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Pullman, WA, United States

Washington State University is a public research university based in Pullman, Washington, in the Palouse region of the northwest United States.Founded 125 years ago in 1890, WSU is the state's only land-grant university. The university is well known for its programs in chemical engineering, veterinary medicine, agriculture, animal science, food science, plant science, architecture, neuroscience and communications. It is one of 96 public and private universities in America with "very high research activity," as determined by the Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching. With an undergraduate enrollment of 25,092 and a total student enrollment of 27,642, it is the second largest institution of higher education in Washington state.The university also operates campuses across Washington known as WSU Spokane, WSU Tri-Cities, and WSU Vancouver, all founded in 1989. In 2012, WSU launched an Internet-based Global Campus, which includes its online degree program, WSU Online. These campuses award primarily bachelor's and master's degrees. Freshmen and sophomores were first admitted to the Vancouver campus in 2006 and to the Tri-Cities campus in 2007. Total enrollment for the four campuses and WSU Online exceeds 25,900 students. In 2009, this included a record 1,447 international students, the highest since 1994 when there were 1,442.WSU's athletic teams are called the Cougars and the school colors are crimson and gray. The six men's and nine women's varsity teams compete in NCAA Division I in the Pacific-12 Conference. Wikipedia.

Cutler K.A.,Washington State University
Journal of American College Health | Year: 2014

Objective: National college health data indicate that prescription stimulants are the most widely misused prescription drugs among college students, with 9% admitting to nonmedical use within the past year.1 Although motivations for the nonmedical use of these drugs have been explored, scant attention has been paid to justifications for nonmedical use. This article fills that gap by expounding upon the justifications students incite to defend their nonmedical use of these drugs. Participants: Seventy-six college students from a large, public northwestern university. Methods: Semistructured interviews were conducted during the 2010-2011 academic year. Results: Inductive analysis uncovered social learning theories of crime/deviance, more specifically, Sykes and Matza's neutralization theory2 as helping to inform justifications for nonmedical stimulant use. This theory was modified to better encompass the justifications that students employed. Conclusion: Justifications for use must become a more central part of the conversation surrounding nonmedical stimulant use among the college population. Copyright © Taylor & Francis Group, LLC. © 2014 Source

ElGawady M.A.,Washington State University | Dawood H.M.,Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University
Engineering Structures | Year: 2012

Precast segmental construction technique is an excellent candidate for economic rapid bridge construction in highly congested urban environments and environmentally sensitive regions. This paper presents three dimensional nonlinear finite element models using ABAQUS{minus 45 degree rule}Standard for evaluating the behavior of segmental precast post-tensioned piers under lateral loads. The piers were constructed by stacking precast concrete filled fiber reinforced polymer tube segments one on top of the other and then connecting the assembly structurally with vertical post-tensioning tendons passing through ducts located in the precast segments. A stress-strain relationship for confined concrete was used to model the concrete. The post-tensioning tendons were modeled with beam elements. The model was able to predict the backbone curves for two piers subjected to cyclic loads. A parametric study indicated that increasing the applied post-tensioning force increases nominal strength. Finally, the model showed that the pier aspect ratio, cross sectional diameter size, pier size, and confinement have significant effects on the performance of the investigated piers. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Pang K.C.,University of Washington | Beauchaine T.P.,Washington State University
Developmental Psychobiology | Year: 2013

Conduct disorder (CD) and depression co-occur at far greater levels than chance, despite largely separate diagnostic criteria. One potential shared mechanism of this comorbidity is emotion dysregulation, which characterizes both internalizing and externalizing disorders. Previous research demonstrates that respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA)-a peripheral biomarker of emotion regulation-is attenuated among children with CD, and among children with depression. However, few studies have examined biomarkers of emotion regulation as a function of heterotypic comorbidity. We evaluated longitudinal patterns of RSA and RSA reactivity to emotion evocation across three annual assessments among 207 children diagnosed at ages 8-12 years with CD (n=30), depression (n=28), comorbid CD and depression (n=80), or no psychiatric condition (n=69). Using continuous symptom counts as predictors, Depression×CD interactions were observed for both Time 1 resting RSA and Time 1 RSA reactivity. CD, depression, and their interaction were all associated with low resting RSA at Time 1. In addition, concurrently elevated CD and depression scores predicted the greatest RSA reactivity to emotion evocation. Psychopathology scores were unrelated to developmental changes in RSA and RSA reactivity over time. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Source

Nuismer S.L.,University of Idaho | Gomulkiewicz R.,Washington State University | Ridenhour B.J.,Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
American Naturalist | Year: 2010

Studying the correlation between traits of interacting species has long been a popular approach for identifying putative cases of coevolution. More recently, such approaches have been used as a means to evaluate support for the geographic mosaic theory of coevolution. Here we examine the utility of these approaches, using mathematical and computational models to predict the correlation that evolves between traits of interacting species for a broad, range of interaction types. Our results reveal that coevolution is neither a necessary nor a sufficient condition for the evolution of spatially correlated traits between two species. Specifically, our results show that coevolutionary selection fails to consistently generate statistically significant correlations and, conversely, that non-coevolutionary processes can readily cause statistically significant correlations to evolve. In addition, our results demonstrate that studies of trait correlations per se cannot be used as evidence either for or against a geographic mosaic process. Taken together, our results suggest that understanding the coevolutionary process in natural populations will require detailed mechanistic studies conducted in multiple populations or the use of more sophisticated statistical approaches that, better use information contained in existing data sets. © 2010 by The University of Chicago. Source

Peterson K.A.,Washington State University
Journal of Chemical Physics | Year: 2015

New correlation consistent basis sets based on both pseudopotential (PP) and all-electron Douglas-Kroll-Hess (DKH) Hamiltonians have been developed from double- to quadruple-zeta quality for the actinide atoms thorium and uranium. Sets for valence electron correlation (5f6s6p6d), cc - pV nZ - PP and cc - pV nZ - DK3, as well as outer-core correlation (valence + 5s5p5d), cc - pwCV nZ - PP and cc - pwCV nZ - DK3, are reported (n = D, T, Q). The -PP sets are constructed in conjunction with small-core, 60-electron PPs, while the -DK3 sets utilized the 3rd-order Douglas-Kroll-Hess scalar relativistic Hamiltonian. Both series of basis sets show systematic convergence towards the complete basis set limit, both at the Hartree-Fock and correlated levels of theory, making them amenable to standard basis set extrapolation techniques. To assess the utility of the new basis sets, extensive coupled cluster composite thermochemistry calculations of ThFn (n = 2 - 4), ThO2, and UFn (n = 4 - 6) have been carried out. After accurately accounting for valence and outer-core correlation, spin-orbit coupling, and even Lamb shift effects, the final 298 K atomization enthalpies of ThF4, ThF3, ThF2, and ThO2 are all within their experimental uncertainties. Bond dissociation energies of ThF4 and ThF3, as well as UF6 and UF5, were similarly accurate. The derived enthalpies of formation for these species also showed a very satisfactory agreement with experiment, demonstrating that the new basis sets allow for the use of accurate composite schemes just as in molecular systems composed only of lighter atoms. The differences between the PP and DK3 approaches were found to increase with the change in formal oxidation state on the actinide atom, approaching 5-6 kcal/mol for the atomization enthalpies of ThF4 and ThO2. The DKH3 atomization energy of ThO2 was calculated to be smaller than the DKH2 value by ∼1 kcal/mol. © 2015 AIP Publishing LLC. Source

Worthey G.,Washington State University | Lee H.-C.,University of Texas-Pan American
Astrophysical Journal, Supplement Series | Year: 2011

A collection of Johnson/Cousins photometry for stars with known [Fe/H] is used to generate color-color relations that include the abundance dependence. Literature temperature and bolometric correction (BC) dependences are attached to the color relations. The JHK colors are transformed to the Bessell & Brett homogenized system. The main result of this work is the tabulation of seven colors and the V-band BC as a function of T eff, log g, and [Fe/H] for -1.06 < V - K < 10.2 and an accompanying interpolation program. Improvements to the present calibration would involve filling photometry gaps, obtaining more accurate and on-system photometry, knowing better log g and [Fe/H] values, improving the statistics for data-impoverished groups of stars such as metal-poor K dwarfs, applying small tweaks in the processing pipeline, and obtaining better empirical temperature and BC relations, especially for supergiants and M stars. A way to estimate dust extinction from M dwarf colors is pointed out. © 2011. The American Astronomical Society. All rights reserved. Source

Kerby J.L.,University of South Dakota | Richards-Hrdlicka K.L.,Yale University | Storfer A.,Washington State University | Skelly D.K.,Yale University
Ecology Letters | Year: 2010

Nearly two decades ago, the global biodiversity crisis was catapulted to the front pages of newspapers with the recognition of worldwide amphibian declines. Amphibians earned their appellation, 'canaries in a coal mine', because of apparent high sensitivity to human-mediated environmental change. The most frequently cited causes for high susceptibility include permeable skin, a dual aquatic-terrestrial life cycle and a relatively rudimentary immune system. While some researchers have questioned the basis for the canary assertion, there has been no systematic evaluation of amphibian sensitivity to environmental challenges relative to other taxa. Here, we apply a database representing thousands of toxicity tests to compare the responses of amphibians relative to that of other taxonomic groups. The use of standardized methods combined with large numbers of identical challenges enables a particularly powerful test of relative effect size. Overall, we found that amphibians only exhibit moderate relative responses to water-borne toxins. Our findings imply that, as far as chemical contaminants are concerned, amphibians are not particularly sensitive and might more aptly be described as 'miners in a coal mine'. To the extent that amphibian declines have been mediated by chemical contaminants, our findings suggest that population losses and extinctions may have already occurred in a variety of taxa much more sensitive than amphibians. © 2009 Blackwell Publishing Ltd/CNRS. Source

Murphy M.A.,Colorado State University | Storfer A.,Washington State University
Ecology | Year: 2010

A major objective of ecology is to understand how ecological processes limit population connectivity and species' distributions. By spatially quantifying ecological components driving functional connectivity, we can understand why some locally suitable habitats are unoccupied, resulting in observed discontinuities in distribution. However, estimating connectivity may be difficult due to population stochasticity and violations of assumptions of parametric statistics. To address these issues, we present a novel application of Random Forests to landscape genetic data. We address the effects of three key ecological components on Bufo boreas connectivity in Yellowstone National Park: ecological process, scale, and hierarchical organization. Habitat permeability, topographic morphology, and temperature-moisture regime are all significant ecological processes associated with B. boreas connectivity. Connectivity was influenced by growing-season precipitation, 1988 Yellowstone fires, cover, temperature, impervious surfaces (roads and development), and topographic complexity (56% variation explained). We found that habitat permeability generally operates on fine scales, while topographic morphology and temperature-moisture regime operate across multiple scales, thus demonstrating the importance of cross-scale analysis for ecological interpretation. In a hierarchical analysis, we were able to explain more variation within genetic clusters as identified using Structure (a Bayesian algorithm) (74%; dispersal cover, growingseason precipitation, impervious surfaces) as opposed to between genetic clusters (45%; ridgelines, hot, dry slopes, length of hot season, and annual precipitation). Finally, the analytical methods we developed are powerful and can be applied to any species or system with appropriate landscape and genetic data. © 2010 by the Ecological Society of America. Source

Rodgers B.D.,Washington State University
Circulation Research | Year: 2016

Recent portrayals of growth differentiation factor (GDF)-11 as an endocrine fountain of youth fail to consider the competitive influences of myostatin, a homologous protein with true endocrine action that binds the identical receptor, activin receptor IIb (ActRIIb). Subsequent studies have disproven the original premise that circulating levels of GDF11, but not those of myostatin, decline with age as the exact opposite seems to be true. These latter studies also seriously question the validity of data presented in the previous reports and indicate that myostatin circulates at levels 500× greater than those of GDF11; yet, both ligands share nearly identical affinities for ActRIIb. The compromised striated muscle function, neurogenesis, and vascular remodeling that occur with advanced age are, therefore, not caused by reduced circulating GDF11 as it could never outcompete myostatin for shared receptor-binding sites. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc. Source

Hensley K.,University of Toledo | Denton T.T.,Washington State University
Free Radical Biology and Medicine | Year: 2015

Scientific appreciation for the subtlety of brain sulfur chemistry has lagged, despite understanding that the brain must maintain high glutathione (GSH) to protect against oxidative stress in tissue that has both a high rate of oxidative respiration and a high content of oxidation-prone polyunsaturated fatty acids. In fact, the brain was long thought to lack a complete transsulfuration pathway (TSP) for cysteine synthesis. It is now clear that not only does the brain possess a functional TSP, but brain TSP enzymes catalyze a rich array of alternative reactions that generate novel species including the gasotransmitter hydrogen sulfide (H2S) and the atypical amino acid lanthionine (Lan). Moreover, TSP intermediates can be converted to unusual cyclic ketimines via transamination. Cell-penetrating derivatives of one such compound, lanthionine ketimine (LK), have potent antioxidant, neuroprotective, neurotrophic, and antineuroinflammatory actions and mitigate diverse neurodegenerative conditions in preclinical rodent models. This review will explore the source and function of alternative TSP products, and lanthionine-derived metabolites in particular. The known biological origins of lanthionine and its ketimine metabolite will be described in detail and placed in context with recent discoveries of a GSH- and LK-binding brain protein called LanCL1 that is proving essential for neuronal antioxidant defense; and a related LanCL2 homolog now implicated in immune sensing and cell fate determinations. The review will explore possible endogenous functions of lanthionine metabolites and will discuss the therapeutic potential of lanthionine ketimine derivatives for mitigating diverse neurological conditions including Alzheimers disease, stroke, motor neuron disease, and glioma. © 2014 Elsevier Inc. Source

Two-photon absorption (TPA) efficiency - scale corrected - as a function of the number of effective electrons, Neff, for the N-core organometallics dendrimers reported by Roberts et. al. (1, 2, 3; spheres); which are two orders of magnitude more efficient than the N-core organic dendrimers (G0, G1, G2; hexagons) used for comparison. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim. Source

Sharpless B.A.,Washington State University
Journal of Sleep Research | Year: 2015

Exploding head syndrome is characterized by the perception of loud noises during sleep-wake or wake-sleep transitions. Although episodes by themselves are relatively harmless, it is a frightening phenomenon that may result in clinical consequences. At present there are little systematic data on exploding head syndrome, and prevalence rates are unknown. It has been hypothesized to be rare and to occur primarily in older (i.e. 50+ years) individuals, females, and those suffering from isolated sleep paralysis. In order to test these hypotheses, 211 undergraduate students were assessed for both exploding head syndrome and isolated sleep paralysis using semi-structured diagnostic interviews: 18.00% of the sample experienced lifetime exploding head syndrome, this reduced to 16.60% for recurrent cases. Though not more common in females, it was found in 36.89% of those diagnosed with isolated sleep paralysis. Exploding head syndrome episodes were accompanied by clinically significant levels of fear, and a minority (2.80%) experienced it to such a degree that it was associated with clinically significant distress and/or impairment. Contrary to some earlier theorizing, exploding head syndrome was found to be a relatively common experience in younger individuals. Given the potential clinical impacts, it is recommended that it be assessed more regularly in research and clinical settings. © 2015 European Sleep Research Society. Source

Willoughby J.F.,Washington State University
Journal of Health Communication | Year: 2015

Sexual health text message services are becoming an increasingly popular way to provide adolescents with accurate sexual health information, but promotion of such services is often limited. This study uses three quantitative methods (service use data, a text message-based questionnaire, and an in-school online survey) to assess the effectiveness of an in-school social marketing campaign promoting a sexual health text message service that connects teens directly with a health educator. The 3-month campaign was associated with increased service use, but use was still relatively low. Follow-up qualitative work that included focus groups and interviews found a number of barriers to use. Teens indicated they did not have sexual health questions, did not think of the service, or were unsure how to use it. Teens also brought up additional barriers such as concern over parents seeing the messages. Implications for text message service providers and health educators are discussed. Copyright © Taylor & Francis Group, LLC 2015. Source

Pall M.L.,Washington State University | Levine S.,Allergy Research Group
Sheng li xue bao : [Acta physiologica Sinica] | Year: 2015

The transcription factor Nrf2, nuclear factor erythroid-2-related factor 2, activates the transcription of over 500 genes in the human genome, most of which have cytoprotective functions. Nrf2 produces cytoprotection by detoxification mechanisms leading to increased detoxification and excretion of both organic xenobiotics and toxic metals; its action via over two dozen genes increases highly coordinated antioxidant activities; it produces major anti-inflammatory changes; it stimulates mitochondrial biogenesis and otherwise improves mitochondrial function; and it stimulates autophagy, removing toxic protein aggregates and dysfunctional organelles. Health-promoting nutrients and other factors act, at least in part by raising Nrf2 including: many phenolic antioxidants; gamma- and delta-tocopherols and tocotrienols; long chain omega-3 fatty acids DHA and EPA; many carotenoids of which lycopene may be the most active; isothiocyanates from cruciferous vegetables; sulfur compounds from allium vegetables; terpenoids. Other health promoting, Nrf2 raising factors include low level oxidative stress (hormesis), exercise and caloric restriction. Raising Nrf2 has been found to prevent and/or treat a large number of chronic inflammatory diseases in animal models and/or humans including various cardiovascular diseases, kidney diseases, lung diseases, diseases of toxic liver damage, cancer (prevention), diabetes/metabolic syndrome/obesity, sepsis, autoimmune diseases, inflammatory bowel disease, HIV/AIDS and epilepsy. Lesser evidence suggests that raising Nrf2 may lower 16 other diseases. Many of these diseases are probable NO/ONOO(-) cycle diseases and Nrf2 lowers effects of NO/ONOO(-) cycle elements. The most healthful diets known, traditional Mediterranean and Okinawan, are rich in Nrf2 raising nutrients as apparently was the Paleolithic diet that our ancestors ate. Modern diets are deficient in such nutrients. Nrf2 is argued to be both lifespan and healthspan extending. Possible downsides to too much Nrf2 are also discussed. Nrf2 is not a magic bullet but is likely to be of great importance in health promotion, particularly in those regularly exposed to toxic chemicals. Source

PU.1 is an essential transcription factor in normal hematopoietic lineage development. It recognizes a large number of promoter sites differing only in bases flanking a core consensus of 5′-GGAA-3′. DNA binding is mediated by its ETS domain, whose sequence selectivity directly corresponds to the transactivational activity and frequency of binding sites for full-length PU.1 in vivo. To better understand the basis of sequence discrimination, we characterized its binding properties to a high affinity and low affinity site. Despite sharing a homologous structural framework as confirmed by DNase I and hydroxyl radical footprinting, the two complexes exhibit striking heterogeneity in terms of hydration properties. High affinity binding is destabilized by osmotic stress, whereas low affinity binding is insensitive. Dimethyl sulfate footprinting showed that the major groove at the core consensus is protected in the high affinity complex but accessible in the low affinity one. Finally, destabilization of low affinity binding by salt is in quantitative agreement with the number of phosphate contacts but is substantially attenuated in high affinity binding. These observations support a mechanism of sequence discrimination wherein specifically bound water molecules couple flanking backbone contacts with base-specific interactions in a sequestered cavity at the core consensus. The implications of this model with respect to other ETS paralogs are discussed. © 2012 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc. Source

Otieno D.O.,Washington State University
Comprehensive Reviews in Food Science and Food Safety | Year: 2010

Galactooligosaccharides (GOSs) are nondigestible oligosaccharides and are comprised of 2 to 20 molecules of galactose and 1 molecule of glucose. They are recognized as important prebiotics for their stimulation of the proliferation of intestinal lactic acid bacteria and bifidobacteria. Therefore, they beneficially affect the host by selectively stimulating the growth and/or activity of a limited number of gastrointestinal microbes (probiotics) that confer health benefits. Prebiotics and probiotics have only recently been recognized as contributors to human health. A GOS can be produced by a series of enzymatic reactions catalyzed by β-galactosidase, where the glycosyl group of one or more D-galactosyl units is transferred onto the D-galactose moiety of lactose, in a process known as transgalactosylation. Microbes can be used as a source for the β-galactosidase enzyme or as agents to produce GOS molecules. Commercial β-galactosidase enzymes also do have a great potential for their use in GOS synthesis. These transgalactosyl reactions, which could find useful application in the dairy as well as the larger food industry, have not been fully exploited. A better understanding of the enzyme reaction as well as improved analytical techniques for GOS measurements are important in achieving this worthwhile objective. © 2010 Institute of Food Technologists®. Source

Marcus D.K.,Washington State University
Personality disorders | Year: 2012

Psychopathy or psychopathic personality disorder represents a constellation of traits characterized by superficial charm, egocentricity, irresponsibility, fearlessness, persistent violation of social norms, and a lack of empathy, guilt, and remorse. Factor analyses of the Psychopathic Personality Inventory (PPI) typically yield two factors: Fearless Dominance (FD) and Self-Centered Impulsivity (SCI). Additionally, the Coldheartedness (CH) subscale typically does not load on either factor. The current paper includes a meta-analysis of studies that have examined theoretically important correlates of the two PPI factors and CH. Results suggest that (a) FD and SCI are orthogonal or weakly correlated, (b) each factor predicts distinct (and sometimes opposite) correlates, and (c) the FD factor is not highly correlated with most other measures of psychopathy. This pattern of results raises important questions about the relation between FD and SCI and the role of FD in conceptualizations of psychopathy. Our findings also indicate the need for future studies using the two-factor model of the PPI to conduct moderational analyses to examine potential interactions between FD and SCI in the prediction of important criterion measures. Source

Chastek T.Q.,Washington State University
Biomass and Bioenergy | Year: 2011

Methods for improving the cold flow properties of canola-based biodiesel are described. Freezing point depression via dilution is evaluated through controlled studies of methyl stearate freezing in seven different solvents, and methyl palmitate in three solvents. Without accounting for solute activity, the Hildebrand equation can predict the impact of methyl stearate freezing point in an alkane solvent (pentane) to within 4 °C. However, there is wide deviation for the other solutions, indicating wide ranging solute activities in these solvents. Dilution in toluene results in the greatest freezing point depression. In addition, several polymeric additives are screened for their effectiveness as biodiesel pour point depressants. After examining more than 13 polymers, including several alkyl methacrylate homo- and copolymers, it is shown that poly(lauryl methacrylate) homopolymer most effectively improves the biodiesel cold flow properties. At 1% loading, poly(lauryl methacrylate) lowers the pour point by as much as 30 °C and the low temperature filterability point (LTFP) by as much as 28 °C. When evaluating the impact of polymer concentration, it is shown that poly(lauryl methacrylate) concentrations of 0.14% perform poorly, whereas 0.5% has only a slightly lower impact than 1%. Concentrations above 1% exhibit no improvement. Finally, it is shown that a limited amount of mixing can notably reduce the LTFP in several samples. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Matteson D.S.,Washington State University
Journal of Organic Chemistry | Year: 2013

The author's work on (α-haloalkyl)boronic esters as reagents for asymmetric synthesis is reviewed. Diastereomeric ratios exceeding 1000 can be achieved with this chemistry, and ratios around 100 are commonplace. The method allows sequential installation of a series of stereocenters and tolerates a wide variety of suitably protected functional substituents. (α-Amidoalkyl) boronic acids include biochemically significant serine protease inhibitors, one of which is the clinically successful proteasome inhibitor bortezomib, used for treatment of multiple myeloma and mantle cell lymphoma. © 2013 American Chemical Society. Source

Kemanian A.R.,Texas AgriLife Research Center | Stockle C.O.,Washington State University
European Journal of Agronomy | Year: 2010

Soil carbon cycling is an essential component of agroecosystems models. Simulating soil carbon (Cs) cycling has become an issue of societal importance for Cs storage can play a role reducing the rate of increase of atmospheric CO2 concentration. To participate in carbon trading markets, growers have to evaluate their local, site-specific options to increase Cs or reduce Cs losses. This paper introduces C-Farm, a daily time step cropping systems model that allows calculating the Cs balance using a one-pool soil organic matter sub-module. In C-Farm the Cs turnover rate depends non-linearly on Cs and on environmental and management controls. Two long-term experiments were selected to evaluate C-Farm: a wheat-summer fallow 70+ years experiment at Pendleton, Oregon, and the continuous wheat experiment at the Rothamsted experiment station in the United Kingdom. C-Farm simulated well the long-term Cs evolution observed in these experiments. In addition, simulations performed in the dryland US Pacific Northwest show its applicability for assessing Cs storage rates in a region with large variation in precipitation. C-Farm can be easily customized to a large array of local conditions, providing robust estimates of short- and long-term on-farm carbon storage rates. The model is being further developed to provide estimates of nitrous oxide emission. © 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Source

Quinlan R.J.,Washington State University
Human Nature | Year: 2010

Extrinsic mortality is a key influence on organisms' life history strategies, especially on age at maturity. This historical longitudinal study of 125 women in rural Domenica examines effects of extrinsic mortality on human age at maturity and pace of reproduction. Extrinsic mortality is indicated by local population infant mortality rates during infancy and at maturity between the years 1925 and 2000. Extrinsic mortality shows effects on age at first birth and pace of reproduction among these women. Parish death records show huge historical variation in age-specific mortality rates. The infant mortality rate (IMR) in the early 1920s was low, increased dramatically beginning in 1929, and reached a maximum in the 1950s, at which point IMR declined steadily to its present low rate. The mortality rate early in life showed a quadratic association with age at first birth. Women who experienced conditions of low IMR early in life reproduced relatively late in life. Those born into moderately high levels of infant mortality tended to reproduce earlier than those born at low levels. At very high infant mortality levels early in life, women went on to delay reproduction until relatively late, possibly as a result of somatic depletion and energetic stress associated with the conditions that lead to high IMR. Population mortality rates at age of maturity also showed a quadratic association with age at first birth. The pace of reproduction, estimated as number of surviving offspring controlled for maternal age, showed a similar quadratic effect. There were complex interactions between population mortality rates in infancy and at maturity. When extrinsic mortality was high during infancy, extrinsic mortality later in life had little effect on timing of first birth. When extrinsic mortality was low to moderate in infancy, extrinsic mortality later in life had significant effects on adult reproduction. I speculate that these effects are mediated through development of personality facets associated with reproduction. © 2010 Springer Science + Business Media, LLC. Source

Carriere Y.,University of Arizona | Crowder D.W.,Washington State University | Tabashnik B.E.,University of Arizona
Evolutionary Applications | Year: 2010

Transgenic crops producing Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) toxins are used worldwide to control major pests of corn and cotton. Development of strategies to delay the evolution of pest resistance to Bt crops requires an understanding of factors affecting responses to natural selection, which include variation in survival on Bt crops, heritability of resistance, and fitness advantages associated with resistance mutations. The two main strategies adopted for delaying resistance are the refuge and pyramid strategies. Both can reduce heritability of resistance, but pyramids can also delay resistance by reducing genetic variation for resistance. Seasonal declines in the concentration of Bt toxins in transgenic cultivars, however, can increase the heritability of resistance. The fitness advantages associated with resistance mutations can be reduced by agronomic practices, including increasing refuge size, manipulating refuges to increase fitness costs, and manipulating Bt cultivars to reduce fitness of resistant individuals. Manipulating costs and fitness of resistant individuals on transgenic insecticidal crops may be especially important for thwarting evolution of resistance in haplodiploid and parthenogenetic pests. Field-evolved resistance to Bt crops in only five pests during the last 14years suggests that the refuge strategy has successfully delayed resistance, but the accumulation of resistant pests could accelerate. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd. Source

Jones E.I.,University of Arizona | Jones E.I.,Washington State University
Oikos | Year: 2010

Pollinators and their predators share innate and learned preferences for high quality flowers. Consequently, pollinators are more likely to encounter predators when visiting the most rewarding flowers. I present a model of how different pollinator species can maximize lifetime resource gains depending on the density and distribution of predators, as well as their vulnerability to capture by predators. For pollinator species that are difficult for predators to capture, the optimal strategy is to visit the most rewarding flowers as long as predator density is low. At higher predator densities and for pollinators that are more vulnerable to predator capture, the lifetime resource gain from the most rewarding flowers declines and the optimal strategy depends on the predator distribution. In some cases, a wide range of floral rewards provides near-maximum lifetime resource gains, which may favor generalization if searching for flowers is costly. In other cases, a low flower reward level provides the maximum lifetime resource gain and so pollinators should specialize on less rewarding flowers. Thus, the model suggests that predators can have qualitatively different top-down effects on plant reproductive success depending on the pollinator species, the density of predators, and the distribution of predators across flower reward levels. © 2009 The Author. Source

Feller D.,Washington State University
Journal of Chemical Physics | Year: 2013

Simple modifications of complete basis set extrapolation formulas chosen from the literature are examined with respect to their abilities to reproduce a diverse set of 183 reference atomization energies derived primarily from very large basis set standard, frozen core coupled-cluster singles, doubles plus perturbative triples (CCSD(T)) with the aug-cc-pVnZ basis sets. This reference set was augmented with a few larger chemical systems treated with explicitly correlated CCSD(T)-F12b using a quadruple zeta quality basis set followed by extrapolation to complete basis set limit. Tuning the extrapolation formula parameters for the present reference set resulted in substantial reductions in the error metrics. In the case of the best performing approach, the aVnZ extrapolated results are equivalent to or better than results obtained from raw aV(n + 3)Z basis set calculations. To the extent this behavior holds for molecules outside the reference set, it represents an improvement of at least one basis set level over the original formulations and a further significant reduction in the amount of computer time needed to accurately approximate the basis set limit. © 2013 American Institute of Physics. Source

Neumiller J.J.,Washington State University
Cardiovascular and Hematological Agents in Medicinal Chemistry | Year: 2012

Given the demonstrated importance of the incretin effect on the prandial insulin response, augmentation of the incretin effect in people with type 2 diabetes is an important pharmacological approach to glycemic management. In recent years, the use of incretin-based therapies, such as GLP-1 receptor agonists and DPP-4 inhibitors, has increased dramatically due to their demonstrated efficacy, low risk of hypoglycemia when used as monotherapy, and reasonable tolerability. Given their effects on glycemic parameters and the likelihood of aiding answer questions about safety issues that have arisen from post-marketing reports. The potential benefit of incretin-based therapies in the treatment of people with type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease is currently an active area of inquiry. While the potential benefits of incretin-based therapies in the arena of cardiovascular risk reduction are promising, results from ongoing outcomes-based studies will help determine the role of these agents in this setting. © 2012 Bentham Science Publishers. Source

