Bohlmann H.,University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Vienna |
Sobczak M.,Warsaw University of Life Sciences
Frontiers in Plant Science | Year: 2014
Plant parasitic cyst nematodes (genera Heterodera and Globodera) are serious pests for many crops. They enter the host roots as migratory second stage juveniles (J2) and migrate intracellularly toward the vascular cylinder using their stylet and a set of cell wall degrading enzymes produced in the pharyngeal glands. They select an initial syncytial cell (ISC) within the vascular cylinder or inner cortex layers to induce the formation of a multicellular feeding site called a syncytium, which is the only source of nutrients for the parasite during its entire life. A syncytium can consist of more than hundred cells whose protoplasts are fused together through local cell wall dissolutions. While the nematode produces a cocktail of cell wall degrading and modifying enzymes during migration through the root, the cell wall degradations occurring during syncytium development are due to the plants own cell wall modifying and degrading proteins. The outer syncytial cell wall thickens to withstand the increasing osmotic pressure inside the syncytium. Furthermore, pronounced cell wall ingrowths can be formed on the outer syncytial wall at the interface with xylem vessels. They increase the surface of the symplast-apoplast interface, thus enhancing nutrient uptake into the syncytium. Processes of cell wall degradation, synthesis and modification in the syncytium are facilitated by a variety of plant proteins and enzymes including expansins, glucanases, pectate lyases and cellulose synthases, which are produced inside the syncytium or in cells surrounding the syncytium. © 2014 Bohlmann and Sobczak.
Kaluza J.,Warsaw University of Life Sciences |
Akesson A.,Karolinska Institutet |
Wolk A.,Karolinska Institutet
Circulation: Heart Failure | Year: 2014
Background-Epidemiological studies of red meat consumption in relation to risk of heart failure (HF) are scarce. We examined the associations of unprocessed and processed red meat consumption with HF incidence and mortality in men. Methods and Results-The population-based prospective Cohort of Swedish Men included 37 035 men, aged 45 to 79 years, with no history of HF, ischemic heart disease, or cancer at baseline. Meat consumption was assessed with a selfadministered questionnaire in 1997. During a mean follow-up of 11.8 years, 2891 incidences and 266 deaths from HF were ascertained. Consumption of processed meat was statistically significant positively associated with risk of HF in both age- and multivariable-adjusted models. Men who consumed ≥75 g/d processed meat compared with those who consumed <25 g/d had a 1.28 (95% confidence interval, 1.10-1.48, P trend=0.01) higher risk of HF incidence and 2.43 (95% confidence interval, 1.52-3.88, P trend<0.001) higher risk of HF mortality. The consumption of unprocessed meat was not associated with increased risk of incidence of HF or mortality from HF. Conclusions-Findings from this prospective study of men with low to moderate red meat consumption indicate that processed red meat consumption, but not unprocessed red meat, is associated with an increased risk of HF. © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.
Stobiecka M.,Warsaw University of Life Sciences
Biosensors and Bioelectronics | Year: 2014
Recently discovered effects of plasmonic field on molecular fluorescence offer new insights into the optical interactions at the nanoscale which can help solving problems encountered in widely applied fluorescent labeling of biomolecules for studying life processes in biomedicine and pharmacy. In this work, we have focused on exploring a novel sensitivity-enhancing phenomenon based on protein modulation of plasmon-controlled fluorescence. We have demonstrated that a protein (cytochrome c (Cytc c) or bovine serum albumin (BSA)) can be employed to gate fluorescence resonance energy transfer occurring from a fluorescein isothiocyanate fluorescent dye to plasmonic citrate-capped gold nanoparticles. By applying plasmonic field gated by protein, facilitated by the formation of multi-shell nanoparticles, (AuNP@Cit/Cytc-FITC or AuNP@Cit/BSA-FITC), low limits of detection for Cyt c (LOD=370. pM) and for BSA (LOD=1.8. nM) have been achieved even for large fluorophore:protein ratios, up to 30:1 (over-labeling), normally plagued with energy migration and background fluorescence problems. Control experiments confirming adsorption of proteins on AuNPs have been performed using light scattering and piezometric techniques. The proposed nanoassay may be applied in microanalysis of trace amounts of proteins, e.g. in microfluidic devices. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.
