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Lexington, VA, United States

Washington and Lee University is a private liberal arts university in Lexington, Virginia, United States.Washington and Lee's 325 acre campus sits at the heart of Lexington and abuts the Virginia Military Institute in the Shenandoah Valley region of Virginia between the Blue Ridge Mountains and the Allegheny Mountains. The rural campus is approximately 50 miles from Roanoke, Virginia, 140 miles from Richmond, Virginia, and 180 miles from Washington, DC.Washington and Lee was founded in 1749 as a small classical school by Scots-Irish Presbyterian pioneers, though currently the University maintains no religious affiliation. In 1796, George Washington endowed the struggling academy with a gift of stock. In gratitude, the school was renamed for the first United States President. In 1865, General Robert E. Lee served as president of the college until his death in 1870, prompting the college to be renamed as Washington and Lee University. Washington and Lee is the ninth oldest institution of higher learning in the United States and the second oldest in Virginia.The University consists of three academic units: The College; the Williams School of Commerce, Economics, and Politics; and the School of Law. The University hosts 23 intercollegiate athletic teams which compete as part of the Old Dominion Athletic Conference of the NCAA Division III. Wikipedia.


The health insurance exchange is the centerpiece of the insurance reforms created by the Affordable Care Act. The Small Business Health Options Program (SHOP) is intended to create a marketplace for small, and perhaps eventually large, employers to purchase health insurance for their employees. This paper introduces a collection of articles that illuminate the need for small-business exchanges and discuss how they will function. The paper also describes the difficulties these exchanges will face, as well as the opportunities they will offer to states, employers, and individuals. The success or failure of small-business exchanges may well hinge on how states choose to address these challenges. Source


Greene C.A.,University of Connecticut Health Center | Murdock K.K.,Washington and Lee University
American Journal of Health Behavior | Year: 2013

Objectives: To investigate the role of control beliefs in the relationship between SES and health. Methods: Two different aspects of perceived control - contingency beliefs (locus of control) and competence beliefs (self-efficacy) - were examined in relation to subjective SES and physical health outcomes (subjective health, functional impairment, chronic health problems, and acute health symptoms) in a diverse sample of undergraduates (N=231). Results: Low self-efficacy was directly associated with poorer health outcomes and mediated the relationship between low SES and health, whereas locus of control did not. Conclusions: Health behavior interventions targeting generalized competence beliefs may benefit individuals from low SES backgrounds. Source


Liebgold E.B.,University of Virginia | Brodie III E.D.,University of Virginia | Cabe P.R.,Washington and Lee University
Molecular Ecology | Year: 2011

The local resource competition hypothesis and the local mate competition hypothesis were developed based on avian and mammalian systems to explain sex-biased dispersal. Most avian species show a female bias in dispersal, ostensibly due to resource defence, and most mammals show a male bias, ostensibly due to male-male competition. These findings confound phylogeny with mating strategy; little is known about sex-biased dispersal in other taxa. Resource defence and male-male competition are both intense in Plethodon cinereus, a direct-developing salamander, so we tested whether sex-biased dispersal in this amphibian is consistent with the local resource competition hypothesis (female-biased) or the local mate competition hypothesis (male-biased). Using fine-scale genetic spatial autocorrelation analyses, we found that females were philopatric, showing significant positive genetic structure in the shortest distance classes, with stronger patterns apparent when only territorial females were tested. Males showed no spatial genetic structure over the shortest distances. Mark-recapture observations of P. cinereus over 5 years were consistent with the genetic data: males dispersed farther than females during natal dispersal and 44% of females were recaptured within 1 m of their juvenile locations. We conclude that, in this population of a direct-developing amphibian, females are philopatric and dispersal is male-biased, consistent with the local mate competition hypothesis. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd. Source


Ayoub N.A.,Washington and Lee University | Ayoub N.A.,University of California at Riverside | Garb J.E.,University of Massachusetts Lowell | Kuelbs A.,University of California at Riverside | Hayashi C.Y.,University of California at Riverside
Molecular Biology and Evolution | Year: 2013

Spider silk fibers have impressive mechanical properties and are primarily composed of highly repetitive structural proteins (termed spidroins) encoded by a single gene family. Most characterized spidroin genes are incompletely known because of their extreme size (typically >9 kb) and repetitiveness, limiting understanding of the evolutionary processes that gave rise to their unusual gene architectures. The only complete spidroin genes characterized thus far form the dragline in the Western black widow, Latrodectus hesperus. Here, we describe the first complete gene sequence encoding the aciniform spidroin AcSp1, the primary component of spider prey-wrapping fibers. L. hesperus AcSp1 contains a single enormous (∼19 kb) exon. The AcSp1 repeat sequence is exceptionally conserved between two widow species (∼94% identity) and between widows and distantly related orb-weavers (∼30% identity), consistent with a history of strong purifying selection on its amino acid sequence. Furthermore, the 16 repeats (each 371-375 amino acids long) found in black widow AcSp1 are, on average, >99% identical at the nucleotide level. A combination of stabilizing selection on amino acid sequence, selection on silent sites, and intragenic recombination likely explains the extreme homogenization of AcSp1 repeats. In addition, phylogenetic analyses of spidroin paralogs support a gene duplication event occurring concomitantly with specialization of the aciniform glands and the tubuliform glands, which synthesize egg-case silk. With repeats that are dramatically different in length and amino acid composition from dragline spidroins, our L. hesperus AcSp1 expands the knowledge base for developing silk-based biomimetic technologies. © 2012 The Author. Source


Bateman T.S.,University of Virginia | Hess A.M.,Washington and Lee University
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America | Year: 2015

Scientific journal publications, and their contributions to knowledge, can be described by their depth (specialized, domain-specific knowledge extensions) and breadth (topical scope, including spanning multiple knowledge domains). Toward generating hypotheses about how scientists' personal dispositions would uniquely predict deeper vs. broader contributions to the literature, we assumed that conducting broader studies is generally viewed as less attractive (e.g., riskier) than conducting deeper studies. Study 1 then supported our assumptions: the scientists surveyed considered a hypothetical broader study, compared with an otherwise-comparable deeper study, to be riskier, a less-significant opportunity, and of lower potential importance; they further reported being less likely to pursue it and, in a forced choice, most chose to work on the deeper study. In Study 2, questionnaire measures of medical researchers' personal dispositions and 10 y of PubMed data indicating their publications' topical coverage revealed how dispositions differentially predict depth vs. breadth. Competitiveness predicted depth positively, whereas conscientiousness predicted breadth negatively. Performance goal orientation predicted depth but not breadth, and learning goal orientation contrastingly predicted breadth but not depth. Openness to experience positively predicted both depth and breadth. Exploratory work behavior (the converse of applying and exploiting one's current knowledge) predicted breadth positively and depth negatively. Thus, this research distinguishes depth and breadth of published knowledge contributions, and provides new insights into how scientists' personal dispositions influence research processes and products. © 2015, National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Source

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