Frank L.L.,Washington State University
Journal of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition | Year: 2015

Thiamin is a water-soluble vitamin also known as vitamin B1. Its biologically active form, thiamin pyrophosphate (TPP), is a cofactor in macronutrient metabolism. In addition to its coenzyme roles, TPP plays a role in nerve structure and function as well as brain metabolism. Signs and symptoms of thiamin deficiency (TD) include lactic acidosis, peripheral neuropathy, ataxia, and ocular changes (eg, nystagmus). More advanced symptoms include confabulation and memory loss and/or psychosis, resulting in Wernicke's encephalopathy and/or Wernicke's Korsakoff syndrome, respectively. The nutrition support clinician should be aware of patients who may be at risk for TD. Risk factors include those patients with malnutrition due to 1 or more nutrition-related etiologies: decreased nutrient intake, increased nutrient losses, or impaired nutrient absorption. Clinical scenarios such as unexplained heart failure or lactic acidosis, renal failure with dialysis, alcoholism, starvation, hyperemesis gravidarum, or bariatric surgery may increase the risk for TD. Patients who are critically ill and require nutrition support may also be at risk for TD, especially those who are given intravenous dextrose void of thiamin repletion. Furthermore, understanding thiamin's role as a potential therapeutic agent for diabetes, some inborn errors of metabolism, and neurodegenerative diseases warrants further research. This tutorial describes the absorption, digestion, and metabolism of thiamin. Issues pertaining to thiamin in clinical practice will be described, and evidence-based practice suggestions for the prevention and treatment of TD will be discussed. © 2015 American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition. Source

Corrie S.L.,Boise State University | Kohn M.J.,Boise State University | Vervoort J.D.,Washington State University
Earth and Planetary Science Letters | Year: 2010

Garnet geochronology was used to provide the first direct measurement of the timing of eclogitization in the central Himalaya. Lu-Hf dates from garnet separates in one relict eclogite from the Arun River Valley in eastern Nepal indicate an age of 20.7 ± 0.4 Ma, significantly younger than ultra-high pressure eclogites from the western Himalaya, reflecting either different origins or substantial time lags in tectonics along strike. Four proximal garnet amphibolites from structurally lower horizons are 14-15 Ma, similar to post-eclogitization ages published for rocks along strike in southern Tibet. P-T calculations indicate three metamorphic episodes for the eclogite: i) eclogite-facies metamorphism at ∼ 670 °C and ≥ 15 kbar at 23-16 Ma; ii) a peak-T granulite event at ∼ 780 °C and 12 kbar; and iii) late-stage amphibolite-facies metamorphism at ∼ 675 °C and 6 kbar at ∼ 14 Ma. The garnet amphibolites were metamorphosed at ∼ 660 °C. Three models are considered to explain the observed P-T-t evolution. The first assumes that the Main Himalayan Thrust (basal thrust of the Himalayan thrust system) cuts deeper at Arun than elsewhere. While conceptually the simplest, this model has difficulty explaining both the granulite-facies overprint and the pulse of exhumation between 25 and 14 Ma. A second model assumes that (aborted) subduction, slab breakoff, and ascent of India's leading edge occurred diachronously: ∼ 50 Ma in the western Himalaya, ∼ 25 Ma in the central Himalaya of Nepal, and presumably later in the eastern Himalaya. This model explains the P-T-t path, particularly heating during initial exhumation, but implies significant along-strike diachroneity, which is generally lacking in other features of the Himalaya. A third model assumes repeated loss of mantle lithosphere, first by slab breakoff at ∼ 50 Ma, and again by delamination at ∼ 25 Ma; this model explains the P-T-t path, but requires geographically restricted tectonic behavior at Arun. The P-T-t history of the Arun eclogites may imply a change in the physical state of the Himalayan metamorphic wedge at 16-25 Ma, ultimately giving rise to the Main Central Thrust by 15-16 Ma. © 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Source

Dopamine receptor agonists provide a viable alternative or adjunct to levodopa therapy in Parkinsons disease and are associated with fewer motor complications and dyskinesia. However, all available dopamine agonists may cause profound adverse effects in some patients. In many cases, these adverse effects amplify non-motor symptoms that people with Parkinsons disease may already be experiencing. Nausea from dopamine agonists generally lessens with time and may be responsive to both antiemetic therapy and complementary remedies, such as ginger, peppermint and chamomile. Unfortunately, compulsive behaviours, as well as peripheral oedema caused by dopamine agonists, are poorly responsive to pharmacological therapy and require a reduction or discontinuation of agonist therapy. Somnolence and associated sleep attacks generally require elimination of the agonist or the use of a stimulating agent. The necessity of treatment for hallucinations and psychosis associated with dopamine agonists must be thoroughly evaluated prior to initiating therapy. If a medication is initiated for hallucinations or psychosis, quetiapine or clozapine are agents of choice. Orthostatic hypotension, though not always symptomatic, responds well to nonpharmacological strategies and medications, including indometacin, midodrine and fludrocortisone. Care must be taken to educate patients with Parkinsons disease about the common adverse effects of dopamine agonists and what can be done to lessen them. © 2010 Adis Data Information BV. All rights reserved. Source

McEwen B.S.,Rockefeller University | Bowles N.P.,Rockefeller University | Gray J.D.,Rockefeller University | Hill M.N.,University of Calgary | And 3 more authors.
Nature Neuroscience | Year: 2015

The brain is the central organ involved in perceiving and adapting to social and physical stressors via multiple interacting mediators, from the cell surface to the cytoskeleton to epigenetic regulation and nongenomic mechanisms. A key result of stress is structural remodeling of neural architecture, which may be a sign of successful adaptation, whereas persistence of these changes when stress ends indicates failed resilience. Excitatory amino acids and glucocorticoids have key roles in these processes, along with a growing list of extra- and intracellular mediators that includes endocannabinoids and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). The result is a continually changing pattern of gene expression mediated by epigenetic mechanisms involving histone modifications and CpG methylation and hydroxymethylation as well as by the activity of retrotransposons that may alter genomic stability. Elucidation of the underlying mechanisms of plasticity and vulnerability of the brain provides a basis for understanding the efficacy of interventions for anxiety and depressive disorders as well as age-related cognitive decline. Source

Jones E.I.,Washington State University
The American naturalist | Year: 2012

The biotic environment can pose a challenge to introduced species; however, it is not known how rapid evolution in introduced and resident species influences the probability that the introduced species will become established. Here, we analyze the establishment phase of invasion with eco-evolutionary models of introduced species involved in predator-prey, mutualistic, or competitive interactions with a resident species. We find that, depending on the strength of the biotic interaction, establishment is impossible, guaranteed, or, in a narrow range, determined by genetic variation. Over this narrow range, rapid evolution of the introduced species always favors establishment, whereas resident evolution may either inhibit or facilitate establishment, depending on the interaction type. Coevolution can also either increase or decrease the chance of establishment, depending on the initial genotype frequencies as well as the interaction type. Our results suggest that the conditions under which genetic variation influences establishment success are limited, but they highlight the importance of considering the resident community's evolutionary response to introduced species as a component of its invasibility. Source

Knodler L.A.,Washington State University
Current Opinion in Microbiology | Year: 2015

Intracellular bacterial pathogens can occupy a membrane-bound vacuole or live freely within the cytosol of mammalian cells. Many studies have shown that the enteric bacterium, Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium), is a vacuolar pathogen. Recent data, however, have revealed that within epithelial cells there are subpopulations of vacuolar and cytosolic Salmonella. Release from the Salmonella-containing vacuole leads to transcriptional reprogramming of bacteria and their robust replication in the cytosol. Eventually, epithelial cell death via pyroptosis results in cell lysis, proinflammatory cytokine release and escape of the cytosolic bacteria into the extracellular space, providing a potential mechanism of dissemination. This review focuses on the current understanding of this newly described intracellular population of Salmonella. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Nash K.L.,Washington State University
Solvent Extraction and Ion Exchange | Year: 2015

The TALSPEAK Process (Trivalent Actinide Lanthanide Separation with Phosphorus-Reagent Extraction from Aqueous Komplexes) was originally developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory by B. Weaver and F.A. Kappelmann in the 1960s. It was envisioned initially as an alternative to the TRAMEX process (selective extraction of trivalent actinides by tertiary or quaternary amines over fission product lanthanides from concentrated LiCl solutions). TALSPEAK proposed the selective extraction of trivalent lanthanides away from the actinides, which are retained in the aqueous phase as aminopolycarboxylate complexes. After several decades of research and development, the conventional TALSPEAK process (based on di-(2-ethylhexyl) phosphoric acid (extractant) in 1,4-di-isopropylbenzene (diluent) and a concentrated lactate buffer containing diethylenetriamine-N,N,N’,N”,N”-pentaacetic acid (actinide-selective holdback reagent)) has become a widely recognized benchmark for advanced aqueous partitioning of the trivalent 4f/5f elements. TALSPEAK aqueous chemistry has also been utilized to selectively strip actinides (Reverse TALSPEAK) with some notable success. Under ideal conditions, conventional TALSPEAK separates Am3+from Nd3+(the usual limiting pair) with a single-stage separation factor of about 100; both lighter and heavier lanthanides are more completely separated from Am3+. Despite this apparent efficiency, TALSPEAK has not seen enthusiastic adoption for advanced partitioning of nuclear fuels at process scale for two principle reasons: first, all adaptations of TALSPEAK chemistry to process scale applications require rigid pH control within a narrow range of pH, and second, phase-transfer kinetics are often slower than ideal. To compensate for these effects, high concentrations of the buffer (0.5–2 M H/Na lactate) are required. Acknowledgement of these complications in TALSPEAK process development has inspired significant research activities dedicated to improving understanding of the basic chemistry that controls TALSPEAK (and related processes based on the application of actinide-selective holdback reagents). In the following report, advances in understanding of the fundamental chemistry of TALSPEAK that have been reported during the past decade will be reviewed and discussed. © 2015, Taylor & Francis Group, LLC. Source

Carroll M.,Washington State University | Paveglio T.,University of Idaho
Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences | Year: 2016

One of the immediate challenges of wildfire management concerns threats to human safety and property in residential areas adjacent to non-cultivated vegetation. One approach for relieving this problem is to increase human community ‘adaptiveness’ to deal with the risk and reality of fire in a variety of landscapes. The challenge in creating ‘fire-adapted communities’ (FACs) is the great diversity in characterandmake-up of populations at risk fromwildfire. This paper outlines a recently developed categorization scheme forWildland-Urban Interface (WUI) communities based on a larger conceptual approach for understanding how social diversity is likely to influence the creation of FACs. The WUI categorization scheme situates four community archetypes on a continuum that recognizes dynamic change in human community functioning. We use results from the WUI classification scheme to outline key characteristics associated with each archetype and results from recent case studies to demonstrate the diversity across WUI communities. Differences among key characteristics of local social context will likely result in the need for different adaptation strategies to wildfire. While the WUI archetypes described here may not be broadly applicable to other parts of theworld,we argue that the conceptual approach and strategies for systematically documenting local influences on wildfire adaptation have potential for broad application. © 2016 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved. Source

Matveev K.I.,Washington State University
Ocean Engineering | Year: 2012

A dynamic model is developed for vertical-plane motions of a hydroplane boat supported by aerodynamic, hydrodynamic, and propulsive forces. The model is based on unsteady nonlinear formulations of the extreme ground effect theory for the hydroplane platform and the added-mass strip theory for planing hulls. The steady-state attitudes, thrust-to-weight ratios, and static stability margins are calculated for a selected hydroplane configuration with several variable parameters. Simulations of unsteady regimes are also carried out, including responses to an initial disturbance, reactions to wind gusts, and motions in head and following regular waves. The developed model can be applied for aero-hydrodynamic design of hydroplanes with realistic geometries and other types of air-supported high-speed boats. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source

Matveev K.I.,Washington State University
International Journal of Thermal Sciences | Year: 2010

A simplified method based on Rayleigh's criterion is developed for evaluating thermoacoustic power conversion in transverse-pin and tortuous stacks. Heat transfer and viscous losses are approximated by steady-flow correlations valid at large acoustic displacements with respect to a longitudinal pitch of a pin stack or a characteristic pore size of a random stack. A Lagrangian approach is employed to calculate temperature fluctuations of oscillating gas parcels inside the stack. A computational example is presented for a stack with an inline pin arrangement placed in a standing acoustic wave. Power conversion and efficiencies are evaluated for conditions relevant to a small-scale system. An indirect comparison is also made between theoretical results and experimental data for a prime mover with a wire mesh stack. © 2009 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved. Source

Minteer T.M.,Washington State University
European Journal of Physics | Year: 2013

The equivalence of the Ampère and Grassmann (Biot-Savart/Lorentz) current element force formulas is well established. However, when the magnetostatic potential energy corresponding to these force formulas is evaluated, the formulas are found to be nonequivalent. The historical current element force formulas are first presented. The magnetostatic potential energy corresponding to these historical current element force formulas are then analysed. The end result establishes the Grassmann and Neumann current element force formulas as the only commonly referenced formulas giving the correct magnetostatic potential energy for circuital currents. © 2013 IOP Publishing Ltd. Source

Qiu Y.,Washington State University
Plant signaling & behavior | Year: 2012

Since its initial discovery as a high affinity Ca ( 2+) -binding protein in the sarcoplasmic reticulum and endoplasmic reticulum (ER), calreticulin (CRT) has been documented to be a multifunctional protein in both animal and plant cells. This protein is well recognized as a Ca ( 2+) -binding molecular chaperone that facilitates the folding of newly synthesized glycoproteins and regulates the Ca ( 2+) homeostasis in the ER lumen. However, functional relevance associated with its localization in other cellular compartments has also been reported. Recent studies suggest that both isoforms of plant CRTs (AtCRT1/2 and AtCRT3) are involved in regulating plant defense against biotrophic pathogens. Here we discuss the cellular functions of CRT and its connection to the emerging functions of AtCRTs in plant immunity. Source

Liu H.,Washington State University | Laborie M.-P.G.,Albert Ludwigs University of Freiburg
Cellulose | Year: 2011

A series of resole-type phenolic resin-based nanocomposites, uniformly filled with cellulose nanowhiskers (CNWs), was successfully fabricated via direct solution mixing, then solvent-exchange with DMF and finally stepwise thermal curing. Dynamic mechanical analysis evidenced a moderate reinforcing effect with a minimum CNWs weight content of 5.0 wt% especially above the resin glass transition temperature (Tg). The Halpin-Kardos model provided a good description of the CNWs reinforcing effect, suggesting perhaps the contribution of whiskers/matrix interactions rather than that of whiskers/whiskers interactions. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) further indicated that the nanowhiskers enhanced the resin cure, resulting in a more extensive degree of cure. Finally, the CNWs were found to only slightly lower the thermal stability of PF resins. In spite of a modest reinforcing effect, it is proposed that CNWs are also interesting fillers for high modulus and high Tg thermosetting resins that require high temperature cure. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media B.V. Source

Li Z.-M.,Shanghai JiaoTong University | Qiao P.,Washington State University
Composite Structures | Year: 2014

Geometrically nonlinear free vibration analysis of shear deformable anisotropic laminated composite beams resting on a two-parameter elastic foundation is presented. The material of each layer of the beam is assumed to be linearly elastic and fiber-reinforced. A new nonlinear beam model involving the exact expression of bending curvature is introduced, and the nonlinear vibration analysis with exact nonlinear characteristics of the work done by axial loading is accordingly performed. The governing equations are based on higher order shear deformation beam theory with a von Kármán-type of kinematic nonlinearity and including the bending-stretching, bending-twisting, and stretching-twisting couplings. Two kinds of end conditions, namely movable and immovable, are considered, and a perturbation technique is employed to determine the linear and nonlinear frequencies of a composite beam with or without initial stresses. The frequency response of laminated beams with different geometric and material parameters, end conditions and effect on elastic foundation is numerically illustrated. The results reveal that the geometric and physical properties, end conditions, and elastic foundation effect have a significant influence on large amplitude vibration behavior of anisotropic laminated composite beams. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Boyd A.D.,Washington State University
International Journal of Greenhouse Gas Control | Year: 2016

In January 2011 a local farm couple from Canada held a press conference claiming that carbon dioxide (CO2) had leaked from a carbon sequestration project onto their land. This was the first public allegation of a leak from a carbon sequestration site and provides an opportunity to examine how a negative event can impact the perceptions of emerging technologies. A total of 76 in-depth interviews were held with residents in two communities including: (1) Weyburn, Saskatchewan, the location where the allegations of a leak were made; and (2) Priddis, Alberta, the location of a proposed carbon sequestration research project that was halted due to local concerns. Results demonstrate that communities perceived the allegations differently. Most participants who lived in the Weyburn area were not concerned about the allegations of a CO2 leak. Some residents from Priddis were concerned about CO2 leaks and the allegations made in Weyburn ultimately became a factor in the cancellation of the proposed project. This study compares and contrasts the differences in community perspectives, provides recommendations for risk communicators and ultimately considers the influence of early controversy on the development of emerging energy technologies. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Roy S.,Washington State University
Automatica | Year: 2015

A notion of scaled consensus is defined, wherein network components' states approach dictated ratios in the asymptote. A linear network dynamics that achieves scaled consensus for a prescribed interaction graph is introduced, and an equivalence with the class of (negative) singular M-matrices is explored. A few further characterizations of the scaled synchronization process are given, and finally a modification that allows tracking on the stable manifold is presented. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source

Barsanti K.C.,Portland State University | Carlton A.G.,Rutgers University | Chung S.H.,Washington State University
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics | Year: 2013

Despite critical importance for air quality and climate predictions, accurate representation of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation remains elusive. An essential addition to the ongoing discussion of improving model predictions is an acknowledgement of the linkages between experimental conditions, parameter optimization and model output, as well as the linkage between empirically-derived partitioning parameters and the physicochemical properties of SOA they represent in models. In this work, a "best available" set of SOA modeling parameters is selected by comparing predicted SOA yields and mass concentrations with observed yields and mass concentrations from a comprehensive list of published smog chamber studies. Evaluated SOA model parameters include existing parameters for two product (2p) and volatility basis set (VBS) modeling frameworks, and new 2p-VBS parameters; 2p-VBS parameters are developed to exploit advantages of the VBS approach within the computationally-economical and widely-used 2p framework. Fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and SOA mass concentrations are simulated for the continental United States using CMAQv.4.7.1; results are compared for a base case (with default CMAQ parameters) and two best available parameter cases to illustrate the high- and low-NOx limits of biogenic SOA formation from monoterpenes. Results are discussed in terms of implications for current chemical transport model simulations and recommendations are provided for future modeling and measurement efforts. The comparisons of SOA yield predictions with data from 22 published chamber studies illustrate that: (1) SOA yields for naphthalene, and cyclic and > C5 straight-chain/branched alkanes are not well represented using either the newly developed or existing parameters for low-yield aromatics and lumped alkanes, respectively; and (2) for four of seven volatile organic compound+oxidant systems, the 2p-VBS parameters better represent chamber data than do the default CMAQ v.4.7.1 parameters. Using the "best available" parameters (combination of published 2p and newly derived 2p-VBS), predicted SOA mass and PM2.5 concentrations increase by up to 15% and 7%, respectively, for the high-NOx case and up to 215% (∼3 μg m−3) and 55%, respectively, for the low-NOx case. Percent bias between model-based and observationally-based secondary organic carbon (SOC) improved from -63% for the base case to -15% for the low-NOx case. The ability to robustly assign "best available" parameters in all volatile organic compound+oxidant systems, however, is critically limited due to insufficient data; particularly for photo-oxidation of diverse monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes, and alkanes under a range of atmospherically relevant conditions. Source

Shockey J.,U.S. Department of Agriculture | Browse J.,Washington State University
Plant Journal | Year: 2011

In higher plants, the superfamily of carboxyl-CoA ligases and related proteins, collectively called acyl activating enzymes (AAEs), has evolved to provide enzymes for many pathways of primary and secondary metabolism and for the conjugation of hormones to amino acids. Across the superfamily there is only limited sequence similarity, but a series of highly conserved motifs, including the AMP-binding domain, make it easy to identify members. These conserved motifs are best understood in terms of the unique domain-rotation architecture that allows AAE enzymes to catalyze the two distinct steps of the CoA ligase reaction. Arabidopsis AAE sequences were used to identify the AAE gene families in the sequenced genomes of green algae, mosses, and trees; the size of the respective families increased with increasing degree of organismal cellular complexity, size, and generation time. Large-scale genome duplications and small-scale tandem gene duplications have contributed to AAE gene family complexity to differing extents in each of the multicellular species analyzed. Gene duplication and evolution of novel functions in Arabidopsis appears to have occurred rapidly, because acquisition of new substrate specificity is relatively easy in this class of proteins. Convergent evolution has also occurred between members of distantly related clades. These features of the AAE superfamily make it difficult to use homology searches and other genomics tools to predict enzyme function. © The Plant Journal © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd. Source

Witkiewitz K.,Washington State University | Bowen S.,University of Washington
Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology | Year: 2010

Objective: A strong relation between negative affect and craving has been demonstrated in laboratory and clinical studies, with depressive symptomatology showing particularly strong links to craving and substance abuse relapse. Mindfulness-based relapse prevention (MBRP), shown to be efficacious for reduction of substance use, uses mindfulness-based practices to teach alternative responses to emotional discomfort and lessen the conditioned response of craving in the presence of depressive symptoms. The goal in the current study was to examine the relation between measures of depressive symptoms, craving, and substance use following MBRP. Method: Individuals with substance use disorders (N = 168; mean age 40.45 years, SD = 10.28; 36.3% female; 46.4% non-White) were recruited after intensive stabilization, then randomly assigned to either 8 weekly sessions of MBRP or a treatment-as-usual control group. Approximately 73% of the sample was retained at the final 4-month follow-up assessment. Results: Results confirmed a moderated-mediation effect, whereby craving mediated the relation between depressive symptoms (Beck Depression Inventory) and substance use (Timeline Follow-Back) among the treatment-as-usual group but not among MBRP participants. MBRP attenuated the relation between postintervention depressive symptoms and craving (Penn Alcohol Craving Scale) 2 months following the intervention (f2 = .21). This moderation effect predicted substance use 4 months following the intervention (f2 = .18). Conclusion: MBRP appears to influence cognitive and behavioral responses to depressive symptoms, partially explaining reductions in postintervention substance use among the MBRP group. Although results are preliminary, the current study provides evidence for the value of incorporating mindfulness practice into substance abuse treatment and identifies a potential mechanism of change following MBRP. © 2010 American Psychological Association. Source

Buffenstein R.,University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio | Nelson O.L.,Washington State University | Corbit K.C.,Amgen
Aging | Year: 2014

The pace at which science continues to advance is astonishing. From cosmology, microprocessors, structural engineering, and DNA sequencing our lives are continually affected by science-based technology. However, progress in treating human ailments, especially age-related conditions such as cancer and Alzheimer's disease, moves at a relative snail's pace. Given that the amount of investment is not disproportionately low, one has to question why our hopes for the development of efficacious drugs for such grievous illnesses have been frustratingly unrealized. Here we discuss one aspect of drug development -rodent models - and propose an alternative approach to discovery research rooted in evolutionary experimentation. Our goal is to accelerate the conversation around how we can move towards more translative preclinical work. © Buffenstein et al. Source

Tegeder M.,Washington State University | Ward J.M.,University of Minnesota
Frontiers in Plant Science | Year: 2012

Nitrogen is an essential mineral nutrient and it is often transported within living organisms in its reduced form, as amino acids. Transport of amino acids across cellular membranes requires proteins, and here we report the phylogenetic analysis across taxa of two amino acid transporter families, the amino acid permeases (AAPs and the lysine-histidine-like transporters (LHTs. We found that the two transporter families form two distinct groups in plants supporting the concept that both are essential. AAP transporters seem to be restricted to land plants. They were found in Selaginella moellendorffii and Physcomitrella patens but not in Chlorophyte, Charophyte, or Rhodophyte algae. AAPs were strongly represented in vascular plants, consistent with their major function in phloem (vascular tissue loading of amino acids for sink nitrogen supply. LHTs on the other hand appeared prior to land plants. LHTs were not found in chlorophyte algae Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and Volvox carterii. However, the characean alga Klebsormidium flaccidum encodes KfLHT13 and phylogenetic analysis indicates that it is basal to land plant LHTs. This is consistent with the hypothesis that characean algae are ancestral to land plants. LHTs were also found in both S. moellendorffii and P. patens as well as in monocots and eudicots. To date, AAPs and LHTs have mainly been characterized in Arabidopsis (eudicots and these studies provide clues to the functions of the newly identified homologs. © 2012 Tegeder and Ward. Source

Quinlan M.B.,Washington State University
Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine | Year: 2010

Background: "Fright" is an English-speaking Caribbean idiom for an illness, or ethnomedical syndrome, of persistent distress. A parallel ethnopsychiatric idiom exists in the French Antilles as sésisma. Fright is distinct from susto among Hispanics, though both develop in the wake of traumatic events. West Indian ethnophysiology (ethnoanatomy) theorizes that an overload of stressful emotions (fear, panic, anguish or worry) causes a cold humoral state in which blood coagulates causing prolonged distress and increased risks of other humorally cold illnesses.Methods: Qualitative data on local explanatory models and treatment of fright were collected using participant-observation, informal key informant interviews and a village health survey. Ethnobotanical and epidemiological data come from freelist (or "free-list") tasks, analyzed for salience, with nearly all adults (N = 112) of an eastern village in Dominica, and a village survey on medicinal plant recognition and use (N = 106).Results: Along with prayer and exercise, three herbs are salient fright treatments: Gossypium barbadense L., Lippia micromera Schauer, and, Plectranthus [Coleus] amboinicus [Loureiro] Sprengel. The survey indicated that 27% of village adults had medicated themselves for fright. Logistic regression of fright suffering onto demographic variables of age, education, gender, parental status and wealth measured in consumer goods found age to be the only significant predictor of having had fright. The probability of having (and medicating for) fright thus increases with every year.Conclusions: While sufferers are often uncomfortable recalling personal fright experiences, reporting use of medicinal plants is less problematic. Inquiry on fright medical ethnobotany (or phytotherapies) serves as a proxy measurement for fright occurrence. Cross-cultural and ethnopharmacology literature on the medicinal plants suggests probable efficacy in accord with Dominican ethnomedical notions of fright. Further, the cultural salience and beliefs about these medicines may give these medications extra psychoneuroimmune (i.e. mind-body) benefits, or placebo-like effects, for this stress-related folk illness. © 2010 Quinlan; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. Source

Nikoloulopoulos A.K.,University of East Anglia | Joe H.,University of British Columbia | Li H.,Washington State University
Computational Statistics and Data Analysis | Year: 2012

It has been shown that vine copulas constructed from bivariate t copulas can provide good fits to multivariate financial asset return data. However, there might be stronger tail dependence of returns in the joint lower tail of assets than the upper tail. To this end, vine copula models with appropriate choices of bivariate reflection asymmetric linking copulas will be used to assess such tail asymmetries. Comparisons of various vine copulas are made in terms of likelihood fit and forecasting of extreme quantiles. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Source

Setter S.M.,Washington State University
Diabetes Spectrum | Year: 2011

The antibiotic gatifloxacin, β-blockers, thiazide diuretics, some SGAs, corticosteroids, the CNIs cyclosporine and tacrolimus, and protease inhibitors may elevate blood glucose levels in those with or without diabetes. Clinicians need to be aware of the potential for drugs to contribute to the development of elevated blood glucose in their patients regardless of a diagnosis of diabetes. Source

Henderson S.M.,Washington State University
Journal of Physical Oceanography | Year: 2016

In a small lake, where flows were dominated by internal waves with 10-32-h period, slow but persistent mean transport of water over many wave periods was examined. Acoustic Doppler profilers (ADPs) and a vertical string of temperature loggers were deployed where the lower thermocline intersected the sloping lakebed. Near (<1 m above) the bed, internal waves, coherent with a lakewide seiche, propagated upslope at ~0.023 m s-1. Near-bed wave-induced water velocity fluctuations had a standard deviation of <0.02 m s-1. Near the surface, velocity fluctuations had similar magnitude, but lateral wave propagation was unclear. Averaged over many wave periods, the near-bed Eulerian velocity flowed downslope at ~0.01 m s-1, and was roughly cancelled by an upslope internal-wave Stokes drift (estimated by assuming that weakly nonlinear waves propagated without change of form). To examine net transport, while relaxing approximations used to estimate the Stokes drift, the observed temperature range (9°-25°C) was divided into 0.5°C increments, and the depth-integrated, wave-averaged flux of water in each temperature class was calculated. The coldest (near-bed) water was slowly transported onshore, opposite the Eulerian mean velocity. Onshore flux of warm near-surface water was comparable to an Eulerian-mean flux, indicating minimal near-surface Stokes drift. Intermediate water, from the middle of the water column and the outer boundary layer, was transported offshore by an offshore Stokes drift. The downslope near-bed Eulerian mean velocity, together with intensification of mean stratification within 0.4 m of the bed, may enhance boundary layer mixing. © 2016 American Meteorological Society. Source

Schmidt R.A.,Washington State University
Experimental and Applied Acarology | Year: 2014

Because of their size, small arthropods can be highly affected by characteristics of the leaf surface. Leaf surfaces have various structures, such as trichomes and domatia, which add to the complexity of the microenvironment experienced by arthropods. Plant structure can affect the retention and performance of predators and parasitoids and it has been proposed that phylloplane characteristics be modified to improve the utility of these organisms as biological control agents. Phytoseiids have a long history as biological control agents of pest mite species in agricultural systems. In the past 30 years, extensive research has shown that trichomes and domatia influence phytoseiid populations and performance. Various reasons have been proposed to explain this relationship, including increased pollen capture for use as a food source, escape from predation, avoidance of adverse abiotic conditions, and increased/decreased ease of prey capture. There is potential for the manipulation of crops to improve biological control by phytoseiids, but incorporating beneficial traits into plants is likely to have lower priority than other breeding characteristics. The objectives of this review are to summarize the evidence for the relationship between phytoseiids and leaf surface structures, discuss possible hypotheses to explain this relationship, examine the potential of altering current crop varieties for the purpose of increasing phytoseiid populations or performance, and conduct a meta-analysis to quantify the effects of plant surface structures on phytoseiid and phytophagous mite densities. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht. Source

