thus eliminating the incentive to reclassify the income." On the one-time repatriation tax: "A one-time tax on accumulated foreign earnings rewards corporations that have moved operations to foreign jurisdictions for gaming the tax system. Firms in position to move profits abroad (by transfer pricing of intellectual capital), and that anticipated being subject to the tax on the differential, would see that tax liability fall from as high as 35 percent to perhaps 5-8 percent." Faulkender's "Taxes and Leverage at Multinational Corporations" is published in the Journal of Financial Economics (summarized here: http://tinyurl.com/n3bgpkt). Bio: https://www.rhsmith.umd.edu/directory/michael-faulkender Contact: Greg Muraski, gmuraski@rhsmith.umd.edu Eliminating State-Local Deductions Albert "Pete" Kyle Professor of Finance University of Maryland's Robert H. Smith School of Business "Eliminating the tax deductibility of state income taxes, while preserving the tax deductibility of property taxes, would encourage states like California and New York to lower income taxes and increase property taxes. In particular, I would expect property tax caps in California to be phased out over time if these changes are made." Kyle has served as an economic advisor to NASDAQ, the Financial Industry Regulatory Authority and the Commodity Futures Trading Commission. Bio: https://www.rhsmith.umd.edu/directory/albert-pete-kyle Contact: Greg Muraski, gmuraski@rhsmith.umd.edu Trump's Tax Reform Proposals and the GOP Blueprint Stephen M. Breitstone Partner and Vice Chairman Meltzer, Lippe, Goldstein & Breitstone, Mineola, N.Y. A tax attorney, Breitstone can readily discuss how Trump's tax reform proposals and the GOP blueprint could affect business in general, and especially the real estate industry, from commercial, office and rental owners and investors to individuals. Among other issues, Breitstone can discuss the implications of: standard and itemized deductions; repeal of the deductions for state and local taxes and the Alternative Minimum Tax (AMT); tax on business; Immediate expensing of capital expenditures and elimination of interest deduction; estate and gift taxes. Says Breitstone: "It is likely that any tax reform would also include 'immediate expensing.' The GOP blueprint proposes 'immediate expensing' of capital expenditures, including machinery and buildings, but not land. This is coupled with the elimination of the deduction for interest (all interest, except interest on personal mortgages, which hardly anyone would claim due to the increased standard deduction). For businesses that make investments in buildings and machinery (and probably for the owners of pass-through entities as well), the tax rate of 15% is mostly for show. The actual tax rate, at least for the next few years, will be zero. Immediate expensing will wipe out all income tax liabilities, at least in the short run. This may result in an increased flow of liquidity to these businesses to invest and to grow. But this will be short-lived. After the deduction for immediate expensing is used up, there will be no depreciation deduction and no interest deduction on the debt incurred to fund these investments. That means the effective tax rate on these businesses will soar." Breitstone further questions immediate expensing as proposed, as it doesn't target growth in areas where we really need it, such as education, technology and infrastructure. If you throw money at dying industries, it may only accelerate the further layoff of employees by encouraging increased automation. Bio: http://www.meltzerlippe.com/attorneys/stephen-breitstone/ Website: http://www.meltzerlippe.com Contact: Peggy Kalia, pkalia@epoch5.com Impact of Trump's Plan Adnan Mahmud Founder LiveStories LiveStories is a civic data intelligence platform used by local, state, and federal governments to make massive data stores easier to understand for the general public. The company released