Dzik J.M.,Warsaw University of Life Sciences
Frontiers in Immunology | Year: 2014
Two main types of macrophage functions are known: classical (M1), producing nitric oxide, NO, and M2, in which arginase activity is primarily expressed. Ornithine, the product of arginase, is a substrate for synthesis of polyamines and collagen, important for growth and ontogeny of animals. M2 macrophages, expressing high level of mitochondrial arginase, have been implicated in promoting cell division and deposition of collagen during ontogeny and wound repair. Arginase expression is the default mode of tissue macrophages, but can also be amplified by signals, such as IL-4/13 or transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) that accelerates wound healing and tissue repair. In worms, the induction of collagen gene is coupled with induction of immune response genes, both depending on the same TGF-β-like pathway. This suggests that the main function of M2 "heal" type macrophages is originally connected with the TGF-β superfamily of proteins, which are involved in regulation of tissue and organ differentiation in embryogenesis. Excretory-secretory products of metazoan parasites are able to induce M2-type of macrophage responses promoting wound healing without participation of Th2 cytokines IL-4/IL-13. The expression of arginase in lower animals can be induced by the presence of parasite antigens and TGF-β signals leading to collagen synthesis. This also means that the main proteins, which, in primitive metazoans, are involved in regulation of tissue and organ differentiation in embryogenesis are produced by innate immunity. The signaling function of NO is known already from the sponge stage of animal evolution. The cytotoxic role of NO molecule appeared later, as documented in immunity of marine mollusks and some insects. This implies that the M2-wound healing promoting function predates the defensive role of NO, a characteristic of M1 macrophages. Understanding when and how the M1 and M2 activities came to be in animals is useful for understanding how macrophage immunity, and immune responses operate. Vertebrate macrophages play an innate defense role against various pathogens. They perform phagocytosis, bacterial killing, defend against protozoan and metazoan parasites and take part in wound healing. To fulfill such protective functions, "resting" macrophages must be activated. Two main types of macrophage functions have been identified: classical (M1), producing nitric oxide (NO), and M2-type, in which arginase (producing the healing molecule, ornithine) is expressed (1, 2). These responses from macrophages demand different cascades of biochemical reactions, which are regulated by specific sets of cytokines. M1 type can be stimulated by pathogen associated molecular patterns (PAMP) or amplified by T cell cytokines, such as IFN-γ. In contrast, M2 activity is the resident tissue type, and can be amplified by molecules such as IL-4/IL-13, and transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β). Local signals polarize macrophages to an appropriate response. These immune functions are indispensible for both life of an individual and lasting of a species. It is apparent that macrophages, as well as other cells of innate immune response acting in vertebrates, have their deep evolutionary roots in cells serving similar function in ancestral invertebrates. Various names have been used to define such cells in different invertebrate groups, i.e., hemocyte, coelomocyte, amebocyte, or plasmatocyte, collectively named immunocytes (3). However, regardless of the terminology, they perform the same immune functions, and are of similar morphology. Macrophages, the professional phagocytic cells in humans, derive from circulating monocytes or by self renewal in the tissues, and acquire new morphological and physiological characteristics according to the organs and microenvironments, in which they settle. However, this unitarian origin is uncertain for circulating and tissue phagocytes (immunocytes) in invertebrates (3). Immunocytes and macrophages share ability to be activated by non-self material and to react through the release a variety of biologically active molecules such as cytokines, NO, reactive oxygen species, hydrolytic enzymes, and neuroendocrine mediators. In vertebrate immunity, various organs and immune cells are involved, while all the molecules determining invertebrate immune response are harbored in the immunocytes. From the perspective of this review, the multifunctional role of invertebrate cells seems instructive in respect to its inheritance by vertebrates. In search for selection pressure for macrophage differentiation into M1 and M2 phenotypes, it is tempting to look back to recognize which of the functions of M1 macrophages is aligned straight with invertebrate immunocytes and is found possibly in the most primitive invertebrates. Accumulated evidences strongly suggest that a primary function of M2 macrophages is tissue repair and wound healing (4, 5). This process demands polyamines and collagen synthesis what strongly depend on arginase activity (6). © 2014 Dzik.