Poon G.M.K.,Washington State University
Biochemistry | Year: 2012

The current paradigm of ETS transcription factors holds that their DNA-binding (ETS) domain binds to a single sequence-specific site with strict 1:1 stoichiometry. PU.1 (Spi-1) is a lineage-restricted member of the ETS family that is essential in normal hematopoietic development. Characterization of the binding properties of the ETS domain of PU.1 by isothermal titration calorimetry revealed that it binds a single sequence-specific binding site with 1:1 and 2:1 stoichiometry in a discrete, sequential, and negatively cooperative manner. While both high-affinity- and low-affinity-specific sites exhibit this behavior, the thermodynamics for each complex are highly differentiated. In the unbound state, the PU.1 ETS domain exists as a weak noncovalent homodimer that dissociates and unfolds cooperatively. Thus, the PU.1 ETS domain exists as a monomeric and dimeric species in both DNA-bound and free states. Structural characterization of the protein-DNA interface by quantitative DNA footprinting revealed new minor groove contacts and changes in the core consensus suggestive of increased DNA distortion in the 2:1 complex. Together, the structural and thermodynamic data support a model in which DNA binding dissociates a PU.1 ETS dimer to a 1:1 protein-DNA complex followed by, at higher concentrations, an asymmetric 2:1 complex. The implications of distinct monomeric and dimeric states on the known structural biology of ETS domains as well as potential ETS-protein interactions are discussed. © 2012 American Chemical Society. Source

Prior research has identified the influence of using hyperlinks in online information gathering. This study attempts to understand first, how hyperlinks can influence individuals' perceptions of news credibility and information-seeking behavior. Second, the paper extends previous research by examining the interaction of hyperlinks with the content of the story. In doing so, the paper examines the influence of hyperlinks on news frames. The data for the study were collected using 2 experiments embedded in web-based survey of participants. Findings show that hyperlinks in news stories can increase perceptions of credibility as well as information-seeking. Results reveal the interaction of news frames in the process; hyperlinks increase participants' perception of news credibility; but only in the value-framed condition. Implications are discussed. © 2014 International Communication Association. Source

Haselbach L.M.,Washington State University
Journal of Hydrologic Engineering | Year: 2010

Pervious concrete is a novel paving material with macropores that aid in maintaining natural hydrologic infiltration rates on developed properties. There is a concern that the pores in the pervious concrete might clog due to long-term deposition of fine materials in runoff, or due to a catastrophic event(s) such as the failure of upstream erosion control measures or flooding. This research focuses on these extreme events and presents a laboratory procedure mimicking a series of catastrophic clogging cycles with clay laden runoff. It is predicted that the clay materials would tend to remain near the surface of pervious concrete systems since most placements have a vertical porosity distribution with the smaller pores near the top. The cores used were from actual field placements and the results indicate that extreme events with substantial deposition of clay on a pervious concrete pavement will substantially reduce its service capability, even temporarily fully "clogging" the pavement. However, most of the clay remains on or near the surface and the infiltration capacity of the pervious concrete was restored to acceptable, although lower, levels with simple maintenance such as surface sweeping, and subsequent rinsing similar to subsequent rainfall events. © 2010 ASCE. Source

Dewan A.,Texas A&M University | Ay S.U.,University of Idaho | Karim M.N.,Texas A&M University | Beyenal H.,Washington State University
Journal of Power Sources | Year: 2014

The goal of this review is to assess renewable power sources as alternatives to the batteries traditionally used for remote environmental monitoring. In this review, we first discuss remote sensors and then we: 1) review the power requirements and traditionally used power sources for remote sensors, 2) describe the working principles of the renewable power sources used for powering remote sensors, 3) evaluate the challenges and potentials of the renewable power sources, and 4) review the power management systems developed for remote power generation and discuss how to use them to generate reliable power. In the description of each of the renewable power sources, we include the current status and future directions of the research. We believe that hybrid systems using more than a single renewable power source can provide more reliable renewable power. We conclude that renewable power sources have been demonstrated to be able to generate sufficient power for remote sensors. Because of the environmental risks and cost of operation associated with batteries, renewable energy sources will need to be used to power remote sensors in the near future. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Source

Tegeder M.,Washington State University
Journal of Experimental Botany | Year: 2014

In most plant species, amino acids are the predominant chemical forms in which nitrogen is transported. However, in nodulated tropical or subtropical legumes, ureides are the main nitrogen transport compounds. This review describes the partitioning of amino acids and ureides within the plant, and follows their movement from the location of synthesis (source) to the sites of usage (sink). Xylem and phloem connect source and sink organs and serve as routes for long-distance transport of the organic nitrogen. Loading and unloading of these transport pathways might require movement of amino acids and ureides across cell membranes, a task that is mediated by membrane proteins (i.e. transporters) functioning as export or import systems. The current knowledge on amino acid and ureide transporters involved in long-distance transport of nitrogen is provided and their importance for source and sink physiology discussed. The review concludes by exploring possibilities for genetic manipulation of organic nitrogen transporter activities to confer increases in crop productivity. © 2013 The Author. Source

Brock C.D.,Washington State University | Brock C.D.,University of Texas at Austin | Harmon L.J.,University of Idaho | Alfaro M.E.,University of California at Los Angeles
Systematic Biology | Year: 2011

A common pattern found in phylogeny-based empirical studies of diversification is a decrease in the rate of lineage accumulation toward the present. This early-burst pattern of cladogenesis is often interpreted as a signal of adaptive radiation or density-dependent processes of diversification. However, incomplete taxonomic sampling is also known to artifactually produce patterns of rapid initial diversification. The Monte Carlo constant rates (MCCR) test, based upon Pybus and Harvey's gamma (γ)-statistic, is commonly used to accommodate incomplete sampling, but this test assumes that missing taxa have been randomly pruned from the phylogeny. Here we use simulations to show that preferentially sampling disparate lineages within a clade can produce severely inflated type-I error rates of the MCCR test, especially when taxon sampling drops below 75%. We first propose two corrections for the standard MCCR test, the proportionally deeper splits that assumes missing taxa are more likely to be recently diverged, and the deepest splits only MCCR that assumes that all missing taxa are the youngest lineages in the clade, and assess their statistical properties. We then extend these two tests into a generalized form that allows the degree of nonrandom sampling (NRS)to be controlled by a scaling parameter, α. This generalized test is then applied to two recent studies. This new test allows systematists to account for nonrandom taxonomic sampling when assessing temporal patterns of lineage diversification in empirical trees. Given the dramatic affect NRS can have on the behavior of the MCCR test, we argue that evaluating the sensitivity of this test to NRS should become the norm when investigating patterns of cladogenesis in incompletely sampled phylogenies. © The Author(s) 2011. Published by Oxford University Press, on behalf of the Society of Systematic Biologists. All rights reserved. Source

Busch J.W.,Washington State University
Evolution | Year: 2011

Baker's Law states that selfing should commonly be selected during dispersal because bottlenecks during colonization limit the availability of mates. Although this truism has broad intuitive appeal, a recent body of theory (Cheptou and Massol 2009; Massol and Cheptou 2011) casts doubt on whether adaptation favors both selfing and dispersal when both parameters are free to evolve. In these models, the joint evolution of dispersal and the selfing rate are considered in a metapopulation, with a spatially and temporally variable pollination environment. Under these conditions, adaptation favors one of two strategies: the "dispersal/outcrosser" syndrome and the "no dispersal/selfing" syndrome. These results appear to contradict the prediction of Baker's Law. These models clarify how variation in the pollination environment per se cannot generate an association between selfing and dispersal. That being said, demographic factors during dispersal episodes are likely to be important in generating patterns consistent with Baker's law. Determining whether Baker's law maintains its predictive utility requires determining whether seed banks, the perennial habit, multiple introductions, or the simultaneous arrival of many founders weaken selection for selfing during the bottleneck associated with a dispersal event. These issues highlight the many assumptions that are necessary for Baker's law to hold. © 2011 The Author(s). Evolution© 2011 The Society for the Study of Evolution. Source

Salehinia I.,Washington State University | Bahr D.F.,Purdue University
International Journal of Plasticity | Year: 2014

Molecular dynamics simulations are applied to study the effects of orientation and the presence of structural defects on the compression/tension (C/T) asymmetry of copper single crystals. In addition to the perfect crystal, crystals with stacking fault tetrahedra, as a representative internal defect, are considered to investigate both homogeneous and heterogeneous deformation mechanisms. Both the normal stresses to the slip plane and the relative values of Schmid factor in compression and tension impact the C/T asymmetry. The presence of an SFT lowers the applied stress required for plastic deformation, but this effect is highly dependent on the crystal orientation and loading direction. The reduction in yield stress is larger in compression than in tension for almost all orientations. Results show that in general a structural defect would decrease the C/T asymmetry in copper, corresponding closely to previous experiments. The reduction in yield stress in tension is less sensitive to defects than that in compression, suggesting that compression test is a more reliable experimental tool for future size dependence studies, since structural defects are the main reason behind the observed size effects in materials. On the other hand, since the reduction in yield stress is almost constant in tension for all orientations, testing in this geometry is more efficient to determine the orientation dependence of the yield stress. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source

Mandal B.,Washington State University | Powell L.M.,University of Illinois at Chicago
Economics and Human Biology | Year: 2014

This article studies two pathways in which selection into different types of child care settings may affect likelihood of childhood obesity. Frequency of intake of high energy-dense and low energy-dense food items may vary across care settings, affecting weight outcomes. We find that increased use of paid and regulated care settings, such as center care and Head Start, is associated with higher consumption of fruits and vegetables. Among children from single-mother households, the probability of obesity increases by 15 percentage point with an increase in intake of soft drinks from four to six times a week to daily consumption and by 25 percentage point with an increase in intake of fast food from one to three times a week to four to six times a week. Among children from two-parent households, eating vegetables one additional time a day is associated with 10 percentage point decreased probability of obesity, while one additional drink of juice a day is associated with 10 percentage point increased probability of obesity. Second, variation across care types could be manifested through differences in the structure of the physical environment not captured by differences in food intake alone. This type of effect is found to be marginal and is statistically significant among children from two-parent households only. Data are used from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study - Birth Cohort surveys (N = 10,700; years = 2001-2008). Children's age ranged from four to six years in the sample. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. Source

Blume D.,Washington State University | Blume D.,Harvard - Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics
Physical Review Letters | Year: 2012

The number of four-body states known to behave universally is small. This work adds a new class of four-body states to this relatively short list. We predict the existence of a universal four-body bound state for heavy-light mixtures consisting of three identical heavy fermions and a fourth distinguishable lighter particle with a mass ratio κ 9.5 and short-range interspecies interaction characterized by a positive s-wave scattering length. The structural properties of these universal states are discussed, and finite-range effects are analyzed. The bound states can be experimentally realized and probed by utilizing ultracold atom mixtures. © 2012 American Physical Society. Source

Campbell R.K.,Washington State University
Clinical Therapeutics | Year: 2011

Background: Glucose homeostasis is the result of a complex interaction of a spectrum of hormones, including insulin, glucagon, amylin, and the incretins. Incretins are released by enteroendocrine cells in the intestine in response to a meal. Incretin dysfunction, along with a number of other defects, has been implicated in contributing to the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Therapies that restore incretin activity may reduce the pathophysiologic consequences of diabetes. Objectives: The aim of this article was to review incretin physiology and studies of incretin therapy with glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonists and dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors that were developed to specifically address the blunted incretin response in patients with T2DM. Methods: Relevant English-language publications between 1995 and 2010 were identified through a search of the MEDLINE and EMBASE databases using the search terms incretin, type 2 diabetes mellitus, GLP-1, glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide, and DPP-4. Review articles and preclinical and clinical trials that described relevant details of the epidemiology of diabetes and incretin physiology in health and in T2DM were selected for review and inclusion. Clinical trials were used to describe the clinical efficacy and safety of the GLP-1 receptor agonists and DPP-4 inhibitors in patients with T2DM. An occasional systematic review article and/or meta-analysis summarizing numerous clinical trials of a particular agent was selected for summarizing key data. Results: Pharmacologic modulation of incretin pathophysiology by GLP-1 receptor agonists and DPP-4 inhibitors significantly improved glycemic control, benefited β-cell function, improved dyslipidemia, and lowered the risk of hypoglycemia compared with insulin and sulfonylureas. Unlike the DPP-4 inhibitors, GLP-1 receptor agonist therapy also produced weight loss, an important consideration given the close association among T2DM, overweight/obesity, and cardiovascular disease. The most common adverse events with GLP-1 receptor agonist therapy included nausea (28%-44%), vomiting (13%-17%), and diarrhea (11%-17%), which generally reduced in incidence and severity with continued therapy. The tolerability profile of the DPP-4 inhibitors was very good, with the incidence of adverse events similar to that of placebo. There was a suggestion of an increased incidence of nasopharyngitis versus placebo (5%-6% vs 3%-4%) with sitagliptin and urinary tract infection (6.8% vs 6.1% with placebo) and headache with saxagliptin (6.5% vs 5.9% with placebo). Conclusion: The 2 incretin drug classes provided effective and consistent glycemic control with a good tolerability profile. These agents might also improve long-term β-cell function and either reduce body weight or be weight neutral. Their role in the therapeutic armamentarium of T2DM is evolving as their potential strengths and weaknesses become better defined. © 2011 Elsevier HS Journals, Inc. Source

White J.R.,Washington State University
Annals of Pharmacotherapy | Year: 2015

Objective: To review available studies of empagliflozin, a sodium glucose co-transporter-2 (SGLT2) inhibitor approved in 2014 by the European Commission and the United States Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Data Sources: PubMed was searched using the search terms empagliflozin, BI 10773, and BI10773, for entries between January 1, 2000, and December 1, 2014. Reference lists from retrieved articles were searched manually for additional peer-reviewed publications. Study Selection and Data Extraction: All publications reporting clinical trials of empagliflozin were eligible for inclusion. Data Synthesis: Empagliflozin is a new once-daily oral SGLT2 inhibitor with a mechanism of action that is independent of β-cell function and the insulin pathway. Data from a comprehensive phase III clinical trial program have demonstrated its efficacy as monotherapy, as add-on to other glucose-lowering agents, and in different patient populations. In these studies, empagliflozin resulted in improvements in blood glucose levels as well as reductions in body weight and blood pressure. Empagliflozin was well tolerated and was not associated with an increased risk of hypoglycemia versus placebo. Conclusion: The oral antidiabetes agent, empagliflozin, can be used as monotherapy or alongside other glucose-lowering treatments, including insulin, to treat T2DM. © The Author(s) 2015. Source

Hughes L.A.,University of Nebraska at Omaha | Short Jr. J.F.,Washington State University
Journal of Quantitative Criminology | Year: 2014

Objectives: Examine relationships between routine activities, character contests in the form of "signifying," and general delinquency and fighting in a street gang context. Methods: Samejima's (Estimation of latent ability using a response pattern of graded scores. Psychometrika monograph supplement 17. Psychometric Society, Richmond, VA, Retrieved 10 Aug 2011, from http://www.psychometrika.org/journal/online/MN17.pdf, 1969) graded response models and multilevel ordinal logistic regression models are estimated using data from Short and Strodtbeck (Group process and gang delinquency. University of Chicago Press, Chicago, 1965) study of street gangs in Chicago, 1959-1962. The primary sample consists of 490 boys representing 10 black gangs, 4 white gangs, 9 black lower-class groups, 4 white lower-class groups, 2 black middle-class groups, and 2 white middle-class groups.Results: Unstructured and unsupervised socializing with peers significantly increased the likelihood of delinquency among the boys and explained a significant portion of the group-level gang effect. In addition, the more time the boys spent hanging in the streets and attending parties, the more likely they were to participate in signifying, which, in turn, increased their risk of fighting.Conclusions: Findings provide evidence that gangs contribute to delinquency partly through their effect on the routine activities of members. Findings also suggest that signifying is an important mechanism by which unstructured and unsupervised socializing with peers leads to violence. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media New York. Source

Li D.,Pacific Northwest National Laboratory | Zbib H.,Pacific Northwest National Laboratory | Zbib H.,Washington State University | Sun X.,Pacific Northwest National Laboratory | Khaleel M.,Pacific Northwest National Laboratory
International Journal of Plasticity | Year: 2014

Continuum dislocation dynamics (CDD) with a novel constitutive law based on dislocation density evolution mechanisms was developed to investigate the deformation behaviors of single crystals. The dislocation density evolution law in this model is mechanism-based, with parameters predicted by lower-length scale models or measured from experiments, not an empirical law with parameters back-fitted from the flow curves. Applied on iron single crystal, this model was validated by experimental data and compared with traditional single crystal constitutive models using a Hutchinson-type hardening law or a dislocation-based hardening law. The CDD model demonstrated higher fidelity than other constitutive models when anisotropic single crystal deformation behaviors were investigated. The traditional Hutchinson type hardening laws and other constitutive laws based on a Kocks formulated dislocation density evolution law will only succeed in a limited number of loading directions. The main advantage of CDD is the novel physics-based dislocation density evolution laws in describing the meso-scale microstructure evolution. Another advantage of CDD is on cross-slip, which is very important when loading conditions activate only one primary slip system. In addition to the dislocation hardening, CDD also takes into consideration dislocation defect interactions. Irradiation hardening of iron single crystal was simulated with validation from experimental results. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source

Neumiller J.J.,Washington State University
Medical Clinics of North America | Year: 2015

Incretin hormones, namely glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) and gastric inhibitory peptide, have been recognized for some time as playing a key role in glucose homeostasis, with the effects of incretin hormones believed to be responsible for up to 60% of postprandial insulin release. Two predominant therapeutic strategies have been developed to augment the incretin response: (1) GLP-1 receptor agonists resistant to degradation by the enzyme dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP-4); and (2) DPP-4 inhibitors. With an expanding arsenal of incretin-based therapies available, understanding the differentiating efficacy and safety profiles for available agents is important in optimizing drug selection and patient outcomes. © 2015 Elsevier Inc. Source

Wisor J.P.,Washington State University
Pflugers Archiv European Journal of Physiology | Year: 2012

This review proposes a mechanistic link between cellular metabolic status, transcriptional regulatory changes and sleep. Sleep loss is associated with changes in cellular metabolic status in the brain. Metabolic sensors responsive to cellular metabolic status regulate the circadian clock transcriptional network. Modifications of the transcriptional activity of circadian clock genes affect sleep/wake state changes. Changes in sleep state reverse sleep loss-induced changes in cellular metabolic status. It is thus proposed that the regulation of circadian clock genes by cellular metabolic sensors is a critical intermediate step in the link between cellular metabolic status and sleep. Studies of this regulatory relationship may offer insights into the function of sleep at the cellular level. © 2011 Springer-Verlag. Source

Witkiewitz K.,Washington State University
Psychology of Addictive Behaviors | Year: 2011

Alcohol dependence has been described as a relapsing condition and it has been proposed that alcohol lapses could potentially be explained by dynamic associations between contextual, interpersonal, and intrapersonal risk factors. Yet, few studies have tested the associations between risk factors in the prediction of lapse dynamics. The current study was a secondary analysis of data from the COMBINE study (n = 1,383; COMBINE Study Research Group, 2003). The goal of the current study was to examine static (alcohol dependence severity, treatment history, marital status, psychiatric symptoms) and dynamic (negative affect, craving, stress) predictors of heavy drinking during the course of treatment and up to one year following treatment. Results from dynamic latent difference score models indicated that higher levels of static and dynamic risk and increased dynamic risk over time were significantly associated with greater increases in heavy drinking. Likewise, more frequent heavy drinking and higher static risk predicted higher levels of dynamic risk. In addition, changes in dynamic risk factors significantly mediated the association between changes in heavy drinking and both psychiatric symptoms and treatment history. It is important to note that while the effects of static and dynamic risk factors in the prediction of heavy drinking were statistically significant, the magnitude of the effects were small. The current study provided partial support for a dynamic model of relapse; however future research using intensive longitudinal data collection and more advanced statistical techniques could further elucidate lapse dynamics and potentially improve relapse prevention planning. © 2011 American Psychological Association. Source

Goldman J.,MCPHS University | White J.R.,Washington State University
Annals of Pharmacotherapy | Year: 2015

Objective: To describe the studies evaluating the efficacy and safety of new insulin glargine 300 U/mL (Gla-300) as a basal insulin in the treatment of type 1 (T1DM) and type 2 (T2DM) diabetes mellitus. Data Sources: A literature search of MEDLINE was conducted (January 2008-June 2015) using the terms U300, Gla-300, and insulin glargine 300 units/mL and supplemented with congress abstracts published in 2014 and 2015. Study Selection and Data Extraction: All English language studies assessing the efficacy and/or safety of Gla-300 were evaluated. Data Synthesis: The efficacy and safety of once-daily Gla-300 has been compared with insulin glargine 100 U/mL (Gla-100) in the EDITION trials, 6 phase-3, multinational, open-label studies in T1DM and T2DM. Across these studies, Gla-300 consistently demonstrated glycemic control comparable to Gla-100; a mean (standard error) change in glycated hemoglobin A1c of −1.02% (0.03) with both Gla-100 (n = 1235) and Gla-300 (n = 1239) was seen in a patient-level meta-analysis. Gla-300 was associated with comparable or reduced nocturnal hypoglycemia compared with Gla-100; the relative risk for nocturnal hypoglycemia with Gla-300 versus Gla-100 was 0.75 (95% CI = 0.68 to 0.83) in a patient-level meta-analysis. There is also some evidence for less weight gain with Gla-300 compared with Gla-100, despite a higher insulin dose. Gla-300 was well tolerated, with the number of adverse events being comparable to that with Gla-100. Conclusions: These results suggest that Gla-300 may have a place as an alternative, long-acting basal insulin for patients with T1DM or T2DM, with the possibility for improved tolerability. © The Author(s) 2015. Source

Elling A.A.,Washington State University
Phytopathology | Year: 2013

Root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne spp.) represent one of the most polyphagous genera of plant-parasitic nematodes. To date, close to 100 valid species are recognized. In contrast to the size of the genus, the majority of past research focused on a small number of species, i.e., the so-called 'major' species M. arenaria, M. hapla, M. incognita, and M. javanica. This review highlights recent work aimed at 'minor' root-knot nematodes: M. chitwoodi, M. fallax, M. minor, M. enterolobii (=M. mayaguensis), M. exigua, and M. paranaensis. Some of these species have been described only recently. After a brief profile of each species, identification methods and their application in Meloidogyne spp. are summarized. Intraspecific variation and its impact on plant resistance breeding are discussed and interactions between M. enterolobii and Fusarium solani are highlighted as an example of synergistic interactions with other plant pathogens. Future research on Meloidogyne spp. is not only shaped by recent breakthroughs such as completing the genome sequences of M. hapla and M. incognita, but is also influenced by changes in agriculture. Taken together, the aim of this review is to draw attention to previously neglected and newly described Meloidogyne spp. that are developing into major problems for agriculture in tropical and temperate climates. © 2013 The American Phytopathological Society. Source

Adachi K.,Arizona State University | Chung S.H.,Washington State University | Buseck P.R.,Arizona State University
Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres | Year: 2010

Soot aerosol particles (also called light-absorbing, black, or elemental carbon) are major contributors to global warming through their absorption of solar radiation. When embedded in organic matter or sulfate, as is common in polluted areas such as over Mexico City (MC) and other megacities, their optical properties are affected by their shapes and positions within their host particles. However, large uncertainties remain regarding those variables and how they affect warming by soot. Using electron tomography with a transmission electron microscope, three-dimensional (3-D) images of individual soot particles embedded within host particles collected from MC and its surroundings were obtained. From those 3-D images, we calculated the optical properties using a discrete dipole approximation. Many soot particles have open, chainlike shapes even after being surrounded by organic matter and are located in off-center positions within their host materials. Such embedded soot absorbs sunlight less efficiently than if compact and located near the center of its host particle. In the case of our MC samples, their contribution to direct radiative forcing is ∼20% less than if they had a simple core-shell shape, which is the shape assumed in many climate models. This study shows that the shapes and positions of soot within its host particles have an important effect on particle optical properties and should be recognized as potentially important variables when evaluating global climate change. Copyright 2010 by the American Geophysical Union. Source

Barfield M.,University of Florida | Holt R.D.,University of Florida | Gomulkiewicz R.,Washington State University
American Naturalist | Year: 2011

For many organisms, stage is a better predictor of demographic rates than age. Yet no general theoretical framework exists for understanding or predicting evolution in stage-structured populations. Here, we provide a general modeling approach that can be used to predict evolution and demography of stage-structured populations. This advances our ability to understand evolution in stagestructured populations to a level previously available only for populations structured by age. We use this framework to provide the first rigorous proof that Lande's theorem, which relates adaptive evolution to population growth, applies to stage-classified populations, assuming only normality and that evolution is slow relative to population dynamics. We extend this theorem to allow for different means or variances among stages. Our next major result is the formulation of Price's theorem, a fundamental law of evolution, for stage-structured populations. In addition, we use data from Trillium grandiflorum to demonstrate how our models can be applied to a real-world population and thereby show their practical potential to generate accurate projections of evolutionary and population dynamics. Finally, we use our framework to compare rates of evolution in age- versus stage-structured populations, which shows how our methods can yield biological insights about evolution in stage-structured populations. © 2011 by The University of Chicago. Source

Chopra I.S.,University of Texas at Dallas | Chaudhuri S.,Washington State University | Veyan J.F.,University of Texas at Dallas | Chabal Y.J.,University of Texas at Dallas
Nature Materials | Year: 2011

Activation of molecular hydrogen is the first step in producing many important industrial chemicals that have so far required expensive noble-metal catalysts and thermal activation. We demonstrate here that aluminium doped with very small amounts of titanium can activate molecular hydrogen at temperatures as low as 90K. Using an approach that uses CO as a probe molecule, we identify the atomistic arrangement of the catalytically active sites containing Ti on Al(111) surfaces, combining infrared reflection"absorption spectroscopy and first-principles modelling. CO molecules, selectively adsorbed on catalytically active sites, form a complex with activated hydrogen that is removed at remarkably low temperatures (115K; possibly as a molecule). These results provide the first direct evidence that Ti-doped Al can carry out the essential first step of molecular hydrogen activation under nearly barrierless conditions, thereby challenging the monopoly of noble metals in hydrogenactivation. © 2011 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved. Source

Rosa B.A.,University of Washington | Jasmer D.P.,Washington State University | Mitreva M.,University of Washington
PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases | Year: 2014

Background:Caenorhabditis elegans has traditionally been used as a model for studying nematode biology, but its small size limits the ability for researchers to perform some experiments such as high-throughput tissue-specific gene expression studies. However, the dissection of individual tissues is possible in the parasitic nematode Ascaris suum due to its relatively large size. Here, we take advantage of the recent genome sequencing of Ascaris suum and the ability to physically dissect its separate tissues to produce a wide-scale tissue-specific nematode RNA-seq datasets, including data on three non-reproductive tissues (head, pharynx, and intestine) in both male and female worms, as well as four reproductive tissues (testis, seminal vesicle, ovary, and uterus). We obtained fundamental information about the biology of diverse cell types and potential interactions among tissues within this multicellular organism.Methodology/Principal Findings:Overexpression and functional enrichment analyses identified many putative biological functions enriched in each tissue studied, including functions which have not been previously studied in detail in nematodes. Putative tissue-specific transcriptional factors and corresponding binding motifs that regulate expression in each tissue were identified, including the intestine-enriched ELT-2 motif/transcription factor previously described in nematode intestines. Constitutively expressed and novel genes were also characterized, with the largest number of novel genes found to be overexpressed in the testis. Finally, a putative acetylcholine-mediated transcriptional network connecting biological activity in the head to the male reproductive system is described using co-expression networks, along with a similar ecdysone-mediated system in the female.Conclusions/Significance:The expression profiles, co-expression networks and co-expression regulation of the 10 tissues studied and the tissue-specific analysis presented here are a valuable resource for studying tissue-specific biological functions in nematodes. © 2014 Rosa et al. Source

Edwards G.E.,Washington State University
Photosynthesis research | Year: 2012

David Alan Walker, Emeritus Professor of Biology, University of Sheffield, UK and Fellow of the Royal Society, died on February 13, 2012. David had a marvelous 60 year career as a scientist, during which he was a researcher, mentor, valued colleague, and a prolific writer in the field of photosynthesis. His career was marked by creative breakthroughs in isolation and analysis of chloroplast metabolism in vitro and simple but valuable technical advances for measurement of photosynthesis in vivo that remain relevant on a global scale to production of crops and biofuels, as well as plant responses to climate change. We include here personal remembrances by the authors (GEE and UH), and by (in alphabetical order): Zoran Cerovic (France), Bob Furbank (Australia), Geoffrey Hind (USA), John Humby (UK), Agu Laisk (Estonia), Peter Lea (UK), Ross Lilley (Australia), Barry Osmond (Australia), Simon Robinson (Australia) and Charles Stirling (UK). Source

Reeves R.,Washington State University
Biochimica et Biophysica Acta - Gene Regulatory Mechanisms | Year: 2010

Although the three families of mammalian HMG proteins (HMGA, HMGB and HMGN) participate in many of the same nuclear processes, each family plays its own unique role in modulating chromatin structure and regulating genomic function. This review focuses on the similarities and differences in the mechanisms by which the different HMG families impact chromatin structure and influence cellular phenotype. The biological implications of having three architectural transcription factor families with complementary, but partially overlapping, nuclear functions are discussed. © 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Source

Jones E.I.,Washington State University | Dornhaus A.,University of Arizona
Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology | Year: 2011

In the absence of predators, pollinators can often maximize their foraging success by visiting the most rewarding flowers. However, if predators use those highly rewarding flowers to locate their prey, pollinators may benefit from changing their foraging preferences to accept less rewarding flowers. Previous studies have shown that some predators, such as crab spiders, indeed hunt preferentially on the most pollinator-attractive flowers. In order to determine whether predation risk can alter pollinator preferences, we conducted laboratory experiments on the foraging behavior of bumble bees (Bombus impatiens) when predation risk was associated with a particular reward level (measured here as sugar concentration). Bees foraged in arenas containing a choice of a high-reward and a low-reward artificial flower. On a bee's first foraging trip, it was either lightly squeezed with forceps, to simulate a crab spider attack, or was allowed to forage safely. The foragers' subsequent visits were recorded for between 1 and 4 h without any further simulated attacks. Compared to bees that foraged safely, bees that experienced a simulated attack on a low-reward artificial flower had reduced foraging activity. However, bees attacked on a high-reward artificial flower were more likely to visit low-reward artificial flowers on subsequent foraging trips. Forager body size, which is thought to affect vulnerability to capture by predators, did not have an effect on response to an attack. Predation risk can thus alter pollinator foraging behavior in ways that influence the number and reward level of flowers that are visited. © 2011 Springer-Verlag. Source