a report called, "Five Facts: State Taxes and Spending" that includes findings on state and local expenditures based on the most recent U.S. Census. Mahmud is available to explain what this data can tell us about how Trump's tax reform plan will impact Americans. He can use these findings to illuminate opportunities and challenges that need to be considered in light of these policy changes. Contact: Rosie Gillam, rosie.gillam@walkersands.com How Reform Will Impact Citizens at Different Tax Levels Jinette Chiappetta, CPA Wealth Manager Equity Concepts Chiappetta can discuss how reform will impact citizens at different tax levels, as well as the overall economy. She is a wealth manager at Equity Concepts, a Richmond, Va.-based wealth management firm that serves more than 2,000 households and oversees approximately $875+ million in assets. Prior to joining Equity Concepts, Chiappetta spent 20 years in the tax field, with 15 years of public accounting experience and five years of corporate tax experiences. As a CPA, she places an emphasis on analyzing the impact of investment strategies on tax situations. Website: http://www.equity-concepts.com Contact: Kelly Holcombe, Kelly@flackable.com Impacts on Individuals and Business Owners Bill Smith Managing Director, National Tax Office CBIZ MHM Smith is available to address the impacts of the plan on both individuals and business owners, the feasibility of the plan, and how it may evolve over time. He has more than 30 years of experience in both the public and private sectors, including five years in the office of General Counsel at Deloitte & Touche LLP, where he was responsible for all aspects of the firm's tax practice; five years as a tax lawyer for the Department of Justice in Washington, D.C.; and 12 years in private practice in San Francisco, representing businesses of all sizes and high-wealth individuals in developing and implementing tax strategies or negotiating with the IRS in Tax Court or administratively. Smith assumed his current position more than 15 years ago and is based in Bethesda, Md. In this role, he consults nationally on a broad range of tax services, including foreign and domestic transactional tax planning for corporations, partnerships, LLCs and individuals, such as mergers and acquisitions, domestic and international restructuring of businesses and investments, and negotiating partnership and other transactions. He is a frequent speaker at national conferences, and serves as a testifying expert in the area of accountants' professional duties and ethical obligations. Smith is well-versed on Trump's tax plan, having authored the following blog posts/columns: "Key takeaways of Trump's tax plan for business owners" (http://tinyurl.com/le365om), "The votes are in: Introducing the new president's tax plan" (http://tinyurl.com/nxja73y), "Comparing presidential candidates' tax reform plans" (http://tinyurl.com/k2tytgu), and "Trump's tax plan could help businesses, but questions remain (https://www.entrepreneur.com/article/293576). Contact: Lauren Davis, lauren@gregoryfca.com Retirement Planning Ed Slott, CPA Founder, Ed Slott & Company Creator, IRAhelp.com Slott is a New York-based nationally recognized IRA expert, television personality, and best-selling author who has dedicated his life to educating Americans on saving for retirement and the intricacies of IRAs. He was named "The Best Source for IRA Advice" by The Wall Street Journal, and USA Today wrote, "It would be tough to find anyone who knows more about IRAs than CPA Slott." He is the author of "The Retirement Savings Time Bomb … And How to Defuse It" and "Parlay Your IRA into a Family Fortune." His most recent books include "Fund Your Future: A Tax-Smart Savings Plan in Your 20s and 30s" and "The Retirement Decisions Guide: 125 Ways to Save and Stretch Your Wealth." He is the host of the 2015 public television show "Ed Slott's Retirement Road Map," which airs in markets