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Burgener A.,Public Health Agency of Canada | Burgener A.,University of Manitoba | Burgener A.,Karolinska Institutet | McGowan I.,University of Pittsburgh | And 3 more authors.
Current Opinion in Immunology | Year: 2015

The mucosal barrier plays an integral function in human health as it is the primary defense against pathogens, and provides a critical transition between the external environment and the human internal body. In the context of HIV infection, the most relevant mucosal surfaces include those of the gastrointestinal (GI) and genital tract compartments. Several components help maintain the effectiveness of this mucosal surface, including the physical anatomy of the barrier, cellular immunity, soluble factors, and interactions between the epithelial barrier and the local microenvironment, including mucus and host microbiota. Any defects in barrier integrity or function can rapidly lead to an increase in acquisition risk, or with established infection may result in increased pathogenesis, morbidities, or mortality. Indeed, a key feature to all aspects of HIV infection from transmission to pathogenesis is disruption and/or dysfunction of mucosal barriers. Herein, we will detail the host-pathogen relationship of HIV and mucosal barriers in both of these scenarios. © 2015. Source


Mustari M.J.,Washington National Primate Research Center | Mustari M.J.,University of Washington | Ono S.,Washington National Primate Research Center
Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences | Year: 2011

The visual and oculomotor systems of primates are immature at birth and sensitive to injury. If synergistic interactions between visual and oculomotor systems are compromised during the first months of life, disorders in eye alignment, gaze holding, and smooth pursuit (SP) follow. Here we consider some potential neural mechanisms supporting SP and associated vestibular ocular reflex (VOR) behavior in normal and strabismic monkeys. Experimental strabismus was created by prism goggle wearing or eye muscle surgery in rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta). SP and cancellation of the VOR were highly asymmetric in strabismic monkeys during monocular viewing conditions. Similar asymmetric SP and VOR cancellation could be produced in normal monkeys by delivering unilateral muscimol injections to the dorsolateral pontine nucleus (DLPN). We suggest that failure to develop balanced cortical-brainstem circuits in strabismus accounts for many of the components of infantile strabismus syndrome. © 2011 New York Academy of Sciences. Source


Hass C.A.,University of Washington | Horwitz G.D.,University of Washington | Horwitz G.D.,Washington National Primate Research Center
Journal of Vision | Year: 2011

Microsaccades can elevate contrast detection thresholds of human observers and modulate the activity of neurons in monkey visual cortex. Whether microsaccades elevate contrast detection thresholds in monkey observers is not known and bears on the interpretation of neurophysiological experiments. To answer this question, we trained two monkeys to perform a 2AFC contrast detection task. Performance was worse on trials in which a microsaccade occurred during the stimulus presentation. The magnitude of the effect was modest (threshold changes of <0.2 log unit) and color specific: achromatic sensitivity was impaired, but red-green sensitivity was not. To explore the neural basis of this effect, we recorded the responses of individual V1 neurons to a white noise stimulus. Microsaccades produced a suppression of spiking activity followed by an excitatory rebound that was similar for L - M cone-opponent and L + M nonopponent V1 neurons. We conclude that microsaccades in the monkey increase luminance contrast detection thresholds and modulate the spiking activity of V1 neurons, but the luminance specificity of the behavioral suppression is likely implemented downstream of V1. © ARVO. Source


Adams Waldorf K.M.,University of Washington | Adams Waldorf K.M.,Washington National Primate Research Center | Rubens C.E.,Global Alliance to Prevent Prematurity and Stillbirth | Rubens C.E.,University of Washington | Gravett M.G.,University of Washington
BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology | Year: 2011

Preterm birth is the most important direct cause of neonatal mortality and remains a major challenge for obstetrics and global health. Intrauterine infection causes approximately 50% of early preterm births. Animal models using pregnant mice, rabbits or sheep demonstrate the key link between infection and premature birth, but differ in the mechanisms of parturition and placental structure from humans. The nonhuman primate (NHP) is a powerful model which emulates many features of human placentation and parturition. The contributions of the NHP model to preterm birth research are reviewed, emphasising the role of infections and the potential development of preventative and therapeutic strategies. © RCOG 2010 BJOG An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology. Source


Schiller D.,Mount Sinai School of Medicine | Eichenbaum H.,Boston University | Buffalo E.A.,Washington National Primate Research Center | Davachi L.,New York University | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Neuroscience | Year: 2015

More than 50 years of research have led to the general agreement that the hippocampus contributes to memory, but there has been a major schism among theories of hippocampal function over this time. Some researchers argue that the hippocampus plays a broad role in episodic and declarative memory, whereas others argue for a specific role in the creation of spatial cognitive maps and navigation. Although both views have merit, neither provides a complete account of hippocampal function. Guided by recent reviews that attempt to bridge between these views, here we suggest that reconciliation can be accomplished by exploring hippocampal function from the perspective of Tolman’s (1948) original conception of a cognitive map as organizing experience and guiding behavior across all domains of cognition.Weemphasize recent studies in animals and humans showing that hippocampal networks support a broad range of domains of cognitive maps, that these networks organize specific experiences within the contextually relevant map, and that network activity patterns reflect behavior guided through cognitive maps. These results are consistent with a framework that bridges theories of hippocampal function by conceptualizing the hippocampus as organizing incoming information within the context of a multidimensional cognitive map of spatial, temporal, and associational context. © 2015 the authors. Source

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