Meadows G.G.,Washington State University
Cancer and Metastasis Reviews | Year: 2012

The major factor in the morbidity and mortality of cancer patients is metastasis. There exists a relative lack of specific therapeutic approaches to control metastasis, and this is a fruitful area for investigation. A healthy diet and lifestyle not only can inhibit tumorigenesis but also can have a major impact on cancer progression and survival. Many chemicals found in edible plants are known to inhibit metastatic progression of cancer. While the mechanisms underlying antimetastatic activity of some phytochemicals are being delineated, the impact of diet, dietary components, and various phytochemicals on metastasis suppressor genes is underexplored. Epigenetic regulation of metastasis suppressor genes promises to be a potentially important mechanism by which dietary components can impact cancer metastasis since many dietary constituents are known to modulate gene expression. The review addresses this area of research as well as the current state of knowledge regarding the impact of diet, dietary components, and phytochemicals on metastasis suppressor genes. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC (outside the USA). Source

OBJECTIVE: To review the pharmacology, pharmacokinetics, and clinical efficacy and safety of linagliptin, a dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitor recently approved in the US for use as a treatment for type 2 diabetes mellitus. DATA SOURCES: English-language articles in the PubMed database to October 2011 (selected using the search terms linagliptin, alogliptin, sitagliptin, saxagliptin, vildagliptin, and pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, or diabetes) were identified for review. Reference lists from identified articles were reviewed for additional references of interest. Abstracts published at relevant meetings were also evaluated, and information was obtained from the manufacturer. STUDY SELECTION AND DATA EXTRACTION: Publications reporting the pharmacology, pharmacokinetics, and clinical efficacy and safety of linagliptin were reviewed. DATA SYNTHESIS: Linagliptin therapy results in clinically meaningful reductions in hemoglobin A 1c, as well as fasting and postprandial plasma glucose levels in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. It contrasts with other agents in its class by not requiring dosage adjustment in patients with renal or hepatic impairment. Oral doses of linagliptin 5 mg once daily have been shown to be clinically effective, well tolerated, and weight-neutral. An increased rate of hypoglycemia when linagliptin was used in combination with an insulin secretagogue compared to placebo was noted in clinical trials. CONCLUSIONS: Linagliptin provides an additional therapeutic option for type 2 diabetes mellitus and, in contrast to other agents in the DPP-4 class, can be used without dose adjustment in patients with any degree of declining renal function. Source

Forsgren K.L.,University of Washington | Young G.,University of Washington | Young G.,Washington State University
Biology of Reproduction | Year: 2012

An in vitro system was used to analyze the effects of sex steroids on the development of primary (late perinucleolar stage) and early secondary, previtellogenic (early cortical alveolus stage) ovarian follicles of coho salmon cultured for up to 21 days. Late perinucleolar-stage follicles increased significantly in size after 7 days of treatment with low concentrations of 11-ketotestosterone (11-KT), a nonaromatizable androgen. An androgen receptor antagonist (flutamide) inhibited this growthpromoting effect, and the highest concentration resulted in atresia of follicles, implicating androgens as survival factors at this stage. Testosterone (T) was less effective than 11-KT in promoting growth, but blocking aromatization with exemestane resulted in a growth response similar to that of 11-KT. Estradiol- 17beta (E2) had no effect on growth at this stage. After 21 days of culture, E2 was the most potent steroid in increasing the number of follicles containing cortical alveoli and the number of cortical alveoli within those follicles. At the early cortical alveolus stage, low doses of E2 promoted growth and strongly stimulated synthesis of cortical alveoli, actions that were inhibited by an estrogen receptor antagonist (tamoxifen). 11- KT displayed moderate growth-promoting effects, and 11-KT and T stimulated moderate to substantial increases in abundance of cortical alveoli. This study shows that the predominant role of androgens is the promotion of growth of late perinucleolar-stage follicles, while E2 stimulates both the growth and accumulation of cortical alveoli in early cortical alveolus-stage follicles. © 2012 by the Society for the Study of Reproduction, Inc. Source

Lanigan J.D.,Washington State University
Child: Care, Health and Development | Year: 2011

Background The prevalence of overweight among young children is increasing at an alarming rate. Global efforts to address the issue can benefit from understanding how young children's experiences across multiple contexts shape their perspectives of healthy weight. Methods This qualitative study examines the substance and sources of young American children's knowledge related to healthy eating, physical activity and media practices. Role play and semi-structured interviews were conducted in child-care settings with 81 children aged 3-5 who represented diverse socio-economic statuses and ethnic backgrounds. Results Children demonstrated better understanding of the benefits of healthy eating compared with physical activity. Snacks and beverages consumed outside mealtime were less likely to be healthy even among the 40% of children who demonstrated an understanding of healthy nutrition. The majority of children's leisure activity selections involved media and minimally active pursuits. Three quarters of the children were unable to articulate reasons for healthy choices or identify the sources of their health understandings. The media was listed as source of health information more frequently than adults. Conclusion Obesity prevention efforts targeting young children need to use consistent messaging across all contexts in which children develop in order to increase their understanding that physical activity and eating choices support health. Efforts need to counter inaccurate information and address the rationale for health practices. Key gaps in young children's understanding include: the importance of drinking water, that snacks are part of nutritional intake and the benefits of engaging in physical activities. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd. Source

Poon G.M.K.,Washington State University
Analytical Biochemistry | Year: 2013

Designed ligands that self-assemble noncovalently via an independent oligomerization domain have demonstrated enhancement in affinity for a variety of chemical and biological targets. To better understand the thermodynamic linkage between enhanced receptor binding and self-assembly, we have developed linkage models for the three commonly encountered types of noncovalently oligomeric ligands: homofunctional oligomeric ligands, heterodimeric ligands that target a single receptor, and bispecific ligands that crosslink noninteracting receptors. Expressions and numerical approaches for exact analysis as a function of total ligand concentrations are provided. We apply the linkage models to the binding data for two published noncovalently oligomeric ligands: one targeting a small molecule (phosphocholine) and the other targeting a soluble protein (tumor necrosis factor α). The linkage models provide a quantitative measure of the potential and realized enhancement in affinity that could inform and guide design optimization efforts, and they reveal physical insight that would elude model-free analysis. Incorporation of the linkage models, therefore, is expected to be valuable in the rational engineering of noncovalently oligomeric ligands. © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Source

Zhang L.,University of Texas at Austin | Marston P.L.,Washington State University
Biomedical Optics Express | Year: 2013

Acoustical and optical non-diffracting beams are potentially useful for manipulating particles and larger objects. An extended optical theorem for a non-diffracting beam was given recently in the context of acoustics. The theorem relates the extinction by an object to the scattering at the forward direction of the beam's plane wave components. Here we use this theorem to examine the extinction cross section of a sphere centered on the axis of the beam, with a non-diffracting Bessel beam as an example. The results are applied to recover the axial radiation force and torque on the sphere by the Bessel beam. © 2013 Optical Society of America. Source

Ullrich-French S.,Washington State University | McDonough M.H.,Purdue University
Journal of Adolescence | Year: 2013

This study examined correlates of long-term participation in a positive youth development (PYD) program. Low-income youth (N = 215) age 8-13 of diverse ethnicity participating in a summer physical activity-based PYD program completed questionnaires at the beginning and end of the program (year 1) and at the beginning of year 2. Those with lower BMI and higher attendance and leader support perceptions were more likely to return to the program the following year. Self-worth and leader support perceptions at time 2 were higher for returners compared to non-returners. Among returners, hope increased from year 1 to year 2 and increases in global self-worth across the first year were maintained over one year. Social support is linked to continued PYD participation. Returners had increased and/or sustained positive perceptions of self-worth and hope. Programs are encouraged to foster staff-participant relationships and self-worth, and minimize barriers associated with weight status. © 2012. Source

Cooper B.R.,Washington State University | Lanza S.T.,Pennsylvania State University
Child Development | Year: 2014

Head Start (HS) is the largest federally funded preschool program for disadvantaged children. Research has shown relatively small impacts on cognitive and social skills; therefore, some have questioned its effectiveness. Using data from the Head Start Impact Study (3-year-old cohort; N = 2,449), latent class analysis was used to (a) identify subgroups of children defined by baseline characteristics of their home environment and caregiver and (b) test whether the effects of HS on cognitive, and behavioral and relationship skills over 2 years differed across subgroups. The results suggest that the effectiveness of HS varies quite substantially. For some children there appears to be a significant, and in some cases, long-term, positive impact. For others there is little to no effect. © 2014 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc. Source

Tharp A.P.,Tufts University | Maffini M.V.,Tufts University | Hunt P.A.,Washington State University | VandeVoort C.A.,University of California at Davis | And 2 more authors.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America | Year: 2012

The xenoestrogen bisphenol A (BPA) used in the manufacturing of various plastics and resins for food packaging and consumer products has been shown to produce numerous endocrine and developmental effects in rodents. Exposure to low doses of BPA during fetal mammary gland development resulted in significant alterations in the gland's morphology that varied from subtle ones observed during the exposure period to precancerous and cancerous lesions manifested in adulthood. This study assessed the effects of BPA on fetal mammary gland development in nonhuman primates. Pregnant rhesus monkeys were fed 400 μg of BPA per kg of body weight daily from gestational day 100 to term, which resulted in 0.68 ± 0.312 ng of unconjugated BPA per mL of maternal serum, a level comparable to that found in humans. At birth, the mammary glands of female offspring were removed for morphological analysis. Morphological parameters similar to those shown to be affected in rodents exposed prenatally to BPA were measured in whole-mounted glands; estrogen receptor (ER) α and β expression were assessed in paraffin sections. Student's t tests for equality of means were used to assess differences between exposed and unexposed groups. The density of mammary buds was significantly increased in BPA-exposed monkeys, and the overall development of their mammary gland was more advanced compared with unexposed monkeys. No significant differences were observed in ER expression. Altogether, gestational exposure to the estrogen-mimic BPA altered the developing mammary glands of female nonhuman primates in a comparable manner to that observed in rodents. Source

Capper J.L.,Washington State University | Cady R.A.,Elanco Animal Health
Journal of Dairy Science | Year: 2012

The objective of this study was to compare the environmental impact of Jersey or Holstein milk production sufficient to yield 500,000 t of cheese (equivalent cheese yield) both with and without recombinant bovine somatotropin use. The deterministic model used 2009 DairyMetrics (Dairy Records Management Systems, Raleigh, NC) population data for milk yield and composition (Jersey: 20.9kg/d, 4.8% fat, 3.7% protein; Holstein: 29.1kg/d, 3.8% fat, 3.1% protein), age at first calving, calving interval, and culling rate. Each population contained lactating and dry cows, bulls, and herd replacements for which rations were formulated according to DairyPro (Agricultural Modeling and Training Systems, Cornell, Ithaca, NY) at breed-appropriate body weights (BW), with mature cows weighing 454kg (Jersey) or 680kg (Holstein). Resource inputs included feedstuffs, water, land, fertilizers, and fossil fuels. Waste outputs included manure and greenhouse gas emissions. Cheese yield (kg) was calculated according to the Van Slyke equation. A yield of 500,000 t of cheese required 4.94 billionkg of Holstein milk compared with 3.99 billionkg of Jersey milk-a direct consequence of differences in milk nutrient density (fat and protein contents) between the 2 populations. The reduced daily milk yield of Jersey cows increased the population size required to supply sufficient milk for the required cheese yield, but the differential in BW between the Jersey and Holstein breeds reduced the body mass of the Jersey population by 125×10 3 t. Consequently, the population energy requirement was reduced by 7,177×10 6MJ, water use by 252×10 9 L, and cropland use by 97.5×10 3 ha per 500,000 t of cheese yield. Nitrogen and phosphorus excretion were reduced by 17,234 and 1,492 t, respectively, through the use of Jersey milk to yield 500,000 t of Cheddar cheese. The carbon footprint was reduced by 1,662×10 3 t of CO 2-equivalents per 500,000 t of cheese in Jersey cows compared with Holsteins. Use of recombinant bovine somatotropin reduced resource use and waste output in supplemented populations, with decreases in carbon footprint equivalent to 10.0% (Jersey) and 7.5% (Holstein) compared with nonsupplemented populations. The interaction between milk nutrient density and BW demonstrated by the Jersey population overcame the reduced daily milk yield, thus reducing resource use and environmental impact. This reduction was achieved through 2 mechanisms: diluting population maintenance overhead through improved milk nutrient density and reducing maintenance overhead through a reduction in productive and nonproductive body mass within the population. © 2012 American Dairy Science Association. Source

Finch C.E.,University of Southern California | Holmes D.J.,Washington State University
Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences | Year: 2010

Evolutionary theory predicts that aging-related fertility declines result from tradeoffs between reproduction and somatic maintenance. Developmental programs for oogenesis also contribute to variation in aging-related reproductive declines among female vertebrates. Documented reproductive aging patterns in female vertebrates, including humans, are consistent with canonical aging patterns determined developmentally and require no special adaptive explanation. Here we discuss patterns of aging-related ovarian decline in diverse female vertebrates, and place human ovarian aging in comparative context. Depletion of finite oocyte stores accompanied by fertility loss occurs in a variety of nonhuman mammals and vertebrates, including short-lived rodents, birds, and some fishes; moreover, postreproductive lifespans of considerable length clearly are not limited to long-lived, social species with well-developed kin networks. We argue for a more rigorous comparative approach for understanding the evolutionary and developmental bases of ovarian aging in vertebrates with a wider range of aging patterns and social structures. © 2010 New York Academy of Sciences. Source

Guerra-Bubb J.,Colorado State University | Croteau R.,Washington State University | Williams R.M.,Colorado State University | Williams R.M.,Aurora University
Natural Product Reports | Year: 2012

Covering: 1966 to 2012 The biosynthesis of the anti-cancer drug taxol (paclitaxel) has required the collaborative efforts of several research groups to tackle the synthesis and labeling of putative biosynthetic intermediates, in concert with the identification, cloning and functional expression of the biosynthetic genes responsible for the construction of this complex natural product. Based on a combination of precursor labeling and incorporation experiments, and metabolite isolation from Taxus spp., a picture of the complex matrix of pathway oxygenation reactions following formation of the first committed intermediate, taxa-4(5),11(12)-diene, is beginning to emerge. An overview of the current state of knowledge on the early-stages of taxol biosynthesis is presented. This journal is © 2012 The Royal Society of Chemistry. Source

Tegeder M.,Washington State University
Current Opinion in Plant Biology | Year: 2012

Membrane proteins are essential to move amino acids in or out of plant cells as well as between organelles. While many putative amino acid transporters have been identified, function in nitrogen movement in plants has only been shown for a few proteins. Those studies demonstrate that import systems are fundamental in partitioning of amino acids at cellular and whole plant level. Physiological data further suggest that amino acid transporters are key-regulators in plant metabolism and that their activities affect growth and development. By contrast, knowledge on the molecular mechanisms of cellular export processes as well as on intracellular transport of amino acids is scarce. Similarly, little is known about the regulation of amino acid transporter function and involvement of the transporters in amino acid signaling. Future studies need to identify the missing components to elucidate the importance of amino acid transport processes for whole plant physiology and productivity. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Knoblauch M.,Washington State University | Oparka K.,University of Edinburgh
Plant Journal | Year: 2012

Long-distance assimilate distribution in higher plants takes place in the enucleate sieve-tube system of the phloem. It is generally accepted that flow of assimilates is driven by an osmotically generated pressure differential, as proposed by Ernst Münch more than 80 years ago. In the period between 1960 and 1980, the pressure flow hypothesis was challenged when electron microscopic images suggested that sieve tubes contain obstructions that would prevent passive flow. This led to the proposal of alternative translocation mechanisms. However, most investigators came to the conclusion that obstructions in the sieve-tube path were due to preparation artifacts. New developments in bioimaging have vastly enhanced our ability to study the phloem. Unexpectedly, in vivo studies challenge the pressure-flow hypothesis once again. In this review we summarize current investigations of phloem structure and function and discuss their impact on our understanding of long-distance transport in the phloem. © 2012 The Authors. The Plant Journal © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd. Source

Bermudez-Aguirre D.,Washington State University | Corradini M.G.,Argentine Business University, Buenos Aires
Food Research International | Year: 2012

Salmonella spp. has recently been involved in a number of food-borne outbreaks with a high impact on pharmaceuticals, food safety, and the economy. These outbreaks have increased the need to understand the behavior of this microorganism under conventional and new technologies applied to reduce its presence in food products. In the last twenty years, a number of emerging food processing technologies have been proposed as alternatives to thermal food processing. Studies have proven that these technologies ensure microbial inactivation while producing foods with better nutritional and sensory characteristics. Salmonella is one of the target microorganisms under study for these novel technologies showing encouraging results. Salmonella inactivation using conventional and novel technologies often does not follow first order kinetics, posing the need for models that adequately describe its survival curves and have predictive ability. This manuscript presents a summary of some of the emerging technologies used to inactivate Salmonella species in different food products and model systems, along with their inactivation patterns. It also reviews the models currently proposed to describe and estimate Salmonella inactivation under conventional thermal treatments and their applicability and limitations to characterize the survival curves obtained during exposure to novel technologies. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Blasic J.R.,University of Maryland Baltimore County | Lane Brown R.,Washington State University | Robinson P.R.,University of Maryland Baltimore County
Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences | Year: 2012

Melanopsin-based phototransduction is involved in non-image forming light responses including circadian entrainment, pupil constriction, suppression of pineal melatonin synthesis, and direct photic regulation of sleep in vertebrates. Given that the functions of melanopsin involve the measurement and summation of total environmental luminance, there would appear to be no need for the rapid deactivation typical of other G-protein coupled receptors. In this study, however, we demonstrate that heterologously expressed mouse melanopsin is phosphorylated in a light-dependent manner, and that this phosphorylation is involved in regulating the rate of G-protein activation and the lifetime of melanopsin's active state. Furthermore, we provide evidence for lightdependent phosphorylation of melanopsin in the mouse retina using an in situ proximity ligation assay. Finally, we demonstrate that melanopsin preferentially interacts with the GRK2/3 family of G-protein coupled receptor kinases through co-immunoprecipitation assays. Based on the complement of G-protein receptor kinases present in the melanopsin-expressing retinal ganglion cells, GRK2 emerges as the best candidate for melanopsin's cognate GRK. © 2011 Springer Basel AG. Source

Rosa E.A.,Washington State University
Journal of Risk Research | Year: 2010

Presented here is an elaboration of the fundamental features of the meaning of risk. It distinguishes between analytic approaches grounded in realism and postmodern (including constructionist) epistemologies and the presuppositions of each. It argues that attempts to fuse the ontology of risk with epistemological considerations into a common definition is both internally contradictory and a weak foundation for a theoretically justified definition of risk. In place of a fused definition of risk, it re-affirms a definition risk as a state of the world, independent of percipient actors. Source

Zirakparvar N.A.,Syracuse University | Baldwin S.L.,Syracuse University | Vervoort J.D.,Washington State University
Gondwana Research | Year: 2013

Geochemical, isotopic, and geochronologic data for exhumed rocks in the Woodlark Rift of Papua New Guinea (PNG) allow a tectonic link to be established with the Late Cretaceous Whitsunday Volcanic Province (WVP) of northeastern Australia. Most of the metamorphic rocks in the Woodlark Rift have Nd isotopic compositions (εNd=+1.7 to +6.2) similar to the Nd isotopic compositions of rocks in the WVP (εNd=+1.3 to +6.6; Ewart et al., 1992), and contain inherited zircons with 90 to 100Ma U-Pb ages that overlap the timing of magmatism in the WVP. None of the metamorphic rocks in the Woodlark Rift have the highly evolved Hf and Nd isotopic compositions expected of ancient continental crust. Magmas were erupted in the WVP during the middle Cretaceous as eastern Gondwana was rifted apart. The protoliths of felsic and intermediate metamorphic rocks in the Woodlark Rift are interpreted to be related to the magmatic products produced during this Cretaceous rifting event. Some mafic metamorphic rocks exposed in the western Woodlark Rift (eclogites and amphibolites) are not related to the WVP and instead could have originated as basaltic lavas crystallized from mantle melts at (U)HP depths in the Late Cenozoic, or as fragments of Mesozoic aged oceanic lithosphere.Isotopic and elemental comparisons between basement gneisses and Quaternary felsic volcanic rocks demonstrate that felsic lavas in the D'Entrecasteaux Islands did not form solely from partial melting of metamorphic rocks during exhumation. Instead, the isotopic compositions and geochemistry of Quaternary felsic volcanic rocks indicate a significant contribution from the partial melting of the mantle in this region. When combined with geophysical data for the western Woodlark Rift, this suggests that future seafloor spreading will commence south of Fergusson Island, and west of the present-day active seafloor spreading rift tip. © 2012 International Association for Gondwana Research. Source

Nelson M.L.,Washington State University
Journal of animal science | Year: 2010

Wet coproducts fed to beef cattle include processing coproducts of the fruit, vegetable, juice, and brewing industries. Considerations for their utilization in beef cattle diets include quantity available, feeding value, quality of animal products produced, economics (e.g., transportation of water), storage and preservation, consumer perception, nuisance concerns, contaminants, and interactions with other diet ingredients. Potato (Solanum tuberosum) coproducts from processing for frozen food products may be quantitatively most important because the 11.3 million t of potatoes (fresh weight) processed in the United States and Canada in 2008 resulted in an estimated 4.3 million t (as-is basis) of coproduct. Chemical composition and feeding value of potato coproducts depends on the coproduct type. The names of coproducts vary among potato processors and some processors combine the different coproducts into one product commonly called slurry. The 4 main potato coproducts are 1) potato peels; 2) screen solids (small potatoes and pieces); 3) fried product (fries, hash browns, batter, crumbles); and 4) material from the water recovery systems (oxidation ditch, belt solids, filter cake). The coproducts, except the fried products, ensile rapidly, reaching pH 5 in 7 d or less. Dry matter content varies from 10 to 30% and on a DM basis varies in CP (5 to 27%), starch (3 to 56%), NDF (4 to 41%), and ether extract (3 to 37%) content among potato coproducts. Type of coproduct and frying greatly affect the energy value (0.6 to 1.6 Mcal of NE(g)/kg of DM). Composition, quality, and shelf life of beef was not affected by potato coproduct feeding in contrast to perceptions of some purveyors and chefs. Potato coproducts are quantitatively important energy sources in beef cattle diets, which, in turn, solve a potentially massive disposal problem for the food processing industry. Source

A new species of Ogdoconta Butler (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae, Condicinae, Condicini) is described from the Patagonia Mountains, Santa Cruz County, Arizona, USA. Ogdoconta margareta sp. n., is related closely to Ogdoconta tacna (Barnes) from Texas. Modifications are proposed to a recently published key to the Ogdoconta species north of Mexico to allow identification of the new species. © Lars G. Crabo. Source

This article represents one of five contributions focusing on the topic " Plasticity and neuroadaptive responses within the extended amygdala in response to chronic or excessive alcohol exposure" that were developed by awardees participating in the Young Investigator Award Symposium at the " . Alcoholism and Stress: A Framework for Future Treatment Strategies" conference in Volterra, Italy on May 3-6, 2011 that was organized/chaired by Drs. Antonio Noronha and Fulton Crews and sponsored by the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism. This review discusses the dependence-induced neuroadaptations in affective systems that provide a basis for negative reinforcement learning and presents evidence demonstrating that escalated alcohol consumption during withdrawal is a learned, plasticity-dependent process. The review concludes by identifying changes within extended amygdala dynorphin/kappa-opioid receptor systems that could serve as the foundation for the occurrence of negative reinforcement processes. While some evidence contained herein may be specific to alcohol dependence-related learning and plasticity, much of the information will be of relevance to any addictive disorder involving negative reinforcement mechanisms. Collectively, the information presented within this review provides a framework to assess the negative reinforcing effects of alcohol in a manner that distinguishes neuroadaptations produced by chronic alcohol exposure from the actual plasticity that is associated with negative reinforcement learning in dependent organisms. © 2012 Elsevier Inc.. Source

Zhan C.,CAS Beijing National Laboratory for Molecular | Li A.D.Q.,Washington State University
Current Organic Chemistry | Year: 2011

Perylene diimides (PDIs) have been playing important roles in several active fields. Therefore, we will first review the current methods to modify the skeleton of perylene diimides. Next, PDI self-assemblies and PDI folded nanostructures and chemically restrained PDI nanostructures are presented. Unusual physical properties due to nanostructures formation are discussed including the absorption band intensity reversal and π-stack red-fluorescence emission. Because of interesting π-stacked structures, PDI derivatives are considered as potential candidates for photovoltaic applications and organic electronics. More importantly, π-stacking can be tuned when the dihedral angle of the two naphthalene planes varies, thus resulting in adjusted interacting forces. Such cooperative forces lead to the discovery of molecular code phenomena, which will have profound impact an future bi-molecular reaction designs. © 2011 Bentham Science Publishers Ltd. Source

Benbrook C.M.,Washington State University
Environmental Sciences Europe | Year: 2012

Background Genetically engineered, herbicide-resistant and insect-resistant crops have been remarkable commercial successes in the United States. Few independent studies have calculated their impacts on pesticide use per hectare or overall pesticide use, or taken into account the impact of rapidly spreading glyphosate-resistant weeds. A model was developed to quantify by crop and year the impacts of six major transgenic pest-management traits on pesticide use in the U.S. over the 16-year period, 1996-2011: herbicide-resistant corn, soybeans, and cotton; Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) corn targeting the European corn borer; Bt corn for corn rootworms; and Bt cotton for Lepidopteron insects. Results Herbicide-resistant crop technology has led to a 239 million kilogram (527 million pound) increase in herbicide use in the United States between 1996 and 2011, while Bt crops have reduced insecticide applications by 56 million kilograms (123 million pounds). Overall, pesticide use increased by an estimated 183 million kgs (404 million pounds), or about 7%. Conclusions Contrary to often-repeated claims that today's genetically-engineered crops have, and are reducing pesticide use, the spread of glyphosate-resistant weeds in herbicide-resistant weed management systems has brought about substantial increases in the number and volume of herbicides applied. If new genetically engineered forms of corn and soybeans tolerant of 2,4-D are approved, the volume of 2,4-D sprayed could drive herbicide usage upward by another approximate 50%. The magnitude of increases in herbicide use on herbicide-resistant hectares has dwarfed the reduction in insecticide use on Bt crops over the past 16 years, and will continue to do so for the foreseeable future. © 2012 Benbrook. Source

Marston P.L.,Washington State University
Journal of the Acoustical Society of America | Year: 2014

The extinction efficiency Qext of a sphere is defined to be the ratio of its extinction cross section to the area of its profile. For non-dissipative situations Qext reduces to the scattering efficiency. For a sphere centered on the axis of a Bessel beam Qext has a complicated dependence on dimensionless frequency ka and on the conic angle β of the beam, even in the simple case of a rigid sphere. With appropriate scaling using Babinet's principle, however, the dependence reduces approximately to a function of ka sin(β) when ka is large. An example is also shown for a metal shell in water. © 2014 Acoustical Society of America. Source

Vandam M.,Washington State University
Journal of the Acoustical Society of America | Year: 2014

There has been increasing attention in the literature to wearable acoustic recording devices, particularly to examine naturalistic speech in disordered and child populations. Recordings are typically analyzed using automatic procedures that critically depend on the reliability of the collected signal. This work describes the acoustic amplitude response characteristics and the possibility of acoustic transmission loss using several shirts designed for wearable recorders. No difference was observed between the response characteristics of different shirt types or between shirts and the bare-microphone condition. Results are relevant for research, clinical, educational, and home applications in both practical and theoretical terms. © 2014 Acoustical Society of America. Source

Kigerl A.,Washington State University
Social Science Computer Review | Year: 2012

Cybercrime and the threat it creates are growing in its reach, in accordance with similar growth in information technology. Some countries account for more of the variation in cybercrime activity than others, which affects less criminally involved nations as well, considering that cybercrime does not respect national borders over the Internet. Routine activity theory (RAT) has been used to explain cybercrime at the individual level, but not at the national level. Much research has focused on high cybercrime countries, but this research is often conducted by cybersecurity firms and is exclusively descriptive, making no inferences. This research sought to determine what characteristics predict whether a nation is high in either spamming activity or phishing activity. In a sample of 132 countries, it was found that wealthier nations with more Internet users per capita had higher cybercrime activity. Unemployment was also found to interact with Internet users such that the effect of the proportion of Internet users on spam was strongest in nations with higher unemployment. The implications these findings have for policy and suggestions for future research are discussed. © The Author(s) 2012. Source

Zhang L.,University of Texas at Austin | Marston P.L.,Washington State University
Journal of the Acoustical Society of America | Year: 2014

This analysis reports a formula for torque and viscous power dissipation in scattering of orthogonal waves and vortex beams by a small compressible solid sphere in a slightly viscous fluid. The analysis is based on a viscous correction to far-field scattering, together with beam superposition. The analysis revels the relation between the torque and dissipation. The torque in a heavy sphere limit agrees with a prior analysis by Busse and Wang using boundary flow analysis. The results are applicable to arbitrary sound fields with proper phase distribution, and are extended to other small axisymmetric obstacles such as circular disks and cylinders. © 2014 Acoustical Society of America. Source

Mehrizi-Sani A.,Washington State University
IEEE Transactions on Education | Year: 2012

A summer academy is held for grade 9-12 high school students at the University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada, every year. The academy, dubbed the Da Vinci Engineering Enrichment Program (DEEP), is a diverse program that aims to attract domestic and international high school students to engineering and sciences (and possibly recruit them). DEEP also provides them with the opportunity to experience the university setting. This paper discusses the organization of DEEP and presents the details of a DEEP course developed to introduce students to electrical engineering. This course is designed for junior (grades 9 and 10) students and includes lectures, hands-on activities (both in a team and individually), and a field trip. The survey results, collected as both formative and summative feedback, indicate the success of the course. This paper also provides recommendations for future offerings of the course. © 2012 IEEE. Source

Mealey K.L.,Washington State University
Veterinary Clinics of North America - Small Animal Practice | Year: 2013

