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Waseda University , abbreviated as Sōdai , is a private university mainly located in Shinjuku, Tokyo, Japan. As the second private university to be founded in Japan, Waseda University is considered to be one of Japan's most prestigious universities, consistently ranking amongst the top universities in Japanese university rankings. The university has many notable alumni in Japan, with seven Prime Ministers of Japan and many CEOs, including Tadashi Yanai, the CEO of UNIQLO.Established in 1882 as the Tōkyō Senmon Gakkō or Tōkyō College by Ōkuma Shigenobu, the school was renamed Waseda University in 1902 after the founder's hometown village. The university consists of 13 undergraduate schools and 23 graduate schools, and is one of the 13 universities in the Japanese Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology's "Global 30" Project.The university holds a memorandum of agreement with Cambridge University, the University of Hong Kong, and Yale University among its 432 partnership institutions in 79 countries. Wikipedia.


Aprile E.,Columbia University | Doke T.,Waseda University
Reviews of Modern Physics | Year: 2010

This article reviews the progress made over the last 20 years in the development and applications of liquid xenon detectors in particle physics, astrophysics, and medical imaging experiments. A summary of the fundamental properties of liquid xenon as radiation detection medium, in light of the most current theoretical and experimental information is first provided. After an introduction of the different type of liquid xenon detectors, a review of past, current, and future experiments using liquid xenon to search for rare processes and to image radiation in space and in medicine is given. Each application is introduced with a survey of the underlying scientific motivation and experimental requirements before reviewing the basic characteristics and expected performance of each experiment. Within this decade it appears likely that large volume liquid xenon detectors operated in different modes will contribute to answering some of the most fundamental questions in particle physics, astrophysics, and cosmology, fulfilling the most demanding detection challenges. From detectors based solely on liquid xenon (LXe) scintillation, such as in the MEG experiment for the search of the rare " μ→eγ " decay, currently the largest liquid xenon detector in operation, and in the XMASS experiment for dark matter detection, to the class of time projection chambers which exploit both scintillation and ionization of LXe, such as in the XENON dark matter search experiment and in the Enriched Xenon Observatory for neutrinoless double beta decay, unrivaled performance and important contributions to physics in the next few years are anticipated. © 2010 The American Physical Society. Source


Ishikawa H.,Waseda University
IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence | Year: 2011

We introduce a transformation of general higher-order Markov random field with binary labels into a first-order one that has the same minima as the original. Moreover, we formalize a framework for approximately minimizing higher-order multilabel MRF energies that combines the new reduction with the fusion-move and QPBO algorithms. While many computer vision problems today are formulated as energy minimization problems, they have mostly been limited to using first-order energies, which consist of unary and pairwise clique potentials, with a few exceptions that consider triples. This is because of the lack of efficient algorithms to optimize energies with higher-order interactions. Our algorithm challenges this restriction that limits the representational power of the models so that higher-order energies can be used to capture the rich statistics of natural scenes. We also show that some minimization methods can be considered special cases of the present framework, as well as comparing the new method experimentally with other such techniques. © 2006 IEEE. Source


Stockwell G.,Waseda University
Language Learning and Technology | Year: 2010

While problems such as small screens and inconvenient keypads have been pointed out by researchers (e.g., Thornton & Houser, 2002), we still have little knowledge of how the mobile platform affects the way in which activities are completed and how learners make decisions about using mobile phones. Stockwell (2007b) provided preliminary evidence that learners generally require more time to complete vocabulary activities and achieved slightly lower scores on mobile phones when compared to completing the same activities on desktop computers, but data in the study were limited. The current study examines 175 pre-intermediate learners of English who could choose to complete vocabulary activities on either a mobile phone or a desktop computer to identify the effect of the mobile platform. Data were collected from three cohorts of learners over a three-year period, and learner activity was analysed for the amount of time required to complete activities on both platforms and the scores they achieved for the activities. The results of the study are discussed in terms of how the platform affects learners' ability to complete tasks, whether continued usage contributes to improved performance or sustained usage of the mobile platform over time. Trends across the yearly cohorts were also identified. © 2010. Source


Shibata Y.,Waseda University
Journal of Mathematical Fluid Mechanics | Year: 2013

In this paper, we prove unique existence of solutions to the generalized resolvent problem of the Stokes operator with first order boundary condition in a general domain Ω of the N-dimensional Eulidean space ℝN, N ≥ 2. This type of problem arises in the mathematical study of the flow of a viscous incompressible one-phase fluid with free surface. Moreover, we prove uniform estimates of solutions with respect to resolvent parameter Λ varying in a sector ∑σ, λ0 = {λ ∈ ℂ |arg λ| < π-σ, |λ| ≥ λ0}, where 0 < σ < π/2 and λ0 ≥ 1. The essential assumption of this paper is the existence of a unique solution to a suitable weak Dirichlet problem, namely it is assumed the unique existence of solution p ∈ Ŵ1 q,Γ, (Ω) to the variational problem: (∇p, ∇ φ) = (f, ∇φ) for any φ ∈ Ŵ1 q',Γ(Ω). Here, 1 < q < ∞, q' = q/(q-1), Ŵ1 q,Γ(Ω) is the closure of Ŵ1 q,Γ(Ω) = {p ∈ Ŵ1 q(Ω) |p|Γ = 0} by the semi-norm ||∇ ̇ ||Lq(Ω), and Γ is the boundary of Ω. In fact, we show that the unique solvability of such a Dirichlet problem is necessary for the unique existence of a solution to the resolvent problem with uniform estimate with respect to resolvent parameter varying in (λ0, ∞). Our assumption is satisfied for any q ∈ (1, ∞) by the following domains: whole space, half space, layer, bounded domains, exterior domains, perturbed half space, perturbed layer, but for a general domain, we do not know any result about the unique existence of solutions to the weak Dirichlet problem except for q = 2. © 2013 Springer Basel. Source


Sonoike K.,Waseda University
Physiologia Plantarum | Year: 2011

The photoinhibition of Photosystem I (PSI) drew less attention compared with that of Photosystem II (PSII). This could be ascribed to several reasons, e.g. limited combinations of plant species and environmental conditions that cause PSI photoinhibition, the non-regulatory aspect of PSI photoinhibition, and methodological difficulty to determine the accurate activity of PSI under stress conditions. However, the photoinhibition of PSI could be more dangerous than that of PSII because of the very slow recovery rate of PSI. This article is intended to introduce such characteristics of PSI photoinhibition with special emphasis on the relationship between two photosystems as well as the protective mechanism of PSI in vivo. Although the photoinhibition of PSI could be induced only in specific conditions and specific plant species in intact leaves, PSI itself is quite susceptible to photoinhibition in isolated thylakoid membranes. PSI seems to be well protected from photoinhibition in vivo in many plant species and many environmental conditions. This is quite understandable because photoinhibition of PSI is not only irreversible but also the potential cause of many secondary damages. This point would be different from the case of PSII photoinhibition, which could be regarded as one of the regulatory mechanisms under stressed as well as non-stressed conditions. © Physiologia Plantarum 2010. Source

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