nationwide. He is a frequent columnist and resource for national media and has hosted many best-selling public television specials. Through his firm, Slott provides the highest level of IRA training to financial professionals, CPAs and attorneys; and through his website, he offers free resources to consumers. Website: http://irahelp.com Contact: Mindy Eras, mindy@advisorpr.com Tax Planning Greg Hammer Tax and Wealth Advisor Hammer Financial Group, Inc. Hammer specializes in coordinated, holistic financial planning for Lake County, Ind., and Chicago-area residents who are approaching retirement or currently retired. Bringing tax preparation and planning, Medicare supplements, estate planning, insurance and investments all under one roof, he aims to provide complete and convenient financial solutions for the best interest of the clients he serves. Hammer trains and coaches independent financial advisors nationwide on how to build their business to better serve the holistic financial needs of American families. In particular, he has helped develop and refine processes to integrate tax preparation and Medicare supplement services into a financial advisory practice -- a unique addition within the financial industry designed for the ultimate convenience and benefit of clients at and near retirement. He earned a B.A. in Applied Mathematics with a focus in economics from Yale University and has more than 23 years of experience in the financial services industry. In addition to his series 6, 63, 65 and 26 and life and health licenses, Hammer maintains Master Elite Membership with Ed Slott's Elite IRA Advisor Group for continued study and mastery of IRAs and applicable tax laws. Contact: Mindy Eras, mindy@advisorpr.com Retirement Planning Jeff Warnkin, CPA and CFP The JL Smith Group Warnkin specializes in holistic financial planning for the pre-retired and retired residents of Ohio. As a holistic planner, he incorporates investments, insurance, taxes and estate planning when building financial plans in order create an optimal solution for the retirement years. Warnkin has more than 25 years of experience in the financial services industry, Series 7 and 24 securities licensed, has a Master of Taxation (MT) degree, and is life and health insurance licensed. He has also been personally trained by nationally acclaimed IRA expert Ed Slott, CPA, as a member of the exclusive Ed Slott's Elite IRA Advisor Group. Website: www.JLSmithGroup.com Contact: Mindy Eras, mindy@advisorpr.com Impact on Families and Investors Bijan Golkar CEO, Senior Advisor FPC Investment Advisory Golkar is a Northern California investment advisor that has been a licensed tax preparer since 2007 and earned the Certified Financial Planner (CFP) certification in 2013. He is frequently quoted in national media as an expert on investing and financial planning topics. In addition to his duties as the firm's CEO, Golkar provides comprehensive advice to high-net-worth individuals and families. He often creates and leads teams of legal, accounting and insurance experts to help these clients meet their goals. He also consults with small businesses on buyouts, employee benefits and other matters. ProfNet Profile: http://www.profnetconnect.com/bijan_golkar LinkedIn: https://www.linkedin.com/in/bgolkar/ Expert Contact: bijan@fpcwealth.com Following are links to job listings for staff and freelance writers, editors and producers. You can view these and more job listings on our Job Board: https://prnmedia.prnewswire.com/community/jobs/ Following are links to other news and resources we think you might find useful. If you have an item you think other reporters would be interested in and would like us to include in a future alert, please drop us a line. PROFNET is an exclusive service of PR Newswire. To view the original version on PR Newswire, visit:http://www.prnewswire.com/news-releases/profnet-experts-available-on-tax-reform-dodd-frank-ahca-more-300455385.html