For many drugs used in veterinary practice, plasma and tissue concentrations are highly dependent on the activity of drug transporters. This article describes how functional changes in drug transporters, whether mediated by genetic variability or drug-drug interactions, affect drug disposition and, ultimately, drug safety and efficacy in veterinary patients. A greater understanding of species, breed, and individual (genetic) differences in drug transporter function, as well as drug-drug interactions involving drug transporters, will result in improved strategies for drug design and will enable veterinarians to incorporate individualized medicine in their practices. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. Source

Rodgers B.D.,Washington State University
FASEB Journal | Year: 2013

A surplus of Ph.D. graduates and cuts in funding risks the future of science. In fact, several recent surveys indicate that the Ph.D. job market in relevant science fields is in a state of contracture, yet many universities continue to maintain or even expand Ph.D. programs. An assessment of job advertisements in the journal Science supports the survey conclusions and suggests that advertising for tenure-track faculty positions as well as postdoctoral opportunities have both significantly declined since the 2008 financial collapse, leaving few opportunities for recent Ph.D. graduates in traditional career tracks. Incentives to expand Ph.D. programs continue to influence university administration despite their detrimental effects on students and possibly to the field. Active mentoring, however, could help establish less-is-more programs that benefit students and universities while maintaining the necessary stream of trainees critical to the future of science. Such programs would also require significant changes to university administration that may be unpopular, but are likely inevitable. © FASEB. Source

McEwen B.S.,Rockefeller University | Karatsoreos I.N.,Washington State University
Sleep Medicine Clinics | Year: 2015

Sleep has important homeostatic functions, and circadian rhythms organize physiology and behavior on a daily basis to insure optimal function. Sleep deprivation and circadian disruption can be stressors, enhancers of other stressors that have consequences for the brain and many body systems. Whether the origins of circadian disruption and sleep disruption and deprivation are from anxiety, depression, shift work, long-distance air travel, or a hectic lifestyle, there are consequences that impair brain functions and contribute to the cumulative wear and tear on body systems caused by too much stress and/or inefficient management of the systems that promote adaptation. © 2015 Elsevier Inc. Source

Nicola A.V.,Washington State University
Traffic | Year: 2016

Herpesviral pathogenesis stems from infection of multiple cell types including the site of latency and cells that support lytic replication. Herpesviruses utilize distinct cellular pathways, including low pH endocytic pathways, to enter different pathophysiologically relevant target cells. This review details the impact of the mildly acidic milieu of endosomes on the entry of herpesviruses, with particular emphasis on herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1). Epithelial cells, the portal of primary HSV-1 infection, support entry via low pH endocytosis mechanisms. Mildly acidic pH triggers reversible conformational changes in the HSV-1 class III fusion protein glycoprotein B (gB). In vitro treatment of herpes simplex virions with a similar pH range inactivates infectivity, likely by prematurely activating the viral entry machinery in the absence of a target membrane. How a given herpesvirus mediates both low pH and pH-independent entry events is a key unresolved question. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Source

Kirchhoff H.,Washington State University
Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences | Year: 2014

Land plants live in a challenging environment dominated by unpredictable changes. A particular problem is fluctuation in sunlight intensity that can cause irreversible damage of components of the photosynthetic apparatus in thylakoidmembranes under high light conditions.Although a battery of photoprotective mechanisms minimize damage, photoinhibition of the photosystem II (PSII) complex occurs. Plants have evolved a multi-step PSII repair cycle that allows efficient recovery from photooxidative PSII damage. An important feature of the repair cycle is its subcompartmentalization to stacked grana thylakoids and unstacked thylakoid regions. Thus, understanding the crosstalk between stacked and unstacked thylakoid membranes is essential to understand the PSII repair cycle. This reviewsummarizes recent progress in our understanding of high-light-induced structural changes of the thylakoid membrane system and correlates these changes to the efficiency of the PSII repair cycle. The role of reversible protein phosphorylation for structural alterations is discussed. It turns out that dynamic changes in thylakoidmembrane architecture triggered by high light exposure are central for efficient repair of PSII. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved. Source

Lawrence B.P.,University of Rochester | Vorderstrasse B.A.,Washington State University
Seminars in Immunopathology | Year: 2013

The host response to infection is known to be influenced by many factors, including genetics, nutritional status, age, as well as drug and chemical exposures. Recent advances reveal that the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) modulates aspects of the innate and adaptive immune response to viral, bacterial, and parasitic organisms. Although many of these observations were made using the high affinity but poorly metabolized AhR agonist 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), not all of the effects are detrimental to the host. Sometimes AhR activation, even with TCDD, was beneficial and improved host resistance and survival. A similar dichotomy is observed in infected AhR-deficient mice, wherein absence of functional AhR sometimes, but not always, alters host resistance. When examined in their totality, current data indicate that AhR controls multiple regulatory pathways that converge with infection-associated signals and depending on the context (e.g., type of pathogen, site of infection), lead to distinct outcomes. This creates numerous exciting opportunities to harness the immunomodulatory action of AhR to transform host responses to infection. Moreover, since many of the mechanisms cued in response to infectious agents are pivotal in the context of other diseases, there is much to be learned about AhR's cellular targets and molecular mechanisms of action. © 2013 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg. Source

Cohen L.J.,Washington State University
The Journal of clinical psychiatry | Year: 2013

Treatment guidelines recommend initiating newer antidepressants as first-line therapy for patients with depression, but response and remission rates remain low and multiple treatment trials are often needed. Adherence to medication affects response and remission rates, and nonadherence is common among patients with depression. While MAOIs have proven efficacy for depression, particularly for patients with treatment-resistant or atypical depression, this class of drugs is underprescribed due, in part, to concerns over dietary and drug restrictions that are required to avoid potential serious side effects. However, a newer MAOI formulation has an improved safety and tolerability profile and avoids or lessens the need for dietary restrictions, giving clinicians another option for treating patients who may be nonadherent or nonresponsive to their current antidepressant. © Copyright 2013 Physicians Postgraduate Press, Inc. Source

Akhtar N.,Northeast Ohio Medical University | Akhtar N.,Washington State University | Makki M.S.,Northeast Ohio Medical University | Haqqi T.M.,Northeast Ohio Medical University
Arthritis and Rheumatology | Year: 2015

Objective. Hedgehog (HH) signaling has recently been associated with cartilage degradation in osteoarthritis (OA). Because interleukin-1β (IL-1β) has been implicated as a principal instigator of OA, we sought to determine whether IL-1β induces the expression of sonic HH (SHH) and its regulation by microRNAs (miRNAs) in human chondrocytes. Methods. Expression of SHH protein in human OA cartilage and in an animal model of OA was determined by immunohistochemical analysis and immunofluorescence analysis, respectively. Gene and protein expression in IL-1β- or SHH-stimulated OA chondrocytes was determined by TaqMan assays and Western blotting, respectively. The effect of overexpression of miRNA-602 (miR-602) and miR-608 or their antagomirs on SHH expression was evaluated by transient transfection of human chondrocytes and HEK 293 cells. The role of signaling pathways was evaluated using small molecule inhibitors. Binding of miRNAs with the putative seed sequence in SHH messenger RNA (mRNA) was validated using a luciferase reporter assay. Results. Expression of SHH, patched 1, Gli-1, HH-interacting protein, matrix metalloproteinase 13 (MMP-13), and Colα1(X) was high in damaged OA cartilage. In damaged cartilage and in IL-1β-stimulated OA chondrocytes, expression of SHH was inversely correlated with expression of miR-608. Cotransfection of OA chondrocytes with miR-608 or miR-602 mimic inhibited reporter activity, and mutation of the miRNA seed sequences abolished the repression of reporter activity. Overexpression of miR-602 or miR-608 inhibited the expression of SHH mRNA and protein, and this was abrogated by antagomirs. Stimulation with recombinant human SHH protein up-regulated MMP-13 expression, and inhibition of HH signaling blocked MMP-13 expression in OA chondrocytes. Conclusion. MiR-602 and miR-608 are important posttranscription regulators of SHH expression in OA chondrocytes, and their suppression by IL-1β may contribute to the enhanced expression of SHH and MMP-13 in OA. Copyright © 2015 by the American College of Rheumatology. Source

Clark A.E.,Washington State University
Annual Reports in Computational Chemistry | Year: 2015

Graph theory applications within the physical sciences have a long history. However, it has never moved to the forefront of analytical techniques employed by the computational chemistry community. Though much of the earliest work leveraged percolation theory as a backdrop for understanding critical phenomena and phase transitions within statistical mechanical simulations, modern data science has much to contribute. Here, we focus on the realm of intermolecular networks, where vertices represent molecules or particles, and an edge represents an intermolecular or interparticle interaction. These interactions are widely understood to dictate many of the physical properties of soft matter, and for liquids in particular, understanding this network is essential. Consider the sheer volume of ∼70. years of literature associated with the hydrogen bond network of water, a topic that remains an active area of research even today. The aim of this work is twofold: first, to put into context prior algorithms and analyses that employed "connectedness theory" or lattice-based models to understand the intermolecular networks of chemical systems; and second to discuss a more general strategy for analyzing the multiscale structural and dynamic properties of chemical systems-intermolecular network theory. This approach encompasses foundational methods such as percolation theory, but also utilizes contemporary graph theoretical analyses that have evolved alongside the development of the World Wide Web, cloud computing, and big data. It is the realm of intermolecular network theory to determine the relationships between the essential physics of a system and the topological properties of the network and to derive new techniques in graph theory that can be related to the underlying physico-chemical or reactive properties of a system. Examples are used throughout this chapter that demonstrate applications to a wide variety of complex chemical systems, including ion association within electrolytes, mass transport and the properties of liquid-liquid phase boundaries, and multicomponent solutions. © 2015 Elsevier B.V. Source

Hadwiger L.A.,Washington State University
Plant Science | Year: 2013

Chitosan, a naturally occurring polymer, became available in the 1980s in industrial quantities enabling it to be tested as an agricultural chemical. A usual procedure for developing agricultural chemicals starts by testing a number of different chemically synthesized molecules on a targeted biological system. Alternately, chitosan has been investigated as a single natural molecule assayed with numerous biological systems. This report describes the unique properties of the molecule and its oligomers, primarily in plant defense, additionally in yield increase, induction of cell death and stomatal closing. The plant plasma membrane and nuclear chromatin have been proposed as targets, though chitosan oligomers enter most regions of the cell. Subsequent changes occur in: cell membranes, chromatin, DNA, calcium, MAP kinase, oxidative burst, reactive oxygen species (ROS), callose, pathogenesis related (PR) genes/proteins, and phytoalexins. Chitosan oligomer mode(s) of action are proposed for different plant systems. Chitosan efficacy was based on documentation from published data. Attention was given to how chitosan, either applied externally or released by fungal inoculum, is transferred into plant cells and its subsequent action upon membrane and/or chromatin components. Within is a proposed scheme describing chitosan generation, signaling routes and mechanisms of defense gene activation. Examples of beneficial chitosan applications to major crop/food plants were included. © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. Source

Cook D.J.,Washington State University | Das S.K.,University of Texas at Arlington
Pervasive and Mobile Computing | Year: 2012

The remarkable recent progress in computing power, sensors and embedded devices, smart phones, wireless communications and networking technologies, combined with emerging data mining techniques, cloud computing and social networking paradigms has enabled us to create pervasive computing systems and services with diverse applications and global accessibility. In this paper, we assess the current state of the art of pervasive computing at scale (PeCS) and look ahead to future directions the field can pursue together with challenges it will need to overcome. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Source

Zhu L.,Washington State University
Library Resources and Technical Services | Year: 2012

Technological advances, budget cuts, reorganizations, downsizing, outsourcing, expanded roles of professionals, and changes in the information world are redistributing the workload between professionals and paraprofessionals in academic library technical services units. Today, paraprofessionals manage major functional areas in technical services and dominate the technical services workforce. The roles of paraprofessionals have expanded to include duties once considered the sole responsibilities of professionals in technical services. In 2011, the author conducted a survey to understand more about the roles of technical services paraprofessionals in academic libraries during the previous five years. This paper analyzes the survey results and provides insight into the roles of paraprofessionals in technical services in academic libraries by examining required educational degrees and high-level skills for paraprofessional positions, complex duties that are regularly assigned to paraprofessional positions, and staff development incentives and opportunities. Source

Kelley J.L.,Washington State University
Nature Reviews Genetics | Year: 2016

The ocean is hypothesized to be where life on earth originated, and subsequent evolutionary transitions between marine and terrestrial environments have been key events in the origin of contemporary biodiversity. Here, we review how comparative genomic approaches are an increasingly important aspect of understanding evolutionary processes, such as physiological and morphological adaptation to the diverse habitats within the marine environment. In addition, we highlight how population genomics has provided unprecedented resolution for population structuring, speciation and adaptation in marine environments, which can have a low cost of dispersal and few physical barriers to gene flow, and can thus support large populations. Building upon this work, we outline the applications of genomics tools to conservation and their relevance to assessing the wide-ranging impact of fisheries and climate change on marine species. © Nature Publishing Group, a division of Macmillan Publishers Limited. All Rights Reserved. Source

Bloom A.J.,University of California at Davis | Burger M.,University of California at Davis | Asensio J.S.R.,University of California at Davis | Cousins A.B.,Washington State University
Science | Year: 2010

The concentration of carbon dioxide in Earth's atmosphere may double by the end of the 21st century. The response of higher plants to a carbon dioxide doubling often includes a decline in their nitrogen status, but the reasons for this decline have been uncertain. We used five independent methods with wheat and Arabidopsis to show that atmospheric carbon dioxide enrichment inhibited the assimilation of nitrate into organic nitrogen compounds. This inhibition may be largely responsible for carbon dioxide acclimation, the decrease in photosynthesis and growth of plants conducting C3 carbon fixation after long exposures (days to years) to carbon dioxide enrichment. These results suggest that the relative availability of soil ammonium and nitrate to most plants will become increasingly important in determining their productivity as well as their quality as food. Source

Linksvayer T.A.,University of Pennsylvania | Busch J.W.,Washington State University | Smith C.R.,Earlham College
BioEssays | Year: 2013

We suggest that supergenes, groups of co-inherited loci, may be involved in a range of intriguing genetic and evolutionary phenomena in insect societies, and may play broad roles in the evolution of cooperation and conflict. Supergenes are central in the evolution of an array of traits including self-incompatibility, mimicry, and sex chromosomes. Recently, researchers identified a large supergene, described as a social chromosome, which controls social organization in the fire ant. This system was previously considered to be a remarkable example of a single gene affecting a complex social trait. We describe how selection may commonly favor reduced recombination and the formation of supergenes for social traits, and once formed, supergenes may strongly influence further evolutionary dynamics within and between lineages. The evolution of supergenes, and even wholly non-recombining genomes, may be particularly common in systems in which genetically distinct lineages can form mutually reinforcing socially parasitic relationships. © 2013 WILEY Periodicals, Inc. Source

Spencer T.E.,Washington State University
Seminars in Reproductive Medicine | Year: 2014

All mammalian uteri contain glands in the endometrium that synthesize or transport and secrete substances essential for survival and development of the conceptus (embryo/fetus and associated extraembryonic membranes). This review summarizes information related to the biological roles of uterine glands and their secretions in blastocyst/conceptus survival and implantation, uterine receptivity, and stromal cell decidualization in humans and animal models. The infertility and recurrent pregnancy loss observed in the ovine uterine gland knockout (UGKO) model unequivocally supports a primary role for uterine glands and, by inference, their secretions present in uterine luminal fluid in survival and development of the conceptus. Further, studies with mutant and progesterone-induced UGKO mice found that uterine glands and their secretions are required for establishment of uterine receptivity and blastocyst implantation as well as stromal cell decidualization. Similarly in humans, uterine glands and their secretory products are likely critical regulators of blastocyst implantation, uterine receptivity, and conceptus growth and development during the first trimester. Circumstantial evidence suggests that deficient glandular activity may be a causative factor in pregnancy failure and complications in humans. Thus, an increased understanding of uterine gland biology is important for diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of fertility and pregnancy problems in mammals. © 2014 by Thieme Medical Publishers, Inc. Source

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by dysfunctional intracellular and extracellular biochemical processes that result in neuron death. This article summarizes hypotheses regarding cell dysfunction in AD and discusses the effectiveness of, and problems with, different therapies. Pharmaceutical therapies discussed include cholinesterase inhibitors, memantine, antihypertensive drugs, anti-inflammatory drugs, secretase inhibitors, insulin resistance drugs, etanercept, brain-derived neurotrophic factor, and immunization. Nutritional/botanical therapies included are huperzine A, polyphenols, Ginkgo, Panax ginseng, Withania somnifera, phosphatidylserine, alpha-lipoic acid, omega-3 fatty acids, acetyl L-carnitine, coenzyme Q10, various vitamins and minerals, and melatonin. Stimulatory therapies discussed are physical exercise, cognitive training, music, and socialization. Finally, treatment strategies are discussed in light of the benefits and drawbacks of different therapeutic approaches. It is concluded that potential risks of both approved and non-approved therapies should be weighed against the potential benefits and certain consequences of disease progression. Approaches that target several dysfunctions simultaneously and that emphasize nutritional, botanical, and stimulatory therapies may offer the most benefit at this time. Source

Portfors C.V.,Washington State University | Perkel D.J.,University of Washington
Current Opinion in Neurobiology | Year: 2014

Human speech and language underlie many aspects of social behavior and thus understanding their ultimate evolutionary function and proximate genetic and neural mechanisms is a fundamental goal in neuroscience. Mouse ultrasonic vocalizations have recently received enormous attention as possible models for human speech. This attention has raised the question of whether these vocalizations are learned and what roles they play in communication. In this review, we first discuss recent evidence that ultrasonic vocalizations are not learned. We then review current evidence addressing how adult vocalizations may communicate courtship, territorial and/or other information. While there is growing evidence that these signals play key roles in communication, many important questions remain unanswered. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Grubb T.,Washington State University
Topics in Companion Animal Medicine | Year: 2010

Chronic pain can be extremely hard to treat in both humans and animals, and effective pain relief often requires the use of novel analgesic drugs. Little true scientific data actually exist for some of the drugs that we use to alleviate chronic pain, yet dosing protocols and expected results are available. The scientific data (pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic data) available for drugs used to treat chronic pain in veterinary patients will be presented along with published dosages and dosing guidelines. © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Source

Background: The issue of whether other animals have internally felt experiences has vexed animal behavioral science since its inception. Although most investigators remain agnostic on such contentious issues, there is now abundant experimental evidence indicating that all mammals have negatively and positively-valenced emotional networks concentrated in homologous brain regions that mediate affective experiences when animals are emotionally aroused. That is what the neuroscientific evidence indicates. Principal Findings: The relevant lines of evidence are as follows: 1) It is easy to elicit powerful unconditioned emotional responses using localized electrical stimulation of the brain (ESB); these effects are concentrated in ancient subcortical brain regions. Seven types of emotional arousals have been described; using a special capitalized nomenclature for such primary process emotional systems, they are SEEKING, RAGE, FEAR, LUST, CARE, PANIC/GRIEF and PLAY. 2) These brain circuits are situated in homologous subcortical brain regions in all vertebrates tested. Thus, if one activates FEAR arousal circuits in rats, cats or primates, all exhibit similar fear responses. 3) All primary-process emotional-instinctual urges, even ones as complex as social PLAY, remain intact after radical neo-decortication early in life; thus, the neocortex is not essential for the generation of primary-process emotionality. 4) Using diverse measures, one can demonstrate that animals like and dislike ESB of brain regions that evoke unconditioned instinctual emotional behaviors: Such ESBs can serve as 'rewards' and 'punishments' in diverse approach and escape/avoidance learning tasks. 5) Comparable ESB of human brains yield comparable affective experiences. Thus, robust evidence indicates that raw primary-process (i.e., instinctual, unconditioned) emotional behaviors and feelings emanate from homologous brain functions in all mammals (see Appendix S1), which are regulated by higher brain regions. Such findings suggest nested-hierarchies of BrainMind affective processing, with primal emotional functions being foundational for secondary-process learning and memory mechanisms, which interface with tertiary-process cognitive-thoughtful functions of the BrainMind. © 2011 Jaak Panksepp. Source

Capper J.L.,Washington State University
Journal of Animal Science | Year: 2011

Consumers often perceive that the modern beef production system has an environmental impact far greater than that of historical systems, with improved efficiency being achieved at the expense of greenhouse gas emissions. The objective of this study was to compare the environmental impact of modern (2007) US beef production with production practices characteristic of the US beef system in 1977. A deterministic model based on the metabolism and nutrient requirements of the beef population was used to quantify resource inputs and waste outputs per billion kilograms of beef. Both the modern and historical production systems were modeled using characteristic management practices, population dynamics, and production data from US beef systems. Modern beef production requires considerably fewer resources than the equivalent system in 1977, with 69.9% of animals, 81.4% of feedstuffs, 87.9% of the water, and only 67.0% of the land required to produce 1 billion kg of beef. Waste outputs were similarly reduced, with modern beef systems producing 81.9% of the manure, 82.3% CH 4, and 88.0% N 2O per billion kilograms of beef compared with production systems in 1977. The C footprint per billion kilograms of beef produced in 2007 was reduced by 16.3% compared with equivalent beef production in 1977. As the US population increases, it is crucial to continue the improvements in efficiency demonstrated over the past 30 yr to supply the market demand for safe, affordable beef while reducing resource use and mitigating environmental impact. © 2011 American Society of Animal Science. All rights reserved. Source

Hemmens C.,Washington State University
Justice Quarterly | Year: 2015

Law-related courses, and more broadly the place of the law and lawyers in criminal justice programs, are the focus of this paper. I believe that the importance of the law, the study of legal issues, and the way in which the law is taught in criminal justice programs is in need of significant refinement. We need more law-related courses in the curriculum, at both the undergraduate and graduate level, more PhDs with an understanding of the law, and more legal research done by criminal justice scholars. In the pages that follow, I make the case for changing how we approach the study of law in criminal justice undergraduate and graduate programs. © 2015 Academy of Criminal Justice Sciences. Source

Lanigan J.D.,Washington State University
Journal of Nutrition Education and Behavior | Year: 2012

Objective: To examine the association between child care practices and child care provider knowledge and beliefs about their role in supporting children's healthful eating. Design: Longitudinal design using survey and observation data from baseline and year 1 of the Encouraging Healthy Activity and Eating in Childcare Environments (ENHANCE) pilot project. Participants: Seventy-two child care providers from 45 child care settings. Main Outcome Measures: Child care setting variables included the feeding environment, nutrition education, and family communication. Child care provider variables were efficacy, knowledge, and misconceptions about child feeding; and the priority placed on supporting children's healthful eating. Data Analysis: Correlation and multiple linear regression were used to examine the association between variables. Results: Models indicated that changes in efficacy and feeding knowledge accounted for a significant portion of the variance in nutrition education changes (R2 = 0.59) and family communication changes (R2 = 0.29). A reduction in misconceptions was significantly associated with improved feeding practices (β = .71; P < .01; R2 = 0.40). Conclusions and Implications: Understanding child care providers' knowledge and beliefs regarding their role in children's healthful eating is an essential component of child care-based obesity prevention initiatives. Training should assess and address provider efficacy and misconceptions as well as educate providers about evidence-based practices related to child feeding, nutrition education, and family communication. © 2012 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Source

Skilton P.F.,Washington State University
Journal of Supply Chain Management | Year: 2011

This essay discusses the process of developing theory during the review process for conceptual articles. Because conceptual work proceeds from a logic of generation rather than verification, authors and reviewers of conceptual articles face unfamiliar challenges when they are more accustomed to writing or reviewing empirical research. © 2011 Institute for Supply Management, Inc.™. Source

Pearce G.,Washington State University
Current Protein and Peptide Science | Year: 2011

Systemin, an 18-amino acid signaling peptide isolated from tomato leaves, has been found to be an integral component of the jasmonic acid signaling pathway, leading to the synthesis of protease inhibitors (PIs). The discovery of systemin has led to a search for other peptide signals involved in defense in the Solanaceae and in other plant families. A new class of peptides having similar signaling properties but little sequence homology to systemin have been found and termed hydroxyproline-rich glycopeptide systemins (HypSys). These small (18-20 amino acids) glycopeptides, like systemin, are derived from larger precursor proteins (proHypSys) and until recently were thought to function only in protection from herbivore attack. However, HypSys glycopeptides isolated from petunia induced the defensin gene, known for its involvement in pathogen defense. More recently, a HypSys glycopeptide was isolated from sweet potato, a member of the Convolvulaceae family and found to induce the sporamin gene which codes for the major storage protein in tubers with trypsin inhibitor activity. These recent discoveries expand the function and range of the HypSys family of glycopeptides and establish these unique inducible signaling molecules as potential components of defense pathways throughout the Eudicots. Herein we review the signaling and structural properties of systemin and the HypSys glycopeptides and their roles in the induction of PIs. © 2011 Bentham Science Publishers Ltd. Source

Kirchhoff H.,Washington State University
Philosophical transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological sciences | Year: 2014

Land plants live in a challenging environment dominated by unpredictable changes. A particular problem is fluctuation in sunlight intensity that can cause irreversible damage of components of the photosynthetic apparatus in thylakoid membranes under high light conditions. Although a battery of photoprotective mechanisms minimize damage, photoinhibition of the photosystem II (PSII) complex occurs. Plants have evolved a multi-step PSII repair cycle that allows efficient recovery from photooxidative PSII damage. An important feature of the repair cycle is its subcompartmentalization to stacked grana thylakoids and unstacked thylakoid regions. Thus, understanding the crosstalk between stacked and unstacked thylakoid membranes is essential to understand the PSII repair cycle. This review summarizes recent progress in our understanding of high-light-induced structural changes of the thylakoid membrane system and correlates these changes to the efficiency of the PSII repair cycle. The role of reversible protein phosphorylation for structural alterations is discussed. It turns out that dynamic changes in thylakoid membrane architecture triggered by high light exposure are central for efficient repair of PSII. Source

Tzeng H.M.,Washington State University
Medsurg nursing : official journal of the Academy of Medical-Surgical Nurses | Year: 2013

Professional nurses are more exposed to civil claims for negligence than in the past. Issues related to medication errors, and strategies to decrease them, are addressed. Source

Gomulkiewicz R.,Washington State University
Philosophical transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological sciences | Year: 2013

Laboratory model systems and mathematical models have shed considerable light on the fundamental properties and processes of evolutionary rescue. But it remains to determine the extent to which these model-based findings can help biologists predict when evolution will fail or succeed in rescuing natural populations that are facing novel conditions that threaten their persistence. In this article, we present a prospectus for transferring our basic understanding of evolutionary rescue to wild and other non-laboratory populations. Current experimental and theoretical results emphasize how the interplay between inheritance processes and absolute fitness in changed environments drive population dynamics and determine prospects of extinction. We discuss the challenge of inferring these elements of the evolutionary rescue process in field and natural settings. Addressing this challenge will contribute to a more comprehensive understanding of population persistence that combines processes of evolutionary rescue with developmental and ecological mechanisms. Source

The role of the dairy cow is to help provide high-quality protein and other nutrients for humans. We must select and manage cows with the goal of reaching the greatest possible efficiency for any given environment. We have increased efficiency tremendously over the years, yet the variation in productive and reproductive efficiency among animals is still quite large. In part this is because of a lack of full integration of genetic, nutritional, and reproductive biology into management decisions. However, integration across these disciplines is increasing as biological research findings show more specific control points at which genetics, nutrition, and reproduction interact. An ordered systems biology approach that focuses on why and how cells regulate energy and N use and on how and why organs interact by endocrine and neurocrine mechanisms will speed improvements in efficiency. More sophisticated dairy managers will demand better information to improve the efficiency of their animals. Using genetic improvement and proper animal management to improve milk productive and reproductive efficiency requires a deeper understanding of metabolic processes during the transition period. Using existing metabolic models, we can design experiments specifically to integrate new data from transcriptional arrays into models that describe nutrient use in farm animals. A systems modeling approach can help focus our research to make faster and large advances in efficiency and show directly how this can be applied on the farms. © 2012 American Society of Animal Science. All rights reserved. Source

Wells J.D.,University of Massachusetts Amherst | Valacich J.S.,Washington State University | Hess T.J.,University of Massachusetts Amherst
MIS Quarterly: Management Information Systems | Year: 2011

An electronic commerce marketing channel is fully mediated by information technology, stripping away much of a product's physical informational cues, and creating information asymmetries (i.e., limited information). These asymmetries may impede consumers' ability to effectively assess certain types of products, thus creating challenges for online sellers. Signaling theory provides a framework for understanding how extrinsic cues-signals-can be used by sellers to convey product quality information to consumers, reducing uncertainty and facilitating a purchase or exchange. This research proposes a model to investigate website quality as a potential signal of product quality and consider the moderating effects of product information asymmetries and signal credibility. Three experiments are reported that examine the efficacy of signaling theory as a basis for predicting online consumer behavior with an experience good. The results indicate that website quality influences consumers' perceptions of product quality, which subsequently affects online purchase intentions. Additionally, website quality was found to have a greater influence on perceived product quality when consumers had higher information asymmetries. Likewise, signal credibility was found to strengthen the relationship between website quality and product quality perceptions for a high quality website. Implications for future research and website design are examined. Source

De Rooij D.G.,University Utrecht | Griswold M.D.,Washington State University
Journal of Andrology | Year: 2012

This review focuses on 3 important advances in our understanding of rodent spermatogonial stem cells (SSC) that have emerged since 2000: the identity of SSC, the existence of a SSC niche, and gene expression in spermatogonia. It is now apparent that the original scheme, in which the Asingle (As) spermatogonia are the only stem cells, may be too simple. Rather, separation of pairs of Apaired (Apr) spermatogonia into singles might also play a role in the steady state situation. However, evidence that in the normal epithelium fragmentation of chains of Aaligned (Aal) spermatogonia into smaller clones also plays a role is not yet conclusive. New evidence presented during the last decade indicates that the As, Apr, and Aal (As,pr,al) spermatogonia are not localized at random over the tubule basal lamina, as originally assumed, but are restricted to those areas that border on interstitial tissue and, in particular, to areas containing venules and arterioles, suggesting a specific relationship of this localization with a possible SSC niche. Finally, gene expression studies are showing how both extrinsic factors produced by Sertoli cells and intrinsic factors that are products of the germ cells act either to maintain progenitor cells or to promote differentiation and the commitment to meiosis. Taken together, this new knowledge adds to our understanding of the balance between 2 opposing forces: one promoting the undifferentiated state and the other promoting the commitment to meiosis and differentiation that is essential for spermatogenesis to proceed. © American Society of Andrology. Source