Zakowska-Biemans S.,Warsaw University of Life Sciences
British Food Journal | Year: 2011
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine consumers' motives for food choice and to reveal beliefs about organic food. Design/methodology/approach: The paper is based on results of a survey conducted on a sample of 1,010 Polish consumers. The questionnaire included items to identify food choice motives, attributes of organic food and barriers to buy organic products. The data collected was analyzed with SPSS 15.0 using descriptive statistics and carrying out two step cluster analysis to identify consumers' segments. To get better insight into factors decisive to organic food consumption, the segments were profiled according to declared consumption of organic food. Findings: Sensory factors were the most important motives for food choice, followed by price and safety. Consumers with convenience and price orientation in their food choices were less inclined to buy organic products while consumers open to novelties and willing to try new foods more often declared to buy organic products. Polish consumers conceptualize organic food referring to aspects such as healthiness and safety. Despite the developments observed in the organic food sector in Poland, the information related that barriers to buy organic food still prevail. Research limitations/implications: The choice of validated scale items related to food choice and food related lifestyle was limited and there is a need to further explore Polish consumers food related lifestyle and its relation to organic food consumption. Cluster analysis used to identify segments is a method not based on probabilistic statistics, so it is the researcher's interpretation that is most relevant. Originality/value: Prior research concerning Polish consumers food choices with relation to organic food consumption is very limited. Such information is particularly pertinent to food manufacturers and distributors to support developing communication strategies to stimulate organic food market development in Poland. © Emerald Group Publishing Limited.
Zajaczkowska U.,Warsaw University of Life Sciences
Planta | Year: 2014
Cellular ordering and tissue reorganization during the overgrowth process of the transverse surfaces of Douglas fir stumps in forest stand was studied. At the beginning of stump overgrowth, the produced parenchymatous cells form an unorganized tissue. Particular parenchyma cells start arranging into more ordered structures which resemble rays. Application of digital image analysis software based on structure tensor was used. The analysis showed that at this stage of tissue development, cellular elements display a wide range of angular orientation values and attain very low coherency coefficients. The progress of the tissue differentiation process is associated with the formation of local regions with tracheids oriented circularly around the rays. This coincides with an increase in the range of angular orientations and greater values of coherency coefficients. At the most advanced stage of tissue development, with tracheids arranged parallelly in longitudinal strands, the degree of cell ordering is the highest what is manifested by the greatest values attained by coherency coefficients, and the narrow range of angular orientations. It is suggested that the ray-like structures could act as organizing centers in the morphogenetic field responsible for differentiation of the overgrowth tissue. The circular pattern of tracheids around rays in the initial phase of tissue development can be interpreted in terms of local rotation of the morphogenetic field which afterward is transformed into irrotational field. This transformation is noted by the presence of tracheids arranged parallelly in longitudinal strands. The possible involvement of a mechanism controlling cell polarity with respect to auxin transport is discussed.Main conclusion: Stump overgrowth may serve as a unique model for studying cellular reorganization and mechanisms responsible for cell polarity changes during the process of vascular tissue differentiation from initially unorganized parenchymatous cells. © 2014, The Author(s).
Sklodowski J.J.,Warsaw University of Life Sciences
Restoration Ecology | Year: 2014
A 2-year study to evaluate the effect of four soil preparation techniques and four species compositions in a pine plantation with an admixture of broad-leaved trees on the species diversity and structure of ground beetle assemblages (Carabidae) was conducted. The soil preparation techniques were full shallow agricultural plowing (25 cm deep with three variants-plowing, plowing with ridge formation, and plowing with subsoiling) and full deep plowing (50 cm deep). The plantation species compositions were pine 7000/hectare, pine 5500/hectare+broad-leaved species 1500/hectare, pine 4000/hectare+broad-leaved species 3000/hectare, and pine 2000/hectare+broad-leaved species 5000/hectare. Carabidae were sampled monthly with pitfall traps in the plantation from May to November in 2003 and 2004-the fourth and fifth years after afforestation. Only the soil preparation technique affected species diversity. The mean number of carabid species and the Shannon-Wiener index were higher in the case of the full agriculture plowing with subsoiling treatment and the full agriculture plowing with ridge formation than in the full shallow agriculture plowing. The structure of the assemblages was dependent on the soil preparation technique, but not on tree species composition. In general, deep plowing and shallow plowing with subsoiling were conducive to an increase in the proportion of individuals representing late succession species, whereas shallow plowing favored early succession species. The results suggest that for effective plantation of a managed stand, deep plowing or shallow plowing with subsoiling is more beneficial for afforestation of fallow fields than typical shallow agricultural plowing. © 2013 Society for Ecological Restoration.