CrowdReviews.com Partnered with Madridge Conferences to Announce International Conference on Immunology and Immunotechnology Immunology-2017 features highly enlightening and interactive sessions to encourage the exchange of ideas across a wide range of disciplines in the field of immunology. Immunology-2017 mainly showcases comprehensive approaches in immunology study and research. The field of Immunology is growing rapidly and its development is making tremendous impacts in medical sciences. Immunology-2017 invites the contributions related to immunology research. You can submit your work in these broad themes. Conference mainly focuses on: Clinical and cellular immunology Tumour and cancer immunology Neuro immunology Parasitology Autoimmunity and Therapathies Mucosal immunology Reproductive Immunology Immunobiology Infection & Inflammatory Disease Rheumatology Haematopoiesis Transplantation Immunology Virology Immunodermatology Molecular and Structural Immunology Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology Allergology and Immunology All the abstracts should be submitted through Immunology-2017 Speakers: · Nadir Kadri, Karolinska Institute, Sweden · Pawel Gajdanowicz, Wroclaw Medical University, Poland · Joel Babdor, Stanford University School of Medicine, USA · Kwan Chow, Washington University, USA · Abdallah Badou, Cadi Ayyad University, Morocco Immunology-2017 Organizing Committee: · Carmen Fernández , Stockholm University, Sweden · Carl Borrebaeck, Lund University, Sweden · SY Seong, Seoul National University College of Medicine, South Korea · Shi, Guo-Ping, Brigham and Women's Hospital, USA · Gideon Berke, Weizmann Institute of Science, Isreal · Eyad Elkord, United Arab Emirates University, United ArabEmirates · Noah Isakov, Ben Gurion University of the Negev, Isreal · Joel Pomerantz, The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, USA · NanShan Chang, Institute of Molecular Medicine, Taiwan · Hisaya Akiba, Juntendo University School of Medicine, Japan · Ricardo Luiz Dantas Machado, Evandro Chagas Institute, Brazil Immunology-2017 is organizing an outstanding Scientific Exhibition/Program and anticipates the world’s leading specialists involved in Immunology Research. They welcome Sponsorship and Exhibitions from the Companies and Organizations who wish to showcase their products at this exciting event. Register for the conference and book your slots at: Contact person: Sumanjani immunology@madridge.com immunology@madridge.net Naples, FL, May 09, 2017 --( PR.com )-- International Conference Immunology and Immunotechnology is going to be held during November 1-3, 2017 in Barcelona, Spain.Immunology-2017 features highly enlightening and interactive sessions to encourage the exchange of ideas across a wide range of disciplines in the field of immunology. Immunology-2017 mainly showcases comprehensive approaches in immunology study and research. The field of Immunology is growing rapidly and its development is making tremendous impacts in medical sciences.Immunology-2017 invites the contributions related to immunology research. You can submit your work in these broad themes.Conference mainly focuses on:Clinical and cellular immunologyTumour and cancer immunologyNeuro immunologyParasitologyAutoimmunity and TherapathiesMucosal immunologyReproductive ImmunologyImmunobiologyInfection & Inflammatory DiseaseRheumatologyHaematopoiesisTransplantation ImmunologyVirologyImmunodermatologyMolecular and Structural ImmunologyVeterinary Immunology and ImmunopathologyAllergology and ImmunologyAll the abstracts should be submitted through online abstract submission or can be mailed at immunology@madridge.com Immunology-2017 Speakers:· Nadir Kadri, Karolinska Institute, Sweden· Pawel Gajdanowicz, Wroclaw Medical University, Poland· Joel Babdor, Stanford University School of Medicine, USA· Kwan Chow, Washington University, USA· Abdallah Badou, Cadi Ayyad University, MoroccoImmunology-2017 Organizing Committee:· Carmen Fernández , Stockholm University, Sweden· Carl Borrebaeck, Lund University, Sweden· SY Seong, Seoul National University College of Medicine, South Korea· Shi, Guo-Ping, Brigham and Women's Hospital, USA· Gideon Berke, Weizmann Institute of Science, Isreal· Eyad Elkord, United Arab Emirates University, United ArabEmirates· Noah Isakov, Ben Gurion University of the Negev, Isreal· Joel Pomerantz, The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, USA· NanShan Chang, Institute of Molecular Medicine, Taiwan· Hisaya Akiba, Juntendo University School of Medicine, Japan· Ricardo Luiz Dantas Machado, Evandro Chagas Institute, BrazilImmunology-2017 is organizing an outstanding Scientific Exhibition/Program and anticipates the world’s leading specialists involved in Immunology Research. They welcome Sponsorship and Exhibitions from the Companies and Organizations who wish to showcase their products at this exciting event.Register for the conference and book your slots at: http://immunology.madridge.com/register.php Contact person:Sumanjani