Skinner M.K.,Washington State University
EMBO Reports | Year: 2011

The Keystone symposium on Environmental Epigenomics and Disease Susceptibility was held in late March 2011 at the Grove Park Inn Resort in Asheville, North Carolina, USA. The meeting helped to define the developing field of environmental epigenetics and the research presented established its role in disease aetiology and susceptibility. © 2011 European molecular biology organization. Source

Banerjee S.,Washington State University
Journal of Chemical Physics | Year: 2013

The agglomeration of fullerenes in solvents is an important phenomenon that is relevant to controlled synthesis of fullerene-based nanowires as well as fullerene-based composites. The molecular aggregation in solvents depends on the atomistic interactions of fullerene with the solvent and is made complicated by the fact that fullerenes accrue negative surface charges when present in solvents such as water. In the present work, we simulated fullerenes of varying size and shape (C60, C180, C240, and C540) with and without surface charges in polar protic (water), polar aprotic (acetone), and nonpolar (toluene) solvents using molecular dynamics method. Our results demonstrate that uncharged fullerenes form agglomerates in polar solvents such as water and acetone and remain relatively dispersed in nonpolar toluene. The presence of surface charge significantly reduces agglomerate size in water and acetone. Additionally, the relative influence of surface charge on fullerene agglomeration depends on the size and geometry of the fullerene with larger fullerenes forming relatively smaller agglomerates. We evaluated the diffusion coefficients of solvent molecules within the solvation shell of fullerenes and observed that they are much lower than the bulk solvent and are strongly associated with the fullerenes as seen in the corresponding radial distribution functions. To correlate agglomerate size with the binding energy between fullerenes, we evaluated the potential of mean force between fullerenes in each solvent. Consistent with the solubility of fullerenes, binding energy between fullerenes is the greatest in water followed by acetone and toluene. The presence of charge decreases the binding energy of fullerenes in water and thus results in dispersed fullerenes. © 2013 American Institute of Physics. Source

Viehland L.A.,Chatham University | Siems W.F.,Washington State University
Journal of the American Society for Mass Spectrometry | Year: 2012

Moment equations for the motion of trace amounts of charged particles through dilute gases are developed from the Boltzmann equation. A new method for truncating the coupled moment equations is used to develop differential equations governing the moments in successive approximations. The first approximation equations are shown to agree completely with equations known to describe ion motion in drift-tube mass spectrometers, ion mobility spectrometers, ion traps, and collision-dominated ion cyclotron resonance experiments. Applications to differential mobility spectrometers and other devices are also described. © American Society for Mass Spectrometry, 2012. Source

Sharratt B.,Washington State University
Soil Science Society of America Journal | Year: 2011

Windblown sediment resulting from erosion of agricultural land has impaired visibility and threatened human health in the U.S. Inland Pacific Northwest. There is, however, a lack of information on the size distribution of windblown sediment originating from these lands. Passive collectors were used to trap windblown sediment from heights of 0 to 1.5 m above eroding agricultural fields. Sediment collected during one high-wind event in each of 7 yr was separated into ≤10-, 11- to 32-, 33- to 45-, 46- to 100-, and >100-μm-diameter size fractions. Windblown sediment trapped nearer the soil surface was more characteristic of the erodible portion of the in situ parent soil. Vertical size gradation of windblown sediment was evidenced by a decrease in mass of the 46- to 100- and >100-μm size fractions and increase in mass of the ≤10- and 11- to 32-μm size fractions with height from the soil surface. Trends in the sediment size distribution with height suggested that sediment ≤32 μm in diameter was transported primarily by suspension, sediment 33 to 45 μm in diameter was transported by saltation and suspension, and sediment >45 μm in diameter was transported primarily by creep and saltation. In addition, the size of windblown sediment observed at all heights above the soil surface was found to increase with increasing wind velocity. A large fraction of windblown sediment was comprised of suspension-sized aggregates and particles, thus mitigation strategies to control wind erosion in the Columbia Plateau must promote aggregation of the suspension component (≤32-μm diameter) of the parent soil or shelter the suspension component at the soil surface from high winds.© Soil Science Society of America. Source

Schrader L.E.,Washington State University
HortScience | Year: 2011

Sunburn, a major type of solar radiation injury, causes large economic losses of several fruits, vegetables, and ornamentals. Sunburn necrosis occurs in attached apple (Malus domestica Borkh.) when excess solar radiation is converted to heat energy and causes a high fruit surface temperature (FST). When the FST reaches≈52°C, thermal death of cells is induced and sunburn necrosis appears later. A second type of sunburn, sunburn browning, is caused by the combination of high FST (46 to 49°C) and high solar radiation. Cell death is not induced, but several pigment changes occur and the apple peel typically turns yellow or brown. The objective of this study was to develop a unique technology for protection of apples from sunburn necrosis and sunburn browning. Natural waxes in the cuticle and pigments in the upper epidermis of apple, which reflect and absorb ultraviolet radiation, attenuate only part of the harmful ultraviolet radiation. I hypothesized that applying additional wax as a sprayable emulsion would augment natural waxes in the cuticle and that addition of reflective compounds to the wax emulsion would reduce the heat load on the fruit. Synthesis of a formulation of this composition would be unique for plants and would be akin to sunscreens used by humans that generally contain organic (chemical) compounds to absorb harmful ultraviolet radiation and inorganic (physical) compounds to scatter, block, and/or reflect solar radiation. Emulsified carnauba wax, a natural plant wax, decreased transmission of ultraviolet radiation; addition of emulsified, organically modified clay to the wax emulsion enhanced reflectivity. When combined into a sprayable formulation, the carnauba wax and organoclay emulsion was more effective in protecting apples from sunburn browning than from sunburn necrosis. Spraying the unique formulation on apple trees caused no phytotoxicity on either leaves or fruit and did not decrease leaf chlorophyll fluorescence or whole-tree gas exchange, indicating no effect on photosynthesis or transpiration of apple trees. The unique formulation is patented as a sunburn protectant for fruits and vegetables and is marketed in several countries as RAYNOX®. Source

This study aims to analyze the development, achievements, and challenges of corporate social responsibility (CSR) practices in the Chinese textile and apparel industry. The determinants of CSR movement in the industry are discussed. The World Bank CSR Diamond Model based on stakeholder theory provides an analytical framework to address this complex issue in a systematic way. The relevant information and data were gathered from an extensive literature review of governmental, industrial and academic publications, and interviews. Overall, the tightening legal environment for CSR development has raised the cost of doing business in China in a short time. While forwardlooking companies are already taking CSR into account in their daily operations and strategic plans, some resistance to the execution and enforcement of CSR-related laws and regulations have been witnessed. However, from a longterm perspective, the CSR movement will benefit towards upgrading the industry and the healthy growth of China's economy, and contribute to the sustainable global textile and apparel supply chain. © 2011 The Textile Institute. Source

Goldberger J.R.,Washington State University
Journal of Rural Studies | Year: 2011

It is often assumed that organic farming is synonymous with sustainable agriculture. The broad goals of sustainable agriculture include economic profitability, environmental stewardship, and community vitality. However, the " question of sustainability" (Ikerd, 2008) can be asked of any type of farming, including organic production. One way to assess sustainability is to consider farmers' perceptions of the sustainability of their operations. I draw on data from a survey of certified organic producers in Washington State to broaden our understanding of the sustainability of organic agriculture. Specifically, I consider certified organic producers' perceptions of the degree to which their operations contribute to broad sustainable agriculture goals. Moreover, I use multiple regression to investigate how these perceived contributions are influenced by farm conventionalization variables (e.g., organic acreage, non-organic sales, and specialization) and civic engagement variables (e.g., direct marketing, community group membership, and participation in sustainable/organic agriculture organizations) while controlling for farmer demographics and farm location. Farm conventionalization appears to have a significant negative effect on perceived contributions to environmental and social sustainability, but a significant positive effect on perceived contribution to economic sustainability. Civic engagement appears to have a significant positive effect on perceived contributions to environmental and social sustainability, but no effect on perceived contribution to economic sustainability. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Bondada B.R.,Washington State University
Journal of Plant Growth Regulation | Year: 2011

The anatomical and micro-morphological alterations as induced by the auxinic herbicide, 2,4-D (2,4-dichlorophenoxy acetic acid) have not yet been elucidated for a commercially important fruit crop such as grapevine despite its super sensitivity to 2,4-D. Light and scanning electron microscopy techniques were employed to examine 2,4-D induced internal and external structural abnormalities in Merlot grapevines (Vitis vinifera L.). Healthy leaves were dorsiventrally flattened with well developed patterns of cellular structure and composition involving adaxial palisade parenchyma and abaxial spongy mesophyll. Dorsiventral variations in epidermal features involved large epidermal cells on the adaxial surface, and trichomes and stomata with turgid elliptical guard cells on the abaxial surface. The 2,4-D injured leaves were small and enated; the veins were fasciated with rugose bands of lamina existing between fasciated veins. The epidermal cells aggregated instead of being positioned coplanar to the epidermal plane. The adaxial elongated palisade parenchyma cells were transformed into an ovoid shape with intercellular spaces. An extensive development of replacement tissues took place on the abaxial surface wherein the stomata became roundish and were either raised or sunken with collapsed and cracked guard cells that developed abnormal outer stomatal ledges. These abnormalities are expected to severely perturb the vital functions of photosynthesis and transpiration ultimately leading to vine death attributable, at least in part, to the injured leaves. © 2010 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC. Source

Phillips R.B.,Washington State University
Cytogenetic and Genome Research | Year: 2013

Most of the information on sex chromosomes in salmonid fishes is for species in the 3 genera of the subfamily Salmoninae found in North America: Salvelinus, Salmo and Oncorhynchus. All of the species are male heterogametic with XY sex determination. Morphologically distinguishable sex chromosomes are found only in Salvelinus namaycush,S. fontinalis and Oncorhynchus mykiss. Sex chromosomes have been identified in the other species using a combination of chromosome mapping and fluorescence in situ hybridization with probes containing sex-linked markers. Although all species share conserved linkage groups, the major sex-determining locus (SD) is found at the telomere of a different linkage group in almost every species, suggesting that the SD often transposes to a new location at the time of speciation. In a couple of species, intraspecific variation has been found in the chromosomal location of the SD. Recently, sdY has been identified as the major sex-determining gene in rainbow trout, and it maps to the sex linkage group in all of these species. BACs containing sdY have been isolated and sequenced in O.mykiss, and the genetic markers adjacent to sdY are not sex-linked in the other Oncorhynchus species, suggesting that the transposed region is very small. Possible explanations for the frequent occurrence of transposition of the SD are discussed. © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel. Source

Smith C.M.,Kansas State University | Clement S.L.,Washington State University
Annual Review of Entomology | Year: 2012

Arthropod-resistant crops provide significant ecological and economic benefits to global agriculture. Incompatible interactions involving resistant plants and avirulent pest arthropods are mediated by constitutively produced and arthropod-induced plant proteins and defense allelochemicals synthesized by resistance gene products. Cloning and molecular mapping have identified the Mi-1.2 and Vat arthropod resistance genes as CC-NBS-LRR (coiled coilnucleotide binding siteleucine rich repeat) subfamily NBS-LRR resistance proteins, as well as several resistance gene analogs. Genetic linkage mapping has identified more than 100 plant resistance gene loci and linked molecular markers used in cultivar development. Rice and sorghum arthropod-resistant cultivars and, to a lesser extent, raspberry and wheat cultivars are components of integrated pest management (IPM) programs in Asia, Australia, Europe, and North America. Nevertheless, arthropod resistance in most food and fiber crops has not been integrated due primarily to the application of synthetic insecticides. Plant and arthropod genomics provide many opportunities to more efficiently develop arthropod-resistant plants, but integration of resistant cultivars into IPM programs will succeed only through interdisciplinary collaboration. © 2012 by Annual Reviews. All rights reserved. Source

Labate B.C.,University of Heidelberg | Feeney K.,Washington State University
International Journal of Drug Policy | Year: 2012

Background: This paper provides a summary and analysis of the regulation of ayahuasca in Brazil, from its prohibition in the mid-eighties to the recent adoption of CONAD's (Conselho Nacional de Políticas sobre Drogas) 2010 Resolution, which established a set of rules, norms and ethical principles to be applied to religious and ritual uses of ayahuasca. Brazil's regulatory process is used as a starting point to explore emerging international regulatory themes as various nations respond to the global expansion of the Santo Daime and UDV (União do Vegetal) ayahuasca religions. Methods: The text reviews the primary legislative and court documents, academic literature, as well as solicited expert opinions. Results: Three prominent themes have emerged internationally. The first concerns the scope of international treaties regarding plant-based psychoactive substances, as well as the responsibilities of individual nations to adhere to said treaties. The second concerns the scope of religious liberty and how to determine religious legitimacy. The final theme addresses the potential dangers of ayahuasca to health and public safety. Conclusion: Over the past 20 years the Brazilian ayahuasca religions have established a global presence, with congregations in the USA, Canada, Japan, South Africa, Australia, and throughout Europe and Latin America. As a result, many nations are faced with the predicament of balancing the interests of these religious minorities with the international " war on drugs." The regulatory process applied in Brazil exemplifies a progressive approach, one which considered issues of anthropology and involved representatives of ayahuasca religions, and which provided a degree of deference to the principle of religious liberty. The Brazilian process has influenced judicial and administrative decisions internationally, and stands as a model worthy of further consideration. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.. Source

Barabasz A.,Washington State University
American Journal of Clinical Hypnosis | Year: 2013

A single 5-6 hours manualized abreactive ego state therapy session has recently been subjected to two placebo-controlled investigations meeting evidence-based criteria. Ego state therapy was found to be a highly effective and durable treatment for posttraumatic stress disorder. Apparently, ego state therapy works because it is emotion focused, activates sub-cortical structures, and because the supportive, interpretive therapist reconstructs the patient's personality to be resilient and adaptive. In this article the author reviews the treatment procedures and presents the findings of both studies. © 2013 Copyright American Society of Clinical Hypnosis. Source

D'Alpoim Guedes J.,Washington State University | Butler E.E.,Harvard University
Quaternary International | Year: 2014

Understanding how, why and by what mechanisms agricultural practices, technologies and products spread out of their zones of original development is a central theme of archaeology. To date, very few studies have combined agro-ecological modeling with detailed analyses of archaeobotanical remains to outline the kinds of challenges that ancient humans faced as they moved crops into environments different from their original homeland of domestication. This paper employs ecological niche modeling to outline the constraints faced by ancient humans as they moved rice, millets and eventually wheat and barley into the mountainous region of Southwest China. In particular, we propose that moving rice into this region presented considerable challenges for its cultivators and we infer that its spread into this area was facilitated by breeding cold adapted varieties of rice or by combining its cultivation with that of millet. High altitude areas did not take up full-scale agriculture until the introduction of cold adapted western Eurasian domesticates such as wheat and barley. The temperature niche models reinforce the adoption of these regionally varied agricultural strategies and support the significance of domesticates other than rice for the spread of agriculture into Southwest China. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and INQUA. Source

Toomey R.B.,University of Arizona | McGuire J.K.,Washington State University | Russell S.T.,University of Arizona
Journal of Adolescence | Year: 2012

Students' perceptions of their school climates are associated with psychosocial and academic adjustment. The present study examined the role of school strategies to promote safety in predicting students' perceptions of safety for gender nonconforming peers among 1415 students in 28 high schools. Using multilevel modeling techniques, we examined student- and school-level effects on students' perceptions of safety for gender nonconforming peers. We found that older students, bisexual youth, Latino youth, and youth who experienced school violence perceived their gender nonconforming male peers to be less safe. Similarly, we found that older students and students who experienced school violence and harassment due to gender nonconformity perceived their gender nonconforming female peers to be less safe. At the school-level, we found that when schools included lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer (LGBTQ) issues in the curriculum and had a Gay-Straight Alliance, students perceived their schools as safer for gender nonconforming male peers. © 2011 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Source

Brenner S.L.,Duke University | Beauchaine T.P.,Washington State University
Psychophysiology | Year: 2011

Youth with conduct problems (CPs) or depression are at high risk for early initiation of substance use, and for future substance use disorders (SUDs). Comorbid CPs and depression increase risk even further, yet understanding how these conditions interact remains elusive. One hypothesis is that altered mesolimbic dopamine function contributes to symptoms of CPs, depression, and SUDs. Cardiac pre-ejection period (PEP) reactivity to incentives is linked theoretically and functionally to central dopamine responding. We evaluated PEP reactivity to reward as a prospective biomarker of substance use in a study of 206 youth with depression, CPs, CPs and depression, or no psychiatric condition. Children were 8-12 years old at the first of three annual assessments. Reduced PEP reactivity was associated with increased likelihood of future alcohol use, and CPs interacted with anxiety and depression to double risk for marijuana and other substance use. © 2011 Society for Psychophysiological Research. Source

Khapalov A.,Washington State University
International Journal of Applied Mathematics and Computer Science | Year: 2013

We introduce and investigate the well-posedness of a model describing the self-propelled motion of a small abstract swimmer in the 3-D incompressible fluid governed by the nonstationary Stokes equation, typically associated with low Reynolds numbers. It is assumed that the swimmer's body consists of finitely many subsequently connected parts, identified with the fluid they occupy, linked by rotational and elastic Hooke forces. Models like this are of interest in biological and engineering applications dealing with the study and design of propulsion systems in fluids. Source

This study compared the environmental impact of conventional, natural and grass-fed beef production systems. A deterministic model based on the metabolism and nutrient requirements of the beef population was used to quantify resource inputs and waste outputs per 1.0 × 109 kg of hot carcass weight beef in conventional (CON), natural (NAT) and grass-fed (GFD) production systems. Production systems were modeled using characteristic management practices, population dynamics and production data from U.S. beef production systems. Increased productivity (slaughter weight and growth rate) in the CON system reduced the cattle population size required to produce 1.0 × 109 kg of beef compared to the NAT or GFD system. The CON system required 56.3% of the animals, 24.8% of the water, 55.3% of the land and 71.4% of the fossil fuel energy required to produce 1.0 × 109 kg of beef compared to the GFD system. The carbon footprint per 1.0 × 109 kg of beef was lowest in the CON system (15,989 × 103 t), intermediate in the NAT system (18,772 × 103 t) and highest in the GFD system (26,785 × 103 t). The challenge to the U.S beef industry is to communicate differences in system environmental impacts to facilitate informed dietary choice. © 2010 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. Source

Potter N.L.,Washington State University
Journal of Inherited Metabolic Disease | Year: 2011

Children with classic galactosemia are at risk for motor speech disorders resulting from disruptions in motor planning and programming (childhood apraxia of speech or CAS) or motor execution (dysarthria). In the present study of 33 children with classic galactosemia, 21% were diagnosed with CAS, 3% with ataxic dysarthria, and 3% with mixed CAS-dysarthria. Voice disorders due to laryngeal insufficiency were common in children with dysarthria and co-occurred with CAS. Most (58%) of the children with classic galactosemia had decreased respiratory-phonatory support for speech, and 33% had disturbed vocal quality that was indicative of cerebellar dysfunction. Three children, two diagnosed with CAS and one not diagnosed with a motor speech disorder, had vocal tremors. Treatment of voice dysfunction in neurogenic speech disorders is discussed. © 2010 SSIEM and Springer. Source

Moon H.,Washington State University
Journal of Product Innovation Management | Year: 2013

Innovation is one of the key drivers of success that a firm must utilize to develop a competitive advantage. The ability to innovate is especially important for a firm's survival in dynamic, changing environments. Customer demands are constantly changing, and more purchases are made when a firm's product design incorporates what customers perceive as cutting-edge innovations. Satisfying customer demands is a distinct challenge for product designers because firms must develop a clear understanding of what aspects of design the customer wants. Although the importance of design has increased, very little research has been done to explain the relationship between product innovation and product design. Studies indicate that design innovation may create greater customer value through improvements in design value. Previous research has been limited and has not provided a clear concept of design innovation or defined the relationship between design innovation and marketing competencies. This paper seeks to offer a conceptual definition of design innovation, and to define the link between design innovation and marketing competencies. This paper utilizes cross-cultural research to discover how these concepts differ due to cultural differences between the United States and Korea. This research contributes substantially to our understanding of the relationship between design innovation and customer value. © 2012 Product Development & Management Association. Source

Hamilton Z.K.,Washington State University
Journal of Offender Rehabilitation | Year: 2011

The reentry court model was created to address the risks and needs of offenders returning to the community during the period immediately following release. While there is growing interest in reentry courts, research to date has been limited. This study utilized a quasi-experimental design, comparing reentry court participants with traditional parolees. Participants were found to have fewer reconvictions but increased parole revocations. Although results indicate a promising court model, higher rates of revocations for technical violations suggest the potential for "supervision effects." Dissemination of negative program outcomes provided an opportunity for additional training and programmatic elements to limit and/or reverse possible iatrogenic effects. © 2011 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC. Source

Neuilly M.-A.,Washington State University
Victims and Offenders | Year: 2011

Homicide data are the most valid and reliable of international crime data. However, assessing lethal intent is complicated, and we can thus question whether mortality statistics reflect lethal behaviors in the living, or are a mirror of the institutional systems that produce them. This question is central for those who study homicide comparatively. A mix-method examination of two medical examiners' offices-one in France, and one in the United States-reveals that definitional issues, regulatory factors, and organizational and medical procedures come into play in the determination of the manner of death. The comparative framework emphasizes the need to consider contexts beyond variables in criminological research-be they cultural, political, or institutional. © Taylor & Francis Group, LLC. Source

Ke D.,CAS Beijing National Laboratory for Molecular | Zhan C.,CAS Beijing National Laboratory for Molecular | Li A.D.Q.,Washington State University | Yao J.,CAS Beijing National Laboratory for Molecular
Angewandte Chemie - International Edition | Year: 2011

(Chemical Equation Presented) Tuning structures: Stimulus-responsive peptide self-assembly requires a balance of conformational change and structural continuity of stable β sheets. In an amphiphilic bipyridine-tripeptide model, temperature, and ultrasound switch a reversible morphological transformation between vesicles and nanofibers (see picture) through the synergistic effects of terminal β-sheet-forming peptides, flexible linkers, and rotatable bipyridine groups. © 2011 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA. Source

Mitroy J.,Charles Darwin University | Bubin S.,Vanderbilt University | Horiuchi W.,Hokkaido University | Suzuki Y.,Niigata University | And 7 more authors.
Reviews of Modern Physics | Year: 2013

The variational method complemented with the use of explicitly correlated Gaussian basis functions is one of the most powerful approaches currently used for calculating the properties of few-body systems. Despite its conceptual simplicity, the method offers great flexibility, high accuracy, and can be used to study diverse quantum systems, ranging from small atoms and molecules to light nuclei, hadrons, quantum dots, and Efimov systems. The basic theoretical foundations are discussed, recent advances in the applications of explicitly correlated Gaussians in physics and chemistry are reviewed, and the strengths and weaknesses of the explicitly correlated Gaussians approach are compared with other few-body techniques. © 2013 American Physical Society. Source

Sharpless B.A.,Washington State University
Sleep Medicine Reviews | Year: 2014

Exploding head syndrome is characterized by the perception of abrupt, loud noises when going to sleep or waking up. They are usually painless, but associated with fear and distress. In spite of the fact that its characteristic symptomatology was first described approximately 150y ago, exploding head syndrome has received relatively little empirical and clinical attention. Therefore, a comprehensive review of the scientific literature using Medline, PsycINFO, Google Scholar, and PubMed was undertaken. After first discussing the history, prevalence, and associated features, the available polysomnography data and five main etiological theories for exploding head syndrome are summarized. None of these theories has yet reached dominance in the field. Next, the various methods used to assess and treat exploding head syndrome are discussed, as well as the limited outcome data. Finally, recommendations for future measure construction, treatment options, and differential diagnosis are provided. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Panksepp J.,Washington State University | Yovell Y.,Haifa University
Psychopathology | Year: 2014

Mammalian brains contain at least 7 primal emotional systems - SEEKING, RAGE, FEAR, LUST, CARE, PANIC and PLAY (capitalization reflects a proposed primary-process terminology, to minimize semantic confusions and mereological fallacies). These systems help organisms feel affectively balanced (e.g. euthymic) and unbalanced (e.g. depressive, irritable, manic), providing novel insights for understanding human psychopathologies. Three systems are especially important for understanding depression: The separation distress (PANIC) system mediates the psychic pain of separation distress (i.e. excessive sadness and grief), which can be counteracted by minimizing PANIC arousals (as with low-dose opioids). Depressive dysphoria also arises from reduced brain reward-seeking and related play urges (namely diminished enthusiasm (SEEKING) and joyful exuberance (PLAY) which promote sustained amotivational states). We describe how an understanding of these fundamental emotional circuits can promote the development of novel antidepressive therapeutics - (i) low-dose buprenorphine to counteract depression and suicidal ideation emanating from too much psychic pain (PANIC overarousal), (ii) direct stimulation of the SEEKING system to counteract amotivational dysphoria, and (iii) the discovery and initial clinical testing of social-joy-promoting molecules derived from the analysis of the PLAY system. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel. Source

Olvera N.,University of Houston | Power T.G.,Washington State University
Journal of Pediatric Psychology | Year: 2010

Objective: To assess longitudinally the relations between four parenting styles (authoritative, authoritarian, uninvolved, and indulgent) and child weight status in Mexican American families.Methods: Sixty-nine low-income Mexican American mothers and their 4- to 8-year-old children participated in a 4-year longitudinal study. Mothers completed demographic and parenting measures. Children's body weight and height were assessed annually. Body mass index was calculated to determine weight status.Results: At baseline, 65 of children were found to be normal weight, 14 were overweight, and 21 were obese. Analyses examined how parenting styles at baseline predicted child's weight status 3 years later, controlling for initial weight status. Children of indulgent mothers were more likely to become overweight 3 years later than children of authoritative or authoritarian mothers.Conclusions: This study provides longitudinal evidence for the role of indulgent parenting in predicting overweight in Mexican American children. Possible mediating factors that may account for this relationship (e.g., dietary patterns, physical activity patterns, and children's self-regulation) are considered. © The Author 2009. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Pediatric Psychology. All rights reserved. Source

Wilson M.,Washington State University
Pain Management Nursing | Year: 2014

Undertreatment of pain is a significant problem. Nursing pain assessments have been identified as an area for improvement. This concept analysis sought to examine the use of pain interference as a measurement to assist pain management practices. Existing literature including the term pain interference was reviewed for the years 2000-2010. Pain interference is a common outcome measurement in clinical research. It is not well differentiated from other pain concepts in routine nursing pain assessments, nor consistently defined in research articles. Pain interference has been linked to quality of pain management and recommended as a standard of pain measurement. It aligns with current and emerging theories in pain and symptom control. Further exploration is needed to determine whether integrating this concept into nursing practice will result in improved patient pain experiences. © 2014 American Society for Pain Management Nursing. Source

Shokri A.,University of Minnesota | Wang X.-B.,Pacific Northwest National Laboratory | Wang X.-B.,Washington State University | Kass S.R.,University of Minnesota
Journal of the American Chemical Society | Year: 2013

Electron-withdrawing trifluoromethyl groups were characterized in combination with hydrogen-bond interactions in three polyols (i.e., CF 3CH(OH)CH2CH(OH)CF3, 1; (CF3) 2C(OH)C(OH)(CF3)2, 2; ((CF3) 2C(OH)CH2)2CHOH, 3) by pKa measurements in DMSO and H2O, negative ion photoelectron spectroscopy and binding constant determinations with Cl-. Their catalytic behavior in several reactions were also examined and compared to a Brønsted acid (HOAc) and a commonly employed thiourea ((3,5-(CF 3)2C6H3NH)2CS). The combination of inductive stabilization and hydrogen bonds was found to afford potent acids which are effective catalysts. It also appears that hydrogen bonds can transmit the inductive effect over distance even in an aqueous environment, and this has far reaching implications. © 2013 American Chemical Society. Source

Barabasz M.,Washington State University
American Journal of Clinical Hypnosis | Year: 2012

Research on the efficacy of hypnosis in the treatment of bulimia nervosa has produced mixed findings. This is due in part to the interplay between the characteristics of people with bulimia and the wide variety of hypnosis interventions that have been employed. Several authors have noted that methodological limitations in hypnosis research often make evaluation of treatment efficacy difficult. Many of the studies extant provide insufficient information regarding the specifics of participants' hypnotizability, the hypnotic induction, or the hypnotic suggestion(s) employed. Such limitations preclude replication and clinical implementation. This article reviews the literature with replicable methodologies and discusses the implications for evaluating treatment efficacy. © 2012 American Society of Clinical Hypnosis. Source

Ostfeld R.S.,Cary Institute of Ecosystem Studies | Brunner J.L.,Washington State University
Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences | Year: 2015

The evidence that climate warming is changing the distribution of Ixodes ticks and the pathogens they transmit is reviewed and evaluated. The primary approaches are either phenomenological, which typically assume that climate alone limits current and future distributions, or mechanistic, asking which tick-demographic parameters are affected by specific abiotic conditions. Both approaches have promise but are severely limited when applied separately. For instance, phenomenological approaches (e.g. climate envelope models) often select abiotic variables arbitrarily and produce results that can be hard to interpret biologically. On the other hand, although laboratory studies demonstrate strict temperature and humidity thresholds for tick survival, these limits rarely apply to field situations. Similarly, no studies address the influence of abiotic conditions on more than a few life stages, transitions or demographic processes, preventing comprehensive assessments. Nevertheless, despite their divergent approaches, bothmechanistic and phenomenologicalmodels suggest dramatic range expansions of Ixodes ticks and tick-borne disease as the climate warms. The predicted distributions, however, vary strongly with the models’ assumptions, which are rarely tested against reasonable alternatives. These inconsistencies, limited data about key tick-demographic and climatic processes and only limited incorporation of non-climatic processes have weakened the application of this rich area of research to public health policy or actions. We urge further investigation of the influence of climate on vertebrate hosts and tick-borne pathogen dynamics. In addition, testing model assumptions and mechanisms in a range of natural contexts and comparing their relative importance as competing models in a rigorous statistical framework will significantly advance our understanding of how climate change will alter the distribution, dynamics and risk of tick-borne disease. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved. Source

