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Sakai H.,Nara Medical University | Sakai H.,Waseda Bioscience Research Institute in Singapore | Sakai H.,Waseda University | Li B.,Waseda Bioscience Research Institute in Singapore | And 2 more authors.
Bioconjugate Chemistry | Year: 2014

Electron-energy-rich coenzymes in cells, NADH and NADPH, are re-energized repeatedly through the Embden-Meyerhof and pentose-phosphate glycolytic pathways, respectively. This study demonstrates extraction of their electron energies in red blood cells (RBCs) for in vivo extracellular chemical reactions using an electron mediator shuttling across the biomembrane. Hemoglobin-vesicles (HbVs) are an artificial oxygen carrier encapsulating purified and concentrated Hb solution in liposomes. Because of the absence of a metHb-reducing enzymatic system in HbV, HbO2 gradually autoxidizes to form metHb. Wistar rats received HbV suspension (10 mL/kg body weight) intravenously. At the metHb level of around 50%, methylene blue [MB+; 3,7-bis(dimethylamino) phenothiazinium chloride] was injected. The level of metHb quickly decreased to around 16% in 40 min, remaining for more than 5 h. In vitro mixing of HbV/MB+ with RBCs recreated the in vivo metHb reduction, but not with plasma. NAD(P)H levels in RBCs decreased after metHb reduction. The addition of glucose facilitated metHb reduction. Liposome-encapsulated NAD(P)H, a model of RBC, reduced metHb in HbV in the presence of MB+. These results indicate that (i) NAD(P)H in RBCs reacts with MB+ to convert it to leukomethylene blue (MBH); (ii) MB+ and MBH shuttle freely between RBC and HbV across the hydrophobic lipid membranes; and (iii) MBH is transferred into HbV and reduces metHb in HbV. Four other electron mediators with appropriate redox potentials appeared to be as effective as MB+ was, indicating the possibility for further optimization of electron mediators. We established an indirect enzymatic metHb reducing system for HbV using unlimited endogenous electrons created in RBCs in combination with an effective electron mediator that prolongs the functional lifespan of HbV in blood circulation. © 2014 American Chemical Society.

Fujihara M.,Red Cross | Takahashi D.,Red Cross | Abe H.,Red Cross | Sakai H.,Waseda Bioscience Research Institute in Singapore | And 4 more authors.
Artificial Organs | Year: 2014

Hemoglobin vesicles (HbVs), artificial oxygen carriers encapsulating concentrated Hb solution on phospholipid vesicles (liposomes), are promising candidates for clinically useful transfusion. Although HbV infusion transiently suppressed the proliferative response of rat splenic T-cells to concanavalin A or keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH), a T-cell-dependent antigen, in ex vivo culture conditions, HbV infusion did not affect the primary IgG antibody response. We extended our assessment of the effects of HbV infusion on the systemic immune response using primary and secondary responses to KLH in rats. We observed that the generation of primary anti-KLH IgM antibody in HbV-infused rats was not suppressed but was instead higher than those in saline-infused rats. Furthermore, HbV infusion did not suppress the increase of IgG subclass of KLH antibody in secondary response. The T cell response to KLH of bulk spleen cells, as derived from 2-3 months after secondary KLH immunization, was unaffected by infusion of HbV, suggesting that HbV loading has no suppressive effect on homeostatic survival of memory T-cells against KLH. These results indicate that HbV is highly biocompatible in systemic immune responses in rats. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and International Center for Artificial Organs and Transplantation.

Sakai H.,Waseda University | Sakai H.,Waseda Bioscience Research Institute in Singapore | Suzuki Y.,Nihon Bioresearch Inc | Sou K.,Waseda University | Kano M.,Nihon Bioresearch Inc
Journal of Biomedical Materials Research - Part A | Year: 2012