Grodzik M.,Warsaw University of Life Sciences
International journal of nanomedicine | Year: 2011
The objective of the study was to determine the effect of carbon nanoparticles produced by different methods on the growth of brain tumor and the development of blood vessels. Glioblastoma multiforme cells were cultured on the chorioallantoic membrane of chicken embryo and after 7 days of incubation, were treated with carbon nanoparticles administered in ovo to the tumor. Both types of nanoparticles significantly decreased tumor mass and volume, and vessel area. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis showed downregulated fibroblast growth factor-2 and vascular endothelial growth factor expression at the messenger ribonucleic acid level. The present results demonstrate antiangiogenic activity of carbon nanoparticles, making them potential factors for anticancer therapy.
Szterk A.,Warsaw University of Life Sciences
Food and Chemical Toxicology | Year: 2013
During grilling of the roast beef the following heterocyclic aromatic amines were found: IQ=200.6ng 100g-1, MeIQx=719.8ng 100g-1, MeIQ=532.9ng 100g-1, 4.8-diMeIQx=755.4ng 100g-1, norharmane=507.0ng 100g-1, harmane=1952.6ng 100g-1, Phe-P 1=263.7ng 100g-1, Trp-P 2=559.2ng 100g-1, PhIP=1179.8ng 100g-1 and AαC=51.7ng 100g-1. Their content was tested by using the method based on alkaline hydrolysis of the sample and the method based on solvent extraction of the grilled meat samples at different temperatures (without hydrolysis). The study showed that the heterocyclic aromatic amines produced during the grilling of beef are in a free form and chemically or physico-chemically bonded. The chemical forms of HAA formed in food have never been studied. For the purpose of the partial confirmation that HAA may be chemically or physico-chemically bonded, grilled beef samples were digested in vitro in model segments of the human digestive tract. Digestive enzymes, particularly proteolytic enzymes caused a statistically significant increase of free HAA determined by using solvent extraction without prior chemical hydrolysis of the sample. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.
Gorecka M.,Warsaw University of Life Sciences
Philosophical transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological sciences | Year: 2014
The rapid induction of the bundle sheath cell (BSC)-specific expression of ASCORBATE PEROXIDASE2 (APX2) in high light (HL)-exposed leaves of Arabidopsis thaliana is, in part, regulated by the hormone abscisic acid (ABA) produced by vascular parenchyma cells. In this study, we provide more details of the ABA signalling that regulates APX2 expression and consider its importance in the photosynthetic responses of BSCs and whole leaves. This was done using a combination of analyses of gene expression and chlorophyll a fluorescence of both leaves and individual BSCs and mesophyll cells. The regulation of APX2 expression occurs by the combination of the protein kinase SnRK2.6 (OST1):protein phosphatase 2C ABI2 and a Gα (GPA1)-regulated signalling pathway. The use of an ost1-1/gpa1-4 mutant established that these signalling pathways are distinct but interact to regulate APX2. In HL-exposed leaves, BSC chloroplasts were more susceptible to photoinhibition than those of mesophyll cells. The activity of the ABA-signalling network determined the degree of susceptibility of BSCs to photoinhibition by influencing non-photochemical quenching. By contrast, in HL-exposed whole leaves, ABA signalling did not have any major influence on their transcriptomes nor on their susceptibility to photoinhibition, except where guard cell responses were observed.