Blume D.,Washington State University
Few-Body Systems | Year: 2015

Extremely weakly-bound three-boson systems are predicted to exhibit intriguing universal properties such as discrete scale invariance. Motivated by recent experimental studies of the ground and excited helium trimers, this work analyzes the three-body parameter and the structural properties of three helium atoms as the s-wave scattering length is tuned artificially. Connections with theoretical and experimental studies of the Efimov scenario as it pertains to cold atom systems are made. © 2015, Springer-Verlag Wien. Source

Lohr V.I.,Washington State University
HortTechnology | Year: 2013

Researchers and practitioners have been aware of the importance of plant diversity for many decades. The Irish potato famine and dutch elm disease (Ophiostoma novo-ulmi) are examples of problems resulting from lack of diversity. Emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis) has renewed concerns over these issues, yet little has been done to increase diversity in landscape plantings. Urban trees are becoming more uniform genetically because of cloning of preferred cultivars; thus, they are losing potential resiliency to stresses at a time when these threats are increasing. A survey on plant diversity distributed to wholesale nurseries in Washington State showed that most respondents were aware of the issues, but lacked an in-depth understanding of them. This article presents additional data from the survey. Respondents reported that lack of consumer demand was an issue. Those with more education exhibited a deeper understanding of the risks from low diversity among landscape plants. Instructors in horticulture and the plant sciences should be more involved in teaching on this topic. Source

Kirchhoff H.,Washington State University
Plant Signaling and Behavior | Year: 2013

The thylakoid membrane system inside plants chloroplasts defines the structural framework for photosynthetic conversion of sunlight into metabolic energy forms (ATP, NADPH + H+). An architectural hallmark of these thylakoid membranes is the tight stacking of part of the membrane into cylindrical flat grana thylakoids, with a diameter of about 500 nm, that are interconnected by unstacked stroma lamellae forming a complex 3D network of alternating grana piles and stroma lamellae. The structural differentiation in the stacked and unstacked thylakoid regions is the basis for a pronounced spatial separation of multisubunit pigment-protein complexes that catalyze energy transformation. The main part of photosystem II (PSII) associated with light-harvesting complex II (LHCII) is concentrated in the grana thylakoids whereas PSI-LHCI and the ATPase complex are excluded from the stacked grana and accumulate in the unstacked thylakoid regions. The fifth protein complex, the cytochrome b6f complex, is assumed to be homogenously distributed. It is important to recognize that this structural arrangement is not static but highly dynamic and responsive to environmental factors like light intensity and quality or temperature. Knowledge about the interplay between dynamic structural features of the intricate thylakoid architecture, and the functionality, regulation, repair and biogenesis of the photosynthetic machinery is essential for understanding the plasticity of energy conversion in plants living in a fluctuating multi-factorial environment. © 2013 Landes Bioscience. Source

Steensma T.D.,VU University Amsterdam | McGuire J.K.,Washington State University | Kreukels B.P.C.,VU University Amsterdam | Beekman A.J.,VU University Amsterdam | Cohen-Kettenis P.T.,VU University Amsterdam
Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry | Year: 2013

Objective: To examine the factors associated with the persistence of childhood gender dysphoria (GD), and to assess the feelings of GD, body image, and sexual orientation in adolescence. Method: The sample consisted of 127 adolescents (79 boys, 48 girls), who were referred for GD in childhood (<12 years of age) and followed up in adolescence. We examined childhood differences among persisters and desisters in demographics, psychological functioning, quality of peer relations and childhood GD, and adolescent reports of GD, body image, and sexual orientation. We examined contributions of childhood factors on the probability of persistence of GD into adolescence. Results: We found a link between the intensity of GD in childhood and persistence of GD, as well as a higher probability of persistence among natal girls. Psychological functioning and the quality of peer relations did not predict the persistence of childhood GD. Formerly nonsignificant (age at childhood assessment) and unstudied factors (a cognitive and/or affective cross-gender identification and a social role transition) were associated with the persistence of childhood GD, and varied among natal boys and girls. Conclusion: Intensity of early GD appears to be an important predictor of persistence of GD. Clinical recommendations for the support of children with GD may need to be developed independently for natal boys and for girls, as the presentation of boys and girls with GD is different, and different factors are predictive for the persistence of GD. © 2013 American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Source

Izumi S.,Washington State University
Research in nursing & health | Year: 2010

The quality of nursing care as perceived by hospitalized patients with advanced illness has not been examined. A concept of quality nursing care for this population was developed by integrating the literature on constructs defining quality nursing care with empirical findings from interviews of 16 patients with advanced illness. Quality nursing care was characterized as competence and personal caring supported by professionalism and delivered with an appropriate demeanor. Although the attributes of competence, caring, professionalism, and demeanor were identified as common components of quality care across various patient populations, the caring domain increased in importance when patients with advanced illness perceived themselves as vulnerable. Assessment of quality nursing care for patients with advanced illness needs to include measures of patient perceptions of vulnerability. 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Source

Gall C.A.,Washington State University
ISME Journal | Year: 2016

Ticks are of medical importance owing to their ability to transmit pathogens to humans and animals. The Rocky Mountain wood tick, Dermacentor andersoni, is a vector of a number of pathogens, including Anaplasma marginale, which is the most widespread tick-borne pathogen of livestock. Although ticks host pathogenic bacteria, they also harbor bacterial endosymbionts that have a role in tick physiology, survival, as well as pathogen acquisition and transmission. The goal of this study was to characterize the bacterial microbiome and examine the impact of microbiome disruption on pathogen susceptibility. The bacterial microbiome of two populations of D. andersoni with historically different susceptibilities to A. marginale was characterized. In this study, the microbiome was disrupted and then ticks were exposed to A. marginale or Francisella novicida to determine whether the microbiome correlated with pathogen susceptibility. Our study showed that an increase in proportion and quantity of Rickettsia bellii in the microbiome was negatively correlated to A. marginale levels in ticks. Furthermore, a decrease in Francisella endosymbionts was associated with lower F. novicida infection levels, demonstrating a positive pathogen–endosymbiont relationship. We demonstrate that endosymbionts and pathogens have varying interactions, and suggest that microbiome manipulation may provide a possible method for biocontrol by decreasing pathogen susceptibility of ticks.The ISME Journal advance online publication, 16 February 2016; doi:10.1038/ismej.2015.266. © 2016 International Society for Microbial Ecology Source

Henderson S.M.,Washington State University
Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans | Year: 2016

Internal seiches, which supply the energy responsible for mixing many lakes, are often modeled as vertically standing waves. However, recent observations of vertical seiche propagation in a small lake are inconsistent with the standard, vertically standing model. To examine the processes responsible for such propagation, drag and turbulent production in the bottom boundary layer of a small lake are related to the energy supplied by a propagating seiche (period 10-24 h). Despite complex and fluctuating stratification, which often inhibited mixing within 0.4 m of the bed, bottom stress was well represented by a simple drag coefficient model (drag coefficient 1.5 × 10-3). The net supply of seiche energy to the boundary layer was estimated by fitting a model for internal wave vertical propagation to velocity profiles measured above the boundary layer (1-4.5 m above lakebed). Fitted reflection coefficients ranged from 0.3 at 1 cycle/d frequency to 0.7 at 2.4 cycles/d (cf. near-unity coefficients of classical seiche theories). The net supply of seiche energy approximately balanced boundary layer turbulent production. Three of four peaks in production and energy flux occurred 0.8-2.2 days after strong oscillating winds, a delay comparable to the time required for seiche energy to propagate to the lakebed. A model based on the estimated drag coefficient predicted the observed frequency dependence of the seiche reflection coefficient. For flat-bed regions in narrow lakes, the model predicts that reflection is controlled by the ratio of water velocity to vertical wave propagation speed, with sufficiently large ratios leading to weak reflection, and clear vertical seiche propagation. © 2016. The Authors. Source

Panchal J.H.,Washington State University | Kalidindi S.R.,Drexel University | McDowell D.L.,Georgia Institute of Technology
CAD Computer Aided Design | Year: 2013

Designing materials for targeted performance requirements as required in Integrated Computational Materials Engineering (ICME) demands a combined strategy of bottom-up and top-down modeling and simulation which treats various levels of hierarchical material structure as a mathematical representation, with infusion of systems engineering and informatics to deal with differing model degrees of freedom and uncertainty. Moreover, with time, the classical materials selection approach is becoming generalized to address concurrent design of microstructure or mesostructure to satisfy product-level performance requirements. Computational materials science and multiscale mechanics models play key roles in evaluating performance metrics necessary to support materials design. The interplay of systems-based design of materials with multiscale modeling methodologies is at the core of materials design. In high performance alloys and composite materials, maximum performance is often achieved within a relatively narrow window of process path and resulting microstructures. Much of the attention to ICME in the materials community has focused on the role of generating and representing data, including methods for characterization and digital representation of microstructure, as well as databases and model integration. On the other hand, the computational mechanics of materials and multidisciplinary design optimization communities are grappling with many fundamental issues related to stochasticity of processes and uncertainty of data, models, and multiscale modeling chains in decision-based design. This paper explores computational and information aspects of design of materials with hierarchical microstructures and identifies key underdeveloped elements essential to supporting ICME. One of the messages of this overview paper is that ICME is not simply an assemblage of existing tools, for such tools do not have natural interfaces to material structure nor are they framed in a way that quantifies sources of uncertainty and manages uncertainty in representing physical phenomena to support decision-based design. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source

Kirchhoff H.,Washington State University
Biochimica et Biophysica Acta - Bioenergetics | Year: 2014

The survival and fitness of photosynthetic organisms is critically dependent on the flexible response of the photosynthetic machinery, harbored in thylakoid membranes, to environmental changes. A central element of this flexibility is the lateral diffusion of membrane components along the membrane plane. As demonstrated, almost all functions of photosynthetic energy conversion are dependent on lateral diffusion. The mobility of both small molecules (plastoquinone, xanthophylls) as well as large protein supercomplexes is very sensitive to changes in structural boundary conditions. Knowledge about the design principles that govern the mobility of photosynthetic membrane components is essential to understand the dynamic response of the photosynthetic machinery. This review summarizes our knowledge about the factors that control diffusion in thylakoid membranes and bridges structural membrane alterations to changes in mobility and function. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Dynamic and ultrastructure of bioenergetic membranes and their components. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. Source

Tragesser S.L.,Washington State University | Benfeld J.,Pennsylvania State University
Journal of Personality Disorders | Year: 2012

The purpose of the present study was to examine the association between features of borderline personality disorder (BPD) and mate retention tactics as a means of examining an evolutionary perspective on the association between BPD features and interpersonal problems and violence in romantic relationships. Two-hundred twenty-fve college student participants completed the Personality Assessment Inventory for Borderlines (PAI-BOR; Morey, 1991) and the Mate Retention Inventory-Short Form (MRI-SF; Buss, Shackelford, & McKibbin, 2008) embedded within other measures. There was a strong association between BPD features and cost-inficting mate retention tactics, including the specifc tactics of vigilance, punishing mate's infdelity threat, intrasexual threats, and sexual inducements for both men and women. There were also gender-specifc associations for additional tactics. These results contribute to our understanding of problems in romantic relationships among men and women with BPD features, including violence, and to our understanding of impulsive sexual behavior among individuals with BPD features by showing how these behaviors are used as extreme, maladaptive attempts at mate retention. © 2012 The Guilford Press. Source

Celli J.,Washington State University | Tsolis R.M.,University of California at Davis
Nature Reviews Microbiology | Year: 2015

The unfolded protein response (UPR) is a cytoprotective response that is aimed at restoring cellular homeostasis following physiological stress exerted on the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), which also invokes innate immune signalling in response to invading microorganisms. Although it has been known for some time that the UPR is modulated by various viruses, recent evidence indicates that it also has multiple roles during bacterial infections. In this Review, we describe how bacteria interact with the ER, including how bacteria induce the UPR, how subversion of the UPR promotes bacterial proliferation and how the UPR contributes to innate immune responses against invading bacteria. © 2015 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved. Source

Skinner M.K.,Washington State University
BMC Medicine | Year: 2014

Previous studies have shown a wide variety of environmental toxicants and abnormal nutrition can promote the epigenetic transgenerational inheritance of disease. More recently a number of studies have indicated environmental stress can also promote epigenetic alterations that are transmitted to subsequent generations to induce pathologies. A recent study by Yao and colleagues demonstrated gestational exposure to restraint stress and forced swimming promoted preterm birth risk and adverse newborn outcomes generationally. This ancestral stress promoted the epigenetic transgenerational inheritance of abnormalities in the great-grand offspring of the exposed gestating female. Several studies now support the role of environmental stress in promoting the epigenetic transgenerational inheritance of disease. Observations suggest ancestral environmental stress may be a component of disease etiology in the current population.Please see related article: http://www.biomedcentral.com/content/pdf/s12916-014-0121-6.pdf. © 2014 Skinner; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. Source

Tian Z.,University of Chinese Academy of Sciences | Li A.D.Q.,Washington State University
Accounts of Chemical Research | Year: 2013

Because of its ultrasensitivity, fluorescence offers a noninvasive means to investigate biomolecular mechanisms, pathways, and regulations in living cells, tissues, and animals. However, real-world applications of fluorescence technologies encounter many practical challenges. For example, the intrinsic heterogeneity of biological samples always generates optical interferences. High background such as autofluorescence can often obscure the desired signals. Finally, the wave properties of light limit the spatial resolution of optical microscopy.The key to solving these problems involves using chemical structures that can modulate the fluorescence output. Photoswitchable fluorescent molecules that alternate their emissions between two colors or between bright-and-dark states in response to external light stimulation form the core of these technologies. For example, molecular fluorescence modulation can switch fluorophores on and off. This feature supports super-resolution, which enhances resolution by an order of magnitude greater than the longstanding diffraction-limit barrier. The reversible modulation of such probes at a particular frequency significantly amplifies the frequency-bearing target signal while suppressing interferences and autofluorescence.In this Account, we outline the fundamental connection between constant excitation and oscillating fluorescence. To create molecules that will convert a constant excitation into oscillating emission, we have synthesized photoswitchable probes and demonstrated them as proofs of concept in super-resolution imaging and frequency-domain imaging. First, we introduce the design of molecules that can convert constant excitation into oscillating emission, the key step in fluorescence modulation. Then we discuss various technologies that use fluorescence modulation: super-resolution imaging, dual-color imaging, phase-sensitive lock-in detection, and frequency-domain imaging. Finally, we present two biological applications to demonstrate the power of photoswitching-enabled fluorescence imaging. Because synthetic photoswitchable probes can be much smaller, more versatile, and more efficient at high-performance modulation experiments, they provide a complement to photoswitchable fluorescent proteins. Although new challenges remain, we foresee a bright future for photoswitching-enabled imaging and detection. © 2012 American Chemical Society. Source

Clements C.B.,Washington State University
International Journal of Wildland Fire | Year: 2010

High-frequency thermocouple measurements were made during an experimental grass fire conducted during ideal weather with overcast and windy conditions. Analysis of the thermodynamic structure of the fire plume showed that a maximum plume temperature of 295.2°C was measured directly above the combustion zone. Plume heating rates were on the order of 2645kWm-2 and occurred in the region just above the combustion zone between 10 and 15m above ground level and were followed by cooling of approximately 37 and 44kWm-2. The observed cooling was caused by strong entrainment that occurred behind the fire front and plume. The rapid heating and subsequent cooling indicate that the heating caused by a fire front is limited to a small volume around the flaming front and that the rates of heat gain occur for a short duration. The short duration of plume heating is due to the fast rate of spread of the fire front and ambient wind. © 2010 IAWF. Source

Wen S.,Washington State University
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America | Year: 2012

Wheat supplies about 20% of the total food calories consumed worldwide and is a national staple in many countries. Besides being a key source of plant proteins, it is also a major cause of many diet-induced health issues, especially celiac disease. The only effective treatment for this disease is a total gluten-free diet. The present report describes an effort to develop a natural dietary therapy for this disorder by transcriptional suppression of wheat DEMETER (DME) homeologs using RNA interference. DME encodes a 5-methylcytosine DNA glycosylase responsible for transcriptional derepression of gliadins and low-molecular-weight glutenins (LMWgs) by active demethylation of their promoters in the wheat endosperm. Previous research has demonstrated these proteins to be the major source of immunogenic epitopes. In this research, barley and wheat DME genes were cloned and localized on the syntenous chromosomes. Nucleotide diversity among DME homeologs was studied and used for their virtual transcript profiling. Functional conservation of DME enzyme was confirmed by comparing the motif and domain structure within and across the plant kingdom. Presence and absence of CpG islands in prolamin gene sequences was studied as a hallmark of hypo- and hypermethylation, respectively. Finally the epigenetic influence of DME silencing on accumulation of LMWgs and gliadins was studied using 20 transformants expressing hairpin RNA in their endosperm. These transformants showed up to 85.6% suppression in DME transcript abundance and up to 76.4% reduction in the amount of immunogenic prolamins, demonstrating the possibility of developing wheat varieties compatible for the celiac patients. Source

Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici and P. striiformis f. sp. hordei, the causal agents of stripe rust on wheat and barley, respectively, can change rapidly in virulence, and such changes may overcome resistance in cultivars and result in severe epidemics. To monitor virulence changes in the pathogen populations, isolates obtained from stripe rust samples collected by the authors and collaborators from 17 U.S. states in 2008 and 13 states in 2009 were tested on 20 wheat and 12 barley differential lines to identify races of P. striiformis f. tritici and P. striiformis f. sp. hordei, respectively. In 2008, 33 P. striiformis f. tritici (PST) races were detected, including a new race, PST-138, which was similar to previously identified PST-127 (virulent on wheat differentials 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, and 20) but not virulent on differential 8. The five most frequent races were PST-114 (virulent on differentials 1, 3, 4, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 14, 16, 17, 18, 19, and 20), PST-100 (virulent on differentials 1, 3, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 16, 17, 18, 19, and 20), PST-116 (similar to PST-114 plus virulent on differential 5), PST-101 (similar to PST-100 plus virulent on differential 2), and PST-98 (similar to PST-100 but not virulent on differential 9). In 2009, 26 P. striiformis f. tritici races were identified, including two new races, PST-139 and PST-140. PST-139 was similar to PST-127 but not virulent on differentials 16 and 20. PST-140 was similar to PST-114 but not virulent on differential 9. The five most frequent races were PST-139 (19%), PST-140 (14%), PST-114 (11%), PST-116 (10%), and PST-127 (9%). However, the most widely distributed races were PST-98 (in 10 of the 14 states) and PST-102 (in 7 of the 14 states). Differential genotype AvSYr5NIL (Yr5) was the only one among the 20 differentials that remained resistant to all of the identified races. Virulence diversity of the P. striiformis f. tritici populations was higher west of the Rocky Mountains. For barley stripe rust, P. striiformis f. sp. hordei (PSH)-33 (virulent on barley differentials 1 and 7) was the most common (46%) of the 11 races detected in 2008, including a new race, PSH-82 (virulent only on barley differentials 1 and 11). In 2009, six previously identified races were detected, of which five (PSH-16, PSH-38, PSH-46, PSH-54, and PSH-71) were detected in Washington and two (PSH-54 and PSH-70) in Oregon. The information on P. striiformis f. sp. tritici and P. striiformis f. sp. hordei races should be useful in selecting genes for developing cultivars with effective stripe rust resistance. Source

Yoo C.-S.,Washington State University
Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics | Year: 2013

Carbon dioxide exhibits a richness of high-pressure polymorphs with a great diversity in intermolecular interaction, chemical bonding, and crystal structures. It ranges from typical molecular solids to fully extended covalent solids with crystal structures similar to those of SiO2. These extended solids of carbon dioxide are fundamentally new materials exhibiting interesting optical nonlinearity, low compressibility and high energy density. Furthermore, the large disparity in chemical bonding between the extended network and molecular structures results in a broad metastability domain for these phases to room temperature and almost to ambient pressure and thereby offers enhanced opportunities for novel materials developments. Broadly speaking, these molecular-to-non-molecular transitions occur due to electron delocalization manifested as a rapid increase in electron kinetic energy at high density. The detailed mechanisms, however, are more complex with phase metastabilities, path-dependent phases and phase boundaries, and large lattice strains and structural distortions-all of which are controlled by well beyond thermodynamic constraints to chemical kinetics associated with the governing phases and transitions. As a result, the equilibrium phase boundary is difficult to locate precisely (experimentally or theoretically) and is often obscured by the presence of metastable phases (ordered or disordered). This paper will review the pressure-induced transformations observed in highly compressed carbon dioxide and present chemistry perspectives on those molecular-to-non-molecular transformations that can be applied to other low-Z molecular solids at Mbar pressures where the compression energy rivals the chemical bond energies. © 2013 the Owner Societies. Source

Brooks A.L.,Washington State University | Dauer L.T.,Sloan Kettering Cancer Center
Seminars in Nuclear Medicine | Year: 2014

Over the past 15 years and more, extensive research has been conducted on the responses of biological systems to radiation delivered at a low dose or low dose rate. This research has demonstrated that the molecular-, cellular-, and tissue-level responses are different following low doses than those observed after a single short-term high-dose radiation exposure. Following low-dose exposure, 3 unique responses were observed, these included bystander effects, adaptive protective responses, and genomic instability. Research on the mechanisms of action for each of these observations demonstrates that the molecular and cellular processes activated by low doses of radiation are often related to protective responses, whereas high-dose responses are often associated with extensive damage such as cell killing, tissue disruption, and inflammatory diseases. Thus, the mechanisms of action are unique for low-dose radiation exposure. When the dose is delivered at a low dose rate, the responses typically differ at all levels of biological organization. These data suggest that there must be a dose rate effectiveness factor that is greater than 1 and that the risk following low-dose rate exposure is likely less than that for single short-term exposures. All these observations indicate that using the linear no-threshold model for radiation protection purposes is conservative. Low-dose research therefore supports the current standards and practices. When a nuclear medical procedure is justified, it should be carried out with optimization (lowest radiation dose commensurate with diagnostic or therapeutic outcome). © 2014 Elsevier Inc. Source

Crowder D.W.,Washington State University | Jabbour R.,University of Wyoming
Biological Control | Year: 2014

Agricultural systems around the world are faced with the challenge of providing for the demands of a growing human population. To meet this demand, agricultural systems have intensified to produce more crops per unit area at the expense of greater inputs. Agricultural intensification, while yielding more crops, generally has detrimental impacts on biodiversity. However, intensified agricultural systems often have fewer pests than more "environmentally-friendly" systems, which is believed to be primarily due to extensive pesticide use on intensive farms. In turn, to be competitive, less-intensive agricultural systems must rely on biological control of pests. Biological pest control is a complex ecosystem service that is generally positively associated with biodiversity of natural enemy guilds. Yet, we still have a limited understanding of the relationships between biodiversity and biological control in agroecosystems, and the mechanisms underlying these relationships. Here, we review the effects of agricultural intensification on the diversity of natural enemy communities attacking arthropod pests and weeds. We next discuss how biodiversity of these communities impacts pest control, and the mechanisms underlying these effects. We focus in particular on novel conceptual issues such as relationships between richness, evenness, abundance, and pest control. Moreover, we discuss novel experimental approaches that can be used to explore the relationships between biodiversity and biological control in agroecosystems. In particular, we highlight new experimental frontiers regarding evenness, realistic manipulations of biodiversity, and functional and genetic diversity. Management shifts that aim to conserve diversity while suppressing both insect and weed pests will help growers to face future challenges. Moreover, a greater understanding of the interactions between diversity components, and the mechanisms underlying biodiversity effects, would improve efforts to strengthen biological control in agroecosystems. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. Source

It has been almost a decade since the last review appeared comparing and contrasting the influences that the different families of High Mobility Group proteins (HMGA, HMGB and HMGN) have on the various DNA repair pathways in mammalian cells. During that time considerable progress has been made in our understanding of how these non-histone proteins modulate the efficiency of DNA repair by all of the major cellular pathways: nucleotide excision repair, base excision repair, double-stand break repair and mismatch repair. Although there are often similar and over-lapping biological activities shared by all HMG proteins, members of each of the different families appear to have a somewhat 'individualistic' impact on various DNA repair pathways. This review will focus on what is currently known about the roles that different HMG proteins play in DNA repair processes and discuss possible future research areas in this rapidly evolving field. © 2015 Elsevier B.V. Source

Tegeder M.,Washington State University | Rentsch D.,University of Bern
Molecular Plant | Year: 2010

Plant growth, productivity, and seed yield depend on the efficient uptake, metabolism, and allocation of nutrients. Nitrogen is an essential macronutrient needed in high amounts. Plants have evolved efficient and selective transport systems for nitrogen uptake and transport within the plant to sustain development, growth, and finally reproduction. This review summarizes current knowledge on membrane proteins involved in transport of amino acids and peptides. A special emphasis was put on their function in planta. We focus on uptake of the organic nitrogen by the root, source-sink partitioning, and import into floral tissues and seeds. © The Author 2010. Source

Panksepp J.,Washington State University
American Journal of Primatology | Year: 2011

Do we need to consider mental processes in our analysis of brain functions in other animals? Obviously we do, if such BrainMind functions exist in the animals we wish to understand. If so, how do we proceed, while still retaining materialistic-mechanistic perspectives? This essay outlines the historical forces that led to emotional feelings in animals being marginalized in behavioristic scientific discussions of why animals behave the way they do, and why mental constructs are generally disregarded in modern neuroscientific analyses. The roots of this problem go back to Cartesian dualism and the attempt of 19th century physician-scientists to ground a new type of medical curriculum on a completely materialistic approach to body functions. Thereby all vitalistic principles were discarded from the lexicon of science, and subjective experience in animals was put in that category and discarded as an invalid approach to animal behavior. This led to forms of rigid operationalism during the era of behaviorism and subsequently ruthless reductionism in brain research, leaving little room for mentalistic concepts such as emotional feelings in animal research. However, modern studies of the brain clearly indicate that artificially induced arousals of emotional networks, as with localized electrical and chemical brain stimulation, can serve as "rewards" and "punishments" in various learning tasks. This strongly indicates that animal brains elaborate various experienced states, with those having affective contents being easiest to study rigorously. However, in approaching emotional feelings empirically we must pay special attention to the difficulties and vagaries of human language and evolutionary levels of control in the brain. We need distinct nomenclatures from primary (unconditioned phenomenal experiences) to tertiary (reflective) levels of mind. The scientific pursuit of affective brain processes in other mammals can now reveal general BrainMind principles that also apply to human feelings, as with neurochemical predictions from preclinical animal models to self-reports of corresponding human experiences. In short, brain research has now repeatedly verified the existence of affective experience-various reward and punishment functions-during artificial arousal of emotional networks in our fellow animals. The implications for new conceptual schema for understanding human/primate affective feelings and how such knowledge can impact scientific advances in biological psychiatry are also addressed. © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc. Source

Barry S.,Washington State University
Veterinary and Comparative Orthopaedics and Traumatology | Year: 2010

The ability of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID) to inhibit bone healing has been established in experimental animal models using mice, rats, and rabbits. The mechanism of action is largely unknown but stems from prostaglandin inhibition and is likely multifactorial. In human medicine NSAID are known to prevent heterotopic ossification, however the clinical importance of their effects on bone healing remains controversial. Although a small handful of reports suggest that NSAID suppress bone healing in dogs and horses, there is little published information to direct veterinary practice in domestic species. © Schattauer 2010. Source

D'Alpoim Guedes J.A.,Washington State University | Lu H.,University of Sichuan | Hein A.M.,Ludwig Maximilians University of Munich | Schmidt A.H.,Oberlin College
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America | Year: 2015

We report directly dated evidence from circa 1400 calibrated years (cal) B.C. for the early use of wheat, barley, and flax as staple crops on the borders of the Tibetan Plateau. During recent years, an increasing amount of data from the Tibetan Plateau and its margins shows that a transition from millets to wheat and barley agriculture took place during the second millennium B.C. Using thermal niche modeling, we refute previous assertions that the ecological characteristics of wheat and barley delayed their spread into East Asia. Rather, we demonstrate that the ability of these crops to tolerate frost and their low growing degree-day requirements facilitated their spread into the high-altitude margins of western China. Following their introduction to this region, these crops rapidly replaced Chinese millets and became the staple crops that still characterize agriculture in this area today. © 2015, National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Source

Willoughby J.F.,Washington State University
Health Education and Behavior | Year: 2015

Text messaging services are becoming an increasingly popular way to provide sexual health information to teens, but little is known about who uses such services. This study assessed whether teens at a greater risk for negative sexual health outcomes use a sexual health text message service. A text message service that connects teens with sexual health educators was promoted in six public schools in one state in the Southeast. Students (n = 2,125) in four schools completed an online questionnaire assessing personal risk factors associated with negative sexual health outcomes and use of the text message service. Text message service users (n = 144) were more likely to have had sex, to have been in a relationship, and to come from a lower socioeconomic status background. Users also felt less connected to their schools and were slightly older than nonservice users. When all variables were entered into a logistic regression, only sexual experience was associated with service use. Sexual health text message services are designed to provide information to teens in an effort to prevent negative sexual outcomes. Such services seem to be reaching youth with increased risk of teen pregnancy and sexually transmitted disease acquisition. This study provides evidence that teens most likely to benefit are also those most likely to use a sexual health text message service. © 2015, © 2015 Society for Public Health Education. Source

Greene S.A.,Washington State University
Topics in Companion Animal Medicine | Year: 2010

An examination of the current understanding of the processes and related therapies aimed at treatment of chronic pain in animals is presented. Discussion focuses on mechanisms involved in the neural pathways of chronic pain, differences between acute and chronic pain, and pharmacologic options for chronic pain as they relate to inflammatory, neoplastic, and neuropathic processes. © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Source

Lehrer N.,Washington State University
Agriculture and Human Values | Year: 2010

In the mid-2000s, rising gas prices, political instability, pollution, and fossil fuel depletion brought renewable domestic energy production onto the policy agenda. Biofuels, or fuels made from plant materials, came to be seen as America's hope for energy security, environmental conservation, and rural economic revitalization. Yet even as the actual environmental, economic, and energy contributions of a biofuels boom remained debatable, support for biofuels swelled and became a prominent driver of not only US energy policy but of US farm policy as well. This paper asks why biofuels became such a powerful force in farm policy debates, and draws on policy windows theory and discourse analysis to analyze biofuels' contributions to the passage of the 2008 farm bill. It finds that budgetary and political factors combined with a particular set of patriotic biofuels-oriented discourses to carry energy policy debates into farm policy. It also comments on the implications of biofuels policies for conservation and sustainable land use in 2008 and beyond.©Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2009. Source