Intravenous injection of liposomes into pigs reportedly induces anaphylactoid reactions at a small dose, resulting in circulatory disorder. Hemoglobin vesicles (HbVs) are artificial oxygen carriers encapsulating Hb solution in liposomes. It is not known how pigs respond to HbV injection. We aimed to analyze the cardiopulmonary responses to small injections of HbV and empty vesicle (EV) and compare them with a conventional liposome (CL) with a different lipid composition containing phosphatidylglycerol (PG). PG is known to induce an anaphylactoid reaction in pigs. Nine male miniature pigs were used for HbV, EV, and CL injections. The anesthetized pig received 0.05 and 0.5 mL/kg of a test fluid for the first and second injection with a 70 min interval. Results show that CL repeatedly induced significant increases in systemic and pulmonary arterial pressures and vascular resistances and decreases in heart rate and cardiac output (CO). HbV and EV at the first injection-induced pulmonary hypertension, with significantly smaller changes in systemic arterial pressure and CO. No remarkable response was visible at the second injection in spite of a larger dosage. Only CL repeatedly induced thrombocytopenia, leukocytopenia, and plasma thromboxane B2 increase resulting from complement activation, although HbV and EV showed smaller changes. Transmittance electron micrograph of pulmonary intravascular macrophages (PIMs) showed phagocytosis of HbV, indicating the possibility that nonspecific phagocytosis by PIMs relates to the responses observed after the first injection. HbV does not induce a significant anaphylactoid reaction in pigs compared with CL because of the different lipid composition. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Araki J.,University of Tokyo | Sakai H.,Waseda Bioscience Research Institute in Singapore | Sakai H.,Nara Medical University | Takeuchi D.,University of Tokyo | And 9 more authors.
Transplantation | Year: 2015

Formanaging major limb amputation, it is important to consider ischemic time and reperfusion injury by free radicals after the blood supply is reestablished. State of preservation during transplant surgery is crucial for the survival and function of the tissue, graft, or organ. In this study, we confirmed the effect of intermittent blood flow in rat ischemic hind limb and developed a new oxygenic preservation method using artificial oxygen carrying hemoglobin vesicles (HbVs).Methods.We first compared a continuous ischemic model and an intermittent reflow model on rat hind limb. At postoperative day 7, hind limbs were evaluated. Next, we performed total amputation, normothermic preservation by perfusion with extracellular-trehalose-Kyoto (ETK) solution or HbV, and microsurgical replantation of the left hind limb. Venous efflux was analyzed, the amputated limb evaluated after 6 hr perfusion, and the replantation outcome of eachmodelwas compared. Results. In our early study, 24 hr continuous ischemicmodel necrotized, but intermittent reflowmodel almost survived except for partial necrosis at postoperative day 7. Scar tissue on the right limb showed myonecrosis and infiltration of inflammatory cells. Skeletal muscle on the right limb was structurally well maintained. Hemoglobin vesicle-treated limbs appeared to have much better oxygenation than ETK-treated limbs. Aerobic respiration remained in the amputated limb, gastrocnemius muscle was well maintained, and the overall replantation was successful in the limb preserved using HbV.Conclusion. These studies demonstrated that oxygenic preservation is effective for rat ischemic limb, suggesting that this method may be useful for other replantation and transplantation surgeries. © 2015 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc.

Sakai H.,Waseda Bioscience Research Institute in Singapore | Sakai H.,Waseda University | Sou K.,Waseda University | Horinouchi H.,Keio University | And 2 more authors.
Artificial Organs | Year: 2012

The hemoglobin-vesicle (HbV) is an artificial oxygen carrier encapsulating a concentrated hemoglobin solution in a phospholipid vesicle (liposome). During or after transporting oxygen, macrophages capture HbVs in the reticuloendothelial system (RES) with an approximate circulation half-life of 3 days. Animal studies show transient splenohepatomegaly after large doses, but HbVs were completely degraded, and the components were excreted in a few weeks. If a blood substitute is used for emergency use until red blood cell transfusion becomes available or for temporary use such as a priming fluid for an extracorporeal circuit, then one option would be to remove HbVs from the circulating blood without waiting a few weeks for removal by the RES. Using a mixture of beagle dog whole blood and HbV, we tested the separation of HbV using a centrifugal Fresenius cell separator and an ultrafiltration system. The cell separator system separated the layers of blood cell components from the HbV-containing plasma layer by centrifugal force, and then the HbV was removed from plasma phase by the ultrafiltration system. The HbVs (250-280nm) are larger than plasma proteins (<22nm diameter) but smaller than blood cell components (>3μm). The size of HbVs is advantageous to be separated from the original blood components, and the separated blood components can be returned to circulation. © 2011, Copyright the Authors. Artificial Organs © 2011, International Center for Artificial Organs and Transplantation and Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

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