Nelson S.M.,Washington University
Brain structure & function | Year: 2010

In humans, the anterior insula (aI) has been the topic of considerable research and ascribed a vast number of functional properties by way of neuroimaging and lesion studies. Here, we argue that the aI, at least in part, plays a role in domain-general attentional control and highlight studies (Dosenbach et al. 2006; Dosenbach et al. 2007) supporting this view. Additionally, we discuss a study (Ploran et al. 2007) that implicates aI in processes related to the capture of focal attention. Task-level control and focal attention may or may not reflect information processing supported by a single functional area (within the aI). Therefore, we apply a novel technique (Cohen et al. 2008) that utilizes resting state functional connectivity MRI (rs-fcMRI) to determine whether separable regions exist within the aI. rs-fcMRI mapping suggests that the ventral portion of the aI is distinguishable from more dorsal/anterior regions, which are themselves distinct from more posterior parts of the aI. When these regions are applied to functional MRI (fMRI) data, the ventral and dorsal/anterior regions support processes potentially related to both task-level control and focal attention, whereas the more posterior aI regions did not. These findings suggest that there exists some functional heterogeneity within aI that may subserve related but distinct types of higher-order cognitive processing.

Luke D.A.,George Washington University | Stamatakis K.A.,Washington University
Annual Review of Public Health | Year: 2012

Complex systems abound in public health. Complex systems are made up of heterogeneous elements that interact with one another, have emergent properties that are not explained by understanding the individual elements of the system, persist over time, and adapt to changing circumstances. Public health is starting to use results from systems science studies to shape practice and policy, for example in preparing for global pandemics. However, systems science study designs and analytic methods remain underutilized and are not widely featured in public health curricula or training. In this review we present an argument for the utility of systems science methods in public health, introduce three important systems science methods (system dynamics, network analysis, and agent-based modeling), and provide three case studies in which these methods have been used to answer important public health science questions in the areas of infectious disease, tobacco control, and obesity. © 2012 by Annual Reviews. All rights reserved.

Kelton K.F.,Washington University | Kelton K.F.,Oak Ridge National Laboratory
Nature Materials | Year: 2013

Discrepancies in the glass-forming ability of metallic glasses have been explained in terms of the presence of local structural features in the liquid. Findings from molecular dynamics simulations now show that the structure of the crystal/liquid interface may play a bigger role than previously thought. More recently, metallic liquids that form glasses at the modest cooling rates typically required for silicate glasses have been discovered. These allow for the preparation of glasses with thicker cross-sections and have led to the development of new methods for metallic glass processing. Certainly, the demonstration that ordering in the liquid can have a strong influence on the crystal growth rate provides a useful conceptual addition to the arsenal of tools used to identify glass-forming liquids. The results of Tang and Harrowell make it clear that liquid ordering must also be considered when deepening the understanding of crystal growth.

Wang F.,Washington University | Buhro W.E.,Washington University
Journal of the American Chemical Society | Year: 2012

Di-n-octylphosphine oxide (DOPO) and di-n-octylphosphinic acid (DOPA), as two of impurities found in commercial tri-n-octylphosphine oxide (TOPO), generate significant differences in the outcomes of CdSe-nanocrystal (NC) syntheses. Using n-tetradecylphosphonic acid (TDPA) as the primary acid additive, quantum dots (QDs) are grown with DOPO added, whereas quantum rods (QRs) are grown in the presence of DOPA. While using oleic acid (OA) as the primary acid additive, QDs are generated and the QDs produced with DOPA exhibit larger sizes and size distributions than those produced with DOPO. 31P NMR analyses of the reaction mixtures reveal that the majority of the DOPO has been converted into DOPA and di-n-octylphosphine (DOP) with DOP being removed via evacuation over the course of Cd-precursor preparation. The origin of the puzzling differences in the shape control of CdSe NCs in the presence of DOPO and DOPA is elucidated to be the small quantity of DOPO present, which liberates DOP during NC synthesis. In the presence of DOP, regardless of DOPA, the precursor-conversion kinetics and thus the nucleation kinetics are dramatically accelerated, generating a large number of nuclei by consuming a significant amount of CdSe nutrients, favoring QD growth. Similarly, QD growth is favored by the fast nucleation kinetics in the presence of OA, and the broader size distributions of QDs with DOPA are due to a second nucleation event initiated by the more stable Cd-di-n-octylphosphinate component. In contrast, a slow nucleation event results in the growth of QRs in the case of using DOPA and TDPA, where no DOPO or DOP is present. The results, thus, demonstrate the important role of precursor-conversion kinetics in the control of NC morphologies. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

Accumulations of aggregated proteins are a key feature of the pathology of all of the major neurodegenerative diseases. Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) was brought into this fold quite recently with the discovery of TDP-43 (TAR DNA binding protein, 43 kDa) inclusions in nearly all ALS cases. In part this discovery was fueled by the recognition of the clinical overlap between ALS and frontotemporal lobar degeneration, where ubiquitinated TDP-43 inclusions were first identified. Later the identification of TDP-43 mutations in rare familial forms of ALS confirmed that altered TDP-43 function can be a primary cause of the disease. However, the simple concept that TDP-43 is an aggregation-prone protein that forms toxic inclusions capable of promoting neurodegeneration has not been upheld by initial investigations. This review discusses observations from human pathology, cell culture and animal model systems, to highlight our somewhat murky understanding of the relationship between TDP-43 aggregation and neurodegeneration. Aggregated proteins are a key pathologic feature of the major neurodegenerative diseases. TDP-43 aggregates are present in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), and mutations in TDP-43 cause rare familial forms of ALS. This review discusses observations from human pathology, cell culture, and animal model systems, to explore our understanding of the relationship between TDP-43 aggregation and neurodegeneration. © 2011 FEBS.