Keller M.,Washington State University
Australian Journal of Grape and Wine Research | Year: 2010

Grapevine reproductive development extends over two seasons, and the genotypic expression of yield potential and fruit composition is subject to environmental impacts, which include viticultural manipulations, throughout this period. This paper reviews current knowledge on yield formation and fruit composition and attempts to identify challenges, opportunities and priorities for research and practice. The present analysis of published information gives a critical appraisal of recent advances concerning variables, especially as they relate to global climate change, that influence yield formation and fruit composition at harvest. Exciting discoveries in fundamental research on the one hand and an increasing focus on outcomes and knowledge transfer on the other are enabling the development and implementation of practical recommendations that will impact grape production in the future. Future research should aim to minimise seasonal variation and optimise the profitable and sustainable production of high-quality fruit for specific uses in the face of climate change, water and labour shortages, shifting consumer preferences and global competition. Better control of product quantity and quality, and differentiation to meet consumer demands and market preferences will enhance the competitiveness and sustainability of the global grape and wine industries. © 2009 Australian Society of Viticulture and Oenology Inc. Source

The factors affecting trap capture of adult Aphelinus mali (Haldeman) (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae) were studied in 20102011 in eastern Washington apple (Malus spp.) orchards infested with its host woolly apple aphid, Eriosoma lanigerum (Hausmann) (Hemiptera: Aphididae). The initial study of white sticky cards indicated that traps stapled to the trunk in a vertical orientation had the highest capture. A factorial experiment of three colors (clear, white, and yellow) by three orientations (trunk, scaffold, and hanging) indicated that yellow traps and traps on trunks caught higher numbers of A. mali. For this reason, the recommended trap for this natural enemy is a yellow trap stapled to the trunk. Having a readily available and effective sampling method for this species may be helpful in implementing biological control programs and assessing the impact of different spray regimes. © 2012 Entomological Society of America. Source

Yu Z.G.,Washington State University
Physical Review Letters | Year: 2015

We study the spin Hall effect (SHE) in disordered π-conjugated organic solids, where individual molecules are oriented randomly and electrical conduction is via carrier hopping. The SHE, which arises from interference between direct (i→j) and indirect (i→k→j) hoppings in a triad consisting of three molecules i, j, and k, is found to be proportional to λ(ni×nj+nj×nk+nk×ni), where λ is the spin admixture of π electrons due to the spin-orbit coupling and ni is the orientation vector of molecule i. Electrical conductivity σqq (q=x,y,z) and spin Hall conductivity σsh are computed by numerically solving the master equations of a system containing 32×32×32 molecules and summing over contributions from all triads in the system. The obtained value of the spin Hall angle Θsh is consistent with experimental data in PEDOT:PSS, with a predicted temperature dependence of logΘsh∼T-1/4. © 2015 American Physical Society. © 2015 American Physical Society. Source

Brady M.,Washington State University | Irwin E.,Ohio State University
Environmental and Resource Economics | Year: 2011

The marked increase in the availability of spatial data has forced researchers engaged in land use modeling to directly confront the question of space and the theoretical and methodological challenges involved in developing spatial models. Advances have come from multiple disciplines, most notably through the development and application of spatial theory and methods from regional science, geography, urban economics and more recently, theoretical and applied econometrics. The main goal of this paper is to summarize the econometric challenges of spatial data and to highlight spatial models and methods with a particular focus on models of land markets and land use change. We also discuss the data and modeling challenges associated with modeling the underlying spatial economic mechanisms that give rise to land use patterns and the complexities involved in modeling land use as a coupled economic-ecological system. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media B.V. Source

Peers M.J.,Trent University | Peers M.J.,Washington State University
Proceedings. Biological sciences / The Royal Society | Year: 2013

Determining the patterns, causes and consequences of character displacement is central to our understanding of competition in ecological communities. However, the majority of competition research has occurred over small spatial extents or focused on fine-scale differences in morphology or behaviour. The effects of competition on broad-scale distribution and niche characteristics of species remain poorly understood but critically important. Using range-wide species distribution models, we evaluated whether Canada lynx (Lynx canadensis) or bobcat (Lynx rufus) were displaced in regions of sympatry. Consistent with our prediction, we found that lynx niches were less similar to those of bobcat in areas of sympatry versus allopatry, with a stronger reliance on snow cover driving lynx niche divergence in the sympatric zone. By contrast, bobcat increased niche breadth in zones of sympatry, and bobcat niches were equally similar to those of lynx in zones of sympatry and allopatry. These findings suggest that competitively disadvantaged species avoid competition at large scales by restricting their niche to highly suitable conditions, while superior competitors expand the diversity of environments used. Our results indicate that competition can manifest within climatic niche space across species' ranges, highlighting the importance of biotic interactions occurring at large spatial scales on niche dynamics. Source

Galinato G.I.,Washington State University
Ecological Economics | Year: 2011

A model is developed where opening to trade affects a dynamic common-pool resource stock and welfare through a community's voting decision to institute a property rights regime regulating the stock. The model finds that resource stock levels can decline even when a Markov perfect equilibrium path for labor and property rights regimes are chosen to maximize welfare. Thus, opening to trade can be welfare maximizing even when resource stock declines. Experimental results show that under certain conditions, subjects briefly follow a Markov perfect equilibrium path for property rights regime choice but labor allocations are myopically chosen indicating that some resource dynamics may be considered by subjects. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. Source

Fatality reviews are part of the public health arsenal to mortality prevention. As such they rely on medico-legal practitioners' participation. Yet medico-legal practice in the United States is still divided between the scientific approach of medical examiners systems and the political approach of coroners systems. I argue that this is related to the public's reluctance to let go of its jurisdiction over death as a social fact. I posit that attempts at systematizing coroners' inquests, as in Washington State, illustrate such resistance, yet could be conceived as a compromise between the political and the scientific, benefiting public health and the goal of fatality reviews. © 2013 SAGE Publications. Source

Wen H.,Washington State University
International Journal of Pavement Engineering | Year: 2013

Bottom-up fatigue cracking, which is a major distress in asphalt pavements, is due to repeated traffic loading that induces tensile stress in the asphalt concrete layers. Fatigue cracks are observed as interconnected cracks in the wheelpath of asphalt pavements. Fatigue cracking can and should be addressed during both the mix design and pavement design. Therefore, a performance indicator is needed during the mix design to select a fatigue-resistant mix. In addition, a fatigue model, which includes the performance indicator, is needed to design the pavement structure. This study is conducted to determine a performance indicator for fatigue and to develop a new fatigue model, based on the Federal Highway Administration's Accelerated Load Facility experiments on fatigue. It is found that the fracture work density (FWD) obtained from indirect tensile testing correlates highly with field fatigue performance, whereas fracture energy fails to correlate with field fatigue performance. A new fatigue model based on FWD is developed herein and is found to be effective in characterising field fatigue performance. Further study is needed to validate the effectiveness of FWD and the new fatigue model. © 2013 Taylor and Francis Group, LLC. Source

Matteson D.S.,Washington State University
Australian Journal of Chemistry | Year: 2011

Hydrolysis of diisopropyl (bromomethyl)boronate followed by reaction with pinanediol provides an efficient route to pinanediol (hydroxymethyl)boronate (12), a useful intermediate for asymmetric synthesis. The stability of (hydroxymethyl)boronic acid (10) and its ester 12 have been examined by NMR spectroscopy. Heating for 1h in acidic D 2O does not degrade 10 and only affects the pinanediol moiety of 12. Base does not degrade 10 or 12 in several days at 2025°C, but converts either to DCH 2OD and CH 3OD in a fewh at 9098C, with a large H/D isotope effect. Pinanediol (bromomethyl)boronate with sodium hydroxide in D 2O yields a gross mixture of products. © 2011 CSIRO. Source

Trobridge G.D.,Washington State University
Expert Opinion on Biological Therapy | Year: 2011

Introduction: Retroviral vectors have been developed for hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) gene therapy and have successfully cured X-linked severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID-X1), adenosine deaminase deficiency (ADA-SCID), adrenoleukodystrophy, and Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome. However, in HSC gene therapy clinical trials, genotoxicity mediated by integrated vector proviruses has led to clonal expansion, and in some cases frank leukemia. Numerous studies have been performed to understand the molecular basis of vector-mediated genotoxicity with the aim of developing safer vectors and safer gene therapy protocols. These genotoxicity studies are critical to advancing HSC gene therapy. Areas covered: This review provides an introduction to the mechanisms of retroviral vector genotoxicity. It also covers advances over the last 20 years in designing safer gene therapy vectors, and in integration site analysis in clinical trials and large animal models. Mechanisms of retroviral-mediated genotoxicity, and the risk factors that contribute to clonal expansion and leukemia in HSC gene therapy are introduced. Expert opinion: Continued research on virus-host interactions and next-generation vectors should further improve the safety of future HSC gene therapy vectors and protocols. © 2011 Informa UK, Ltd. Source

Khapalov A.,Washington State University
International Journal of Applied Mathematics and Computer Science | Year: 2010

In this paper we discuss two closely related problems arising in environmental monitoring. The first is the source localization problem linked to the question How can one find an unknown "contamination source"? The second is an associated sensor placement problem: Where should we place sensors that are capable of providing the necessary "adequate data" for that? Our approach is based on some concepts and ideas developed in mathematical control theory of partial differential equations. Source

Brewer L.R.,Washington State University
Integrative Biology | Year: 2011

Toroids are small donut shaped organizational units within sperm chromatin and viruses containing DNA and protein. Investigators first characterized the dimensions of toroids created in vitro, in viruses and in decondensed sperm chromatin using transmission electron and atomic force microscopy. More recent measurements, performed using cryo-electron microscopy, have allowed experimenters to observe the hexagonal organization of DNA within viruses, and toroids created from DNA and cobalt hexammine. However, it has been difficult to obtain information about the assembly of DNA into a toroid, its structure and the biomechanical forces involved because of the limitations of these techniques. Similarly, biophysical studies of toroids utilizing techniques such as circular dichroism or light scattering are difficult to perform and interpret because toroids created using bulk DNA can aggregate and precipitate out of solution even at very low concentrations. The development of optical and magnetic traps has allowed experimenters to manipulate single DNA molecules within microfluidic, multichannel flow cells and measure the structural changes they undergo as they are transformed into toroids. During the past few years investigators have demonstrated that toroids consist of loops of DNA. They have observed the stepwise incorporation of these loops into a toroid that is not in contact with charged surfaces, which might affect its formation. The condensation of a constrained DNA molecule into a toroid was observed to significantly increase its tension, which reduced the size of the DNA loops that form the toroid. This structural information is important for understanding how genomic DNA is assembled and organized within the sperm cell and viruses. In this perspective we discuss what is known about the structure and formation of toroids, what has been learned recently using single molecule techniques and what remaining questions have the potential to be answered using these emerging technologies. © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2011. Source

Power T.G.,Washington State University
Childhood Obesity | Year: 2013

Over the last decade, researchers have uncovered relationships between general parenting styles and children's obesity. This is an emerging area of research, and there currently is a great deal of interest in the parent's role. This review was written to provide researchers entering this area with a historical introduction to parenting research and to point to some directions for future inquiry. Over the last 75 years, considerable insight has been gained into individual differences in parenting behavior, especially regarding the dimensions underlying individual differences in general parenting approach, and parenting styles resulting from individual differences on these dimensions. The history of empirical attempts to identify parenting dimensions and styles is reviewed briefly, followed by a review of more recent studies of parenting styles. Next is a discussion of data analytic approaches to measuring parenting, with a particular emphasis on variable-centered versus person-centered approaches. Because investigators have often disagreed about which of these approaches is the most appropriate, the advantages and disadvantages of each are considered, along with recommendations for future research. © Mary Ann Liebert, Inc. Source

Lange B.M.,Washington State University
Annual Review of Plant Biology | Year: 2015

Secretory structures in terrestrial plants appear to have first emerged as intracellular oil bodies in liverworts. In vascular plants, internal secretory structures, such as resin ducts and laticifers, are usually found in conjunction with vascular bundles, whereas subepidermal secretory cavities and epidermal glandular trichomes generally have more complex tissue distribution patterns. The primary function of plant secretory structures is related to defense responses, both constitutive and induced, against herbivores and pathogens. The ability to sequester secondary (or specialized) metabolites and defense proteins in secretory structures was a critical adaptation that shaped plant-herbivore and plant-pathogen interactions. Although this review places particular emphasis on describing the evolution of pathways leading to terpenoids, it also assesses the emergence of other metabolite classes to outline the metabolic capabilities of different plant lineages. ©2015 by Annual Reviews. All rights reserved. Source

Antolovich S.D.,Georgia Institute of Technology | Antolovich S.D.,Washington State University | Armstrong R.W.,University of Maryland University College
Progress in Materials Science | Year: 2014

This article focuses on the mechanisms and consequences of plastic strain localizations exhibited in tensile stress-strain behaviors, fracture and fatigue. A broad overview is first presented, including important practical considerations and historical background; then dislocation mechanics based details are developed in subsequent sections. Material characterizations are portrayed beginning from the macroscopic and extending down to the critical nanoscale. Controlling influences of temperature, strain rate, grain size and deformation mode on strain localization are evaluated. Relations are established between otherwise apparently disparate variations in phenomena, materials, applied conditions, and size scales. Strengths and weaknesses of various model descriptions of material behaviors are discussed in light of experimental evidence and suggestions are put forward for further research into promising model approaches and for areas where new approaches appear to be needed. A paradigm is suggested for the development of improvements in understanding based on the needed evolution of ever-increasingly precise experimental results, accurate theoretical model descriptions and incorporation of this information into the rapidly progressing development of numerical/computer modelling of real material behaviors. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source

Matveev K.I.,Washington State University
Journal of Ship Research | Year: 2013

The subject of this article is the two-dimensional interaction of air and water flows under a power-augmented ram wing. The extreme ground effect theory is applied for the air flow, whereas the water flow is treated with a linearized model based on a method of hydrodynamic singularities. Calculated aerodynamic characteristics of power-augmented ram platforms and water surface deformations at moderate and high Froude numbers are presented for a horizontal plate with a flap, a trimmed plate without a flap, and an S-shaped profile. Additionally, plates in contact with water are modeled. The transition from airborne to waterborne states is accompanied by drastic variations of the lift and center of pressure. It is found that solutions can be nonunique when the plate trailing edge is very close to the water surface. Source

Mustoe G.E.,Washington State University
Palaios | Year: 2014

The diversity and abundance of bird and animal tracks preserved in Eocene strata of the Chuckanut Formation in Washington contrasts to the scarcity of body fossils. These ichnofossils were made by vertebrates that inhabited river margins, the only depositional environment favorable for track preservation. Three of the four localities described herein contain tracks fromat least two different types of animals. Site SM-6 contains approximately 200 shallow circular plantigrade footprints, perhaps made by a type of archaic mammal of the Orders Pantodonta or Dinocerata. Site RU-1 yielded footprints from a small shorebird and tracks froman early equid or tapiroid. The same type of perissodactyl tracks were preserved at Site KC-1, along with a single webbed bird track, and trackways from a large heron- like bird and a turtle. Site SM-9.5 contained multiple bird tracks of a type not found at the other localities. The discovery of tracks only at Chuckanut Formation sites that expose large bedding planes indicates the importance of considering outcrop architecture during the search for vertebrate ichnofossils, and inspires the hope that similar fossils may eventually be found in correlative formations in the Pacific Northwest. Source

Neumiller J.J.,Washington State University
Drugs in Context | Year: 2014

Type 2 diabetes is increasing in prevalence worldwide, and hyperglycemia is often poorly controlled despite a number of therapeutic options. Unlike previously available agents, sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors offer an insulin-independent mechanism for improving blood glucose levels, since they promote urinary glucose excretion (UGE) by inhibiting glucose reabsorption in the kidney. In addition to glucose control, SGLT2 inhibitors are associated with weight loss and blood pressure reductions, and do not increase the risk of hypoglycemia. Empagliflozin is a selective inhibitor of SGLT2, providing dose-dependent UGE increases in healthy volunteers, with up to 90 g of glucose excreted per day. It can be administered orally, and studies of people with renal or hepatic impairment indicated empagliflozin needed no dose adjustment based on pharmacokinetics. In Phase II trials in patients with type 2 diabetes, empagliflozin provided improvements in glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) and other measures of glycemic control when given as monotherapy or add-on to metformin, as well as reductions in weight and systolic blood pressure. As add-on to basal insulin, empagliflozin not only improved HbA1c levels but also reduced insulin doses. Across studies, empagliflozin was generally well tolerated with a similar rate of hypoglycemia to placebo; however, patients had a slightly increased frequency of genital infections, but not urinary tract infections, versus placebo. Phase III studies have also reported a good safety profile along with significant improvements in HbA1c, weight and blood pressure, with no increased risk of hypoglycemia versus placebo. Based on available data, it appears that empagliflozin may be a useful option in a range of patients; however, clinical decisions will be better informed by the results of ongoing studies, in particular, a large cardiovascular outcome study (EMPA-REG OUTCOME™). © 2014 Neumiller JJ. Source

Wu S.,University of Washington | Mao L.,Washington State University | Jones A.M.,University of Washington | Yao W.,University of Hong Kong | And 2 more authors.
Nano Letters | Year: 2012

Second order optical nonlinear processes involve the coherent mixing of two electromagnetic waves to generate a new optical frequency, which plays a central role in a variety of applications, such as ultrafast laser systems, rectifiers, modulators, and optical imaging. However, progress is limited in the mid-infrared (MIR) region due to the lack of suitable nonlinear materials. It is desirable to develop a robust system with a strong, electrically tunable second order optical nonlinearity. Here, we demonstrate theoretically that AB-stacked bilayer graphene (BLG) can exhibit a giant and tunable second order nonlinear susceptibility (2) once an in-plane electric field is applied. (2) can be electrically tuned from 0 to ∼10 5 pm/V, 3 orders of magnitude larger than the widely used nonlinear crystal AgGaSe 2. We show that the unusually large (2) arise from two different quantum enhanced two-photon processes thanks to the unique electronic spectrum of BLG. The tunable electronic bandgap of BLG adds additional tunability on the resonance of (2), which corresponds to a tunable wavelength ranging from ∼2.6 to ∼3.1 μm for the up-converted photon. Combined with the high electron mobility and optical transparency of the atomically thin BLG, our scheme suggests a new regime of nonlinear photonics based on BLG. © 2012 American Chemical Society. Source

Vrooman L.A.,Washington State University
Genetics | Year: 2014

Increasing age in a woman is a well-documented risk factor for meiotic errors, but the effect of paternal age is less clear. Although it is generally agreed that spermatogenesis declines with age, the mechanisms that account for this remain unclear. Because meiosis involves a complex and tightly regulated series of processes that include DNA replication, DNA repair, and cell cycle regulation, we postulated that the effects of age might be evident as an increase in the frequency of meiotic errors. Accordingly, we analyzed spermatogenesis in male mice of different ages, examining meiotic chromosome dynamics in spermatocytes at prophase, at metaphase I, and at metaphase II. Our analyses demonstrate that recombination levels are reduced in the first wave of spermatogenesis in juvenile mice but increase in older males. We also observed age-dependent increases in XY chromosome pairing failure at pachytene and in the frequency of prematurely separated autosomal homologs at metaphase I. However, we found no evidence of an age-related increase in aneuploidy at metaphase II, indicating that cells harboring meiotic errors are eliminated by cycle checkpoint mechanisms, regardless of paternal age. Taken together, our data suggest that advancing paternal age affects pairing, synapsis, and recombination between homologous chromosomes--and likely results in reduced sperm counts due to germ cell loss--but is not an important contributor to aneuploidy. Source

Witkiewitz K.,Washington State University | Donovan D.M.,University of Washington | Hartzler B.,University of Washington
Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology | Year: 2012

Objective: Many trials have demonstrated the effectiveness of cognitive behavioral interventions for alcohol dependence, yet few studies have examined why particular treatments are effective. This study was designed to evaluate whether drink refusal training was an effective component of a combined behavioral intervention (CBI) and whether change in self-efficacy was a mechanism of change following drink refusal training for individuals with alcohol dependence. Method: The present study is a secondary analysis of data from the COMBINE study (COMBINE Study Research Group, 2003), a randomized clinical trial that combined pharmacotherapy with behavioral intervention in the treatment of alcohol dependence. The goal of the present study was to examine whether a drink refusal skills training module, administered as part of a 16-week CBI (n = 776; 31% female, 23% non-White, average age = 44) predicted changes in drinking frequency and self-efficacy during and following the CBI, and whether changes in self-efficacy following drink refusal training predicted changes in drinking frequency up to 1 year following treatment. Results: Participants (n = 302) who received drink refusal skills training had significantly fewer drinking days during treatment (d = 0.50) and up to 1 year following treatment (d = 0.23). In addition, the effect of the drink refusal skills training module on drinking outcomes following treatment was significantly mediated by changes in self-efficacy, even after controlling for changes in drinking outcomes during treatment (proportion mediated = 0.47). Conclusions: Drink refusal training is an effective component of CBI, and some of the effectiveness may be attributed to changes in client self-efficacy. © 2012 American Psychological Association. Source

Daneshi H.,Southern California Edison | Srivastava A.K.,Washington State University
IET Generation, Transmission and Distribution | Year: 2012

Wind power is one of the fastest growing renewable sources of generation in the U.S. and many other countries. As wind-generated electricity continues to grow, electric utilities increasingly grapple with the challenges of connecting that power to the grid although maintaining system security. It is difficult to predict and control the output of wind generation because of wind intermittency and a reserve capacity is required to deal with inherent uncertainty. This study presents an approach for security-constrained unit commitment (SCUC) with integration of an energy storage system (ESS) and wind generation. Compressed air energy storage (CAES) is considered as an alternative solution to store energy. For economical operation and control purposes, utilities with CAES are interested in the availability and the dispatch of CAES on an hourly basis, given the specific characteristics of CAES. The main contribution of this study is the development of enhanced SCUC formulation and solution techniques with wind power, CAES and multiple constraints including fuel and emission limit. Proposed approach allows simultaneous optimisation of the energy and the ancillary services (AS). Case studies with eight-bus and 118-bus systems are presented to validate the proposed model. This study also contributes by conducting comprehensive studies to analyse the impact of CAES system on locational pricing, economics, peak-load shaving, transmission congestion management, wind curtailment and environmental perspective. © 2012 The Institution of Engineering and Technology. Source

Skinner M.K.,Washington State University
Birth Defects Research Part C - Embryo Today: Reviews | Year: 2011

The molecular mechanisms involved in developmental biology and cellular differentiation have traditionally been considered to be primarily genetic. Environmental factors that influence early life critical windows of development generally do not have the capacity to modify genome sequence, nor promote permanent genetic modifications. Epigenetics provides a molecular mechanism for environment to influence development, program cellular differentiation, and alter the genetic regulation of development. The current review discusses how epigenetics can cooperate with genetics to regulate development and allow for greater plasticity in response to environmental influences. This impacts area such as cellular differentiation, tissue development, environmental induced disease etiology, epigenetic transgenerational inheritance, and the general systems biology of organisms and evolution. © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc. Source

Knoblauch M.,Washington State University | Peters W.S.,Indiana University - Purdue University Fort Wayne
Plant, Cell and Environment | Year: 2010

The sieve tubes of the phloem are enigmatic structures. Their role as channels for the distribution of assimilates was established in the 19th century, but their sensitivity to disturbations has hampered the elucidation of their transport mechanisms and its regulation ever since. Ernst Münch's classical monograph of 1930 is generally regarded as the first coherent theory of phloem transport, but the 'Münchian' pressure flow mechanism had been discussed already before the turn of the century. Münch's impact rather rested on his simple physical models of the phloem that visualized pressure flow in an intuitive way, and we argue that the downscaling of such models to realistic, low-Reynolds-number sizes will boost our understanding of phloem transport in this century just as Münch's models did in the previous one. However, biologically meaningful physical models that could be used to test predictions of the many existing mathematical models would have to be designed in analogy with natural phloem structures. Unfortunately, the study of phloem anatomy seems in decline, and we still lack basic quantitative data required for evaluating the plausibility of our theoretical deductions. In this review, we provide a subjective overview of unresolved problems in angiosperm phloem structure research within a functional context. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd. Source

Neurodegenerative diseases are a horrendous burden for their victims, their families, and society as a whole. For half a century scientists have pursued the hypothesis that these diseases involve a chronic viral infection in the brain. However, efforts to consistently detect a specific virus in brains of patients with such diseases as Alzheimer's or multiple sclerosis have generally failed. Neuropathologists have become increasingly aware that most patients with neurodegenerative diseases demonstrate marked deterioration of the brain olfactory bulb in addition to brain targets that define the specific disease. In fact, the loss of the sense of smell may precede overt neurological symptoms by many years. This realization that the olfactory bulb is a common target in neurodegenerative diseases suggests the possibility that microbes and/or toxins in inhaled air may play a role in their pathogenesis. With regard to inhaled viruses, neuropathologists have focused on those viruses that infect and kill neurons. However, a recent study shows that a respiratory virus with no neurotropic properties can rapidly invade the mouse olfactory bulb from the nasal cavity. Available data suggest that this strain of influenza is passively transported to the bulb via the olfactory nerves (mechanism unknown), and is taken up by glial cells in the outer layers of the bulb. The infected glial cells appear to be activated by the virus, secrete proinflammatory cytokines, and block further spread of virus within the brain. At the time that influenza symptoms become apparent (15. h post-infection), but not prior to symptom onset (10. h post-infection), proinflammatory cytokine-expressing neurons are increased in olfactory cortical pathways and hypothalamus as well as in the olfactory bulb. The mice go on to die of pneumonitis with severe acute phase and respiratory disease symptoms but no classical neurological symptoms. While much remains to be learned about this intranasal influenza-brain invasion model, it suggests the hypothesis that common viruses encountered in our daily life may initiate neuroinflammation via olfactory neural networks. The numerous viruses that we inhale during a lifetime might cause the death of only a few neurons per infection, but this minor damage would accumulate over time and contribute to age-related brain shrinkage and/or neurodegenerative diseases. Elderly individuals with a strong innate inflammatory system, or ongoing systemic inflammation (or both), might be most susceptible to these outcomes. The evidence for the hypothesis that common respiratory viruses may contribute to neurodegenerative processes is developed in the accompanying article. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Cardon T.,Washington State University | Azuma T.,Arizona State University
Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders | Year: 2012

Visual attending patterns of children with ASD differ from those of typically developing (TD) children. Children with ASD spend less time visually attending to relevant people and stimuli than do TD children. Impaired visual attending patterns can greatly decrease the effectiveness of therapy. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the effect of presentation modality on the visual attending profiles of children with ASD and typically developing (TD) peers. In the study, the children watched puppet shows presented in two presentation modes: live (in person) and video. The amount of time that the children visually attended to the puppet shows was measured. Overall, typically developing children visually attended significantly longer to the shows than the children with ASD. Both children with ASD and TD children attended longer to the video presentations than to the live presentations. All of the children with ASD showed a visual preference for the video presentation relative to the live presentation. The results show that visual attending of children with ASD can be influenced by presentation mode. Establishing the variables that increase visual attending may improve the effectiveness of intervention techniques developed for individuals with ASD. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source

Skilton P.F.,Washington State University
Journal of Supply Chain Management | Year: 2014

This study uses resource-based theory concerning the interplay between value creation and value capture (Priem & Swink, ) to explain supply chain structure in a project-based industry. Taking this approach has the potential to change the focus of resource-based thinking from competition between industry rivals to the tension between buyers and suppliers that structures supply chains. Value creation, which is the function of product market strategy, determines which supplier resources are critical and thus determines which suppliers should be in a position to capture value. When supplier capabilities are critical, buyers have incentives to maintain value creation while structuring the supply chain to reduce supplier power. I test the resulting hypotheses by applying multivariate analysis of variance techniques to data from the worldwide motion picture industry. Because the production companies that make movies enact a variety of product market strategies to create value for consumers, suppliers of visual and special effects have a range of opportunities for value capture. I find support for the hypotheses, suggesting that some buyers structure supply chains in counter-intuitive ways when suppliers have high levels of resource-based bargaining power. © 2014 Institute for Supply Management, Inc. Source

Hipps K.W.,Washington State University
Topics in Current Chemistry | Year: 2012

Basic concepts in tunneling spectroscopy applied to molecular systems are presented. Junctions of the form M-A-M, M-I-A-M, and M-I-A-I′-M, where A is an active molecular layer, are considered. Inelastic electron tunneling spectroscopy (IETS) is found to be readily applied to all the above device types. It can provide both vibrational and electron spectroscopic data about the molecules comprising the A layer. In IETS there are no strong selection rules (although there are preferences) so that transitions that are normally IR, Raman, or even photon-forbidden can be observed. In the electronic transition domain, spin and Laporte forbidden transitions may be observed. Both vibrational and electronic IETS can be acquired from single molecules. The negative aspect of this seemingly ideal spectroscopic method is the thermal line width of about 5 k BT. This limits the useful measurement of vibrational IETS to temperatures below about 10 K. In the case of most electronic transitions where the intrinsic linewidth is much broader, useful experiments above 100 K are possible. One further limitation of electronic IETS is that it is generally limited to transitions with energy less than about 20,000 cm -1. IETS can be identified by peaks in d 2 I/dV 2 vs bias voltage plots that occur at the same position (but not necessarily same intensity) in either bias polarity. Elastic tunneling spectroscopy is discussed in the context of processes involving molecular ionization and electron affinity states, a technique we call orbital mediated tunneling spectroscopy, or OMTS. OMTS can be applied readily to M-I-A-M and M-I-A-I′-M systems, but application to M-A-M junctions is problematic. Spectra can be obtained from single molecules. Ionization state results correlate well with UPS spectra obtained from the same systems in the same environment. Both ionization and affinity levels measured by OMTS can usually be correlated with one electron oxidation and reduction potentials for the molecular species in solution. OMTS can be identified by peaks in dI/dV vs bias voltage plots that do not occur at the same position in either bias polarity. Because of the intrinsic width of the ionization and affinity transitions, OMTS can be applied at temperatures above 500 K. This is not a comprehensive review of more than 20 years of research and there are many excellent papers that are not cited here. An absence of a citation is not a reflection on the quality of the work. © 2011 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg. Source