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Topeka, KS, United States

Washburn University is a co-educational, public institution of higher learning in Topeka, Kansas, USA. It offers undergraduate and graduate programs, as well as professional programs in law and business. Washburn has 550 faculty members, who teach more than 6,100 undergraduate students and nearly 800 graduate students. The university's assets include a $152 million endowment. Wikipedia.

Young B.A.,Washburn University
Journal of Experimental Zoology Part A: Ecological Genetics and Physiology

Despite being large, heavy-bodied snakes, puff adders (Bitis arietans) are capable of achieving strike velocities and accelerations similar to, or greater than, those of much smaller snakes (means of 2.6 and 72m/sec2, respectively). The mechanistic basis of the strike was examined using high-speed digital videography, coupled with electromyographic (EMG) analysis, of the two main extensors of the vertebral column, the semispinalis and longissimus. Although the strike involves the rapid extension of preformed body curves, the extensor muscles were not electrically active during body extension. The vertebral extensor muscles exhibited bursts of electrical activity before the onset of movement-and quantified features of these EMG signals were significantly related to kinematic aspects of the strike (e.g., acceleration)-however, this electrical activity terminated shortly (50msec) before the onset of movement. It is hypothesized that the prestrike activity of the extensor muscles functions to place the (extensive) musculo-tendon complex of the snake's epaxial muscles under tension, and that the displacement of the body during the strike is due to the elastic recoil of this musculo-tendon complex. Incorporation of this type of elastic recoil would increase the power output of the vertebral extensors. Power amplification of the vertebral extensors may be an evolutionary necessity if a large, heavy-bodied snake, like B. arietans, is going to achieve rapid acceleration during the strike. © 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. Source

Barton J.S.,Washburn University
Journal of Chemical Education

This article describes a comprehensive treatment of experimental enzyme kinetics strongly coupled to electronic data acquisition and use of spreadsheets to organize data and perform linear and nonlinear least-squares analyses, all in a manner that promotes development of important reasoning skills. Kinetic parameters are obtained for the stable enzyme bovine alkaline phosphatase by fitting the dependence of velocity on substrate and inhibitor concentration using regression algorithms of Excel. Copyright © 2011 American Chemical Society and Division of Chemical Education, Inc. Source

The cost of primary total hip replacement products approaches 65% of the total reimbursement. Durability of total hip replacement resides with the acetabular component. This systematic review and meta-analysis determined if the outcomes of durability, function, and adverse events associated with cemented all-polyethylene acetabular components was similar to other acetabular designs, holding other variables constant. Randomized controlled trials only were evaluated. Two independent reviewers collected the data from 6 randomized controlled trials. Appropriate statistical analysis was performed. There was no statistical difference in regard to the outcomes at various time points (≤3, 4-8, and ≥10 years) in the 907 implants evaluated. There does, however, appear to be a trend toward abject failure with cemented all-polyethylene acetabular component implants consistent with findings of increased radiolucencies more than 10years out. The issue of increased radiolucencies over time and failure with these types of implants bears closer scrutiny. © 2012 Elsevier Inc.. Source

Background It is unclear whether there is a clinical benefit to adding hydroxyapatite (HA) coatings to total knee implants, especially with the tibial component, where failure of the implant more often occurs. A systematic review of the literature was undertaken to identify all prospective randomized trials for determining whether the overall clinical results (as a function of durability, function, and adverse events) favored HA-coated tibial components. Methods A comprehensive literature search was performed for the years 1990 to September 16, 2010. We restricted our search to randomized controlled trials involving participants receiving either an HA-coated tibia or other forms of tibial fixation. The primary outcome measures evaluated were durability, function, and acute adverse events. Results Data from 926 evaluable primary total knee implants in 14 studies were analyzed. Using an RSA definition for durability, HA-coated tibial components (porous or press-fit) without screw fixation were less likely to be unstable at 2 years than porous and cemented metal-backed tibial components (RR = 0.58, 95% CI: 0.340.98; p = 0.04, I 2 = 39%, M-H random effects model). There was no significant difference in durability, as measured from revision and evaluated at 2 and 810 years, between groups. Also, functional status using different validated measures showed no significant difference at 2 and 5 years, no matter what measure was used. Lastly, there was no significant difference in adverse events. Limitations included small numbers of evaluable patients (≤ 50) in 7 of the 14 trials identified, and a lack of "hard" evidence of durability with need for replacement (i.e. frank failure, pain, or loss of functionality). Interpretation In patients > 65 years of age, an HA-coated tibial implant may provide better durability than other forms of tibial fixation. Larger trials should be undertaken comparing the long-term durability, function, and adverse events of HA-coated implants with those of other porous-coated tibial implants in younger, more active OA patients. © 2011 Nordic Orthopaedic Federation. Source

It has been assumed that less intense levels of care for managing heart failure result in a lowering of the overall costs for this care in the United States. The objective of this review was to determine whether this assumption is correct. A systematic review was performed using Medline, technology assessment Web sites, and relevant cardiovascular and heart failure journals from the year 2000 to the present. US randomized controlled trials where costs were evaluated as one of the endpoints were included. Data were collected using Cochrane Review characteristics of included studies and risk of bias assessment forms. Cost data from each trial were converted to a uniform cost definition and year. Meta-analysis was performed where appropriate. Ten trials were identified evaluating costs at various time points (3, 6, and 12 months). Meta-analysis of trials demonstrated no difference in costs for care, no matter the patient condition or settings. In high-quality trials examining costs, there may be a shifting in costs from more expensive care settings to less expensive care settings without savings to the healthcare system. Larger and longer-term trials should be undertaken to understand this issue.© 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Source

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