Catalano J.G.,Washington University
Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta | Year: 2011

Ordering of interfacial water at the hematite and corundum (0. 0. 1)-water interfaces has been characterized using in situ high resolution specular X-ray reflectivity measurements. The hematite (0. 0. 1) surface was prepared through an annealing process to produce a surface isostructural with corundum (0. 0. 1), facilitating direct comparison. Interfacial water was found to display a similar structure on this pair of isostructural surfaces. A single layer of adsorbed water having a large vibrational amplitude was present on each surface and additional ordering of water extended at least 1. nm into the bulk fluid, with the degree of ordering decreasing with increasing distance from the surfaces. Consistent with prior studies of the (0. 1. 2) and (1. 1. 0) surfaces of hematite and corundum, the configuration of water above the (0. 0. 1) surfaces is primarily controlled by the surface structure, specifically the arrangement of surface functional groups. However, interfacial water at the (0. 0. 1) surfaces displayed significantly larger vibrational amplitudes throughout the interfacial region than at other isostructural sets of hematite and corundum surfaces, indicating weaker ordering. Comparison of the vibrational amplitudes of adsorbed water on a series of oxide, silicate, and phosphate mineral surfaces suggests that the presence or absence of a substantial interfacial electrostatic field is the primary control on water ordering and not the surface structure itself. On surfaces for which charge originates dominantly through protonation-deprotonation reactions the controlling factor appears to be whether conditions exist where most functional groups are uncharged as opposed to the net surface charge. The doubly coordinated functional groups on hematite and corundum (0. 0. 1) surfaces are largely uncharged under slightly acidic to circumneutral pH conditions, leading to weak ordering, whereas singly coordinated groups on (0. 1. 2) and (1. 1. 0) surfaces of these phases are always charged, even when the net surface charge is zero, and induce strong water ordering. Surfaces lacking structural charge can thus be divided into two distinct classes that induce either strong or weak ordering of interfacial water. Surface functional group coordination is the ultimate control on this division as it determines the charge state of such groups under different protonation configurations. Ion adsorption and electron transfer processes may differ between these classes of surfaces because of the effect of water ordering strength on interfacial capacitances and hydrogen bonding. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.

Galletto R.,Washington University | Tomko E.J.,Washington University
Nucleic Acids Research | Year: 2013

In Saccharomyces cerevisiae Pif1 participates in a wide variety of DNA metabolic pathways both in the nucleus and in mitochondria. The ability of Pif1 to hydrolyse ATP and catalyse unwinding of duplex nucleic acid is proposed to be at the core of its functions. We recently showed that upon binding to DNA Pif1 dimerizes and we proposed that a dimer of Pif1 might be the species poised to catalysed DNA unwinding. In this work we show that monomers of Pif1 are able to translocate on single-stranded DNA with 5′ to 3′ directionality. We provide evidence that the translocation activity of Pif1 could be used in activities other than unwinding, possibly to displace proteins from ssDNA. Moreover, we show that monomers of Pif1 retain some unwinding activity although a dimer is clearly a better helicase, suggesting that regulation of the oligomeric state of Pif1 could play a role in its functioning as a helicase or a translocase. Finally, although we show that Pif1 can translocate on ssDNA, the translocation profiles suggest the presence on ssDNA of two populations of Pif1, both able to translocate with 5′ to 3′ directionality. © 2013 The Author(s).

Schuette W.M.,Washington University | Buhro W.E.,Washington University
ACS Nano | Year: 2013

Various additives are employed in the polyol synthesis of silver nanowires (Ag NWs), which are typically halide salts such as NaCl. A variety of mechanistic roles have been suggested for these additives. We now show that the early addition of NaCl in the polyol synthesis of Ag NWs from AgNO3 in ethylene glycol results in the rapid formation of AgCl nanocubes, which induce the heterogeneous nucleation of metallic Ag upon their surfaces. Ag NWs subsequently grow from these nucleation sites. The conclusions are supported by studies using ex situ generated AgCl nanocubes. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

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