Swannanoa, NC, United States
Swannanoa, NC, United States

Warren Wilson College is a private four-year liberal arts college near Asheville, North Carolina in the Swannanoa Valley. It is known for its curriculum that combines academics, work and service which requires every student to complete a requisite course of study, work an on-campus job, and perform community service. The college offers classes in a range of disciplines with Environmental Studies and Creative Writing among the most popular.Warren Wilson is one of the few colleges in the United States that requires students to work for the institution in order to graduate, and is one of only seven colleges in the Work Colleges Consortium. The college is notable for its surrounding environment with a 275-acre working farm, market garden, and 625 acres of managed forest that includes 25 miles of hiking trails. Wikipedia.


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This study was designed to answer questions about the patterns of understory diversity in managed forests of southern New England, and the factors that appear associated with those patterns. At the landscape-level, we used plot data to answer questions regarding the spatial distribution of forest understory plant species. Data from a combination of fixed area (understory vegetation) and variable radius (overstory trees) plot methods are combined with site variables for the analysis. Univariate and multivariate statistical methods are used to test for understory diversity relationships with overstory cover types and topography separately, and in combination. Analyses also test for relationships between specific understory species and cover types. In general the understory flora is dominated by four common clonal species that occur across the range of forest cover types: wild sarsaparilla (Aralia nudicaulis L.), Canada mayflower (Maianthemum candense Desf.), star flower (Trientalis borealis Raf.), and partridgeberry (Mitchella repens L.). Results also show that over story composition and structure can be used to assess understory species richness. Species richness follows a general trend among cover types of: hardwood ≥ regenerating forest, hardwood-pine, and pine ≥ mixed ≥ hardwood-hemlock > hemlock. Eastern hemlock (Tsuga canadensis L. Carriere) and mountain laurel (Kalmia latifolia L.) (which decreased in dominance from ridge to valley) both showed negative trends with understory species richness. Topographic position also appears associated with understory floristic patterns (particularly for the hardwood cover type), both in terms of species richness and compositional diversity which both increased from ridge, to midslope, to valley. However, overstory composition (covertype) appears to have a higher order influence on vegetation and mediates the role of topography. The results from this study provide foresters with a better understanding for maintaining floristic diversity and composition of the understory in managed forests. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


Jusko T.A.,National Institute of Environmental Health and Safety | Klebanoff M.A.,Ohio State University | Brock J.W.,Centers for Disease Control and Prevention | Brock J.W.,Warren Wilson College | Longnecker M.P.,National Institute of Environmental Health and Safety
Epidemiology | Year: 2012

BACKGROUND:: Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) continues to be used for control of infectious diseases in several countries. In-utero exposure to DDT and dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE) has been associated with developmental and cognitive impairment among children. We examined this association in an historical cohort in which the level of exposure was greater than in previous studies. METHODS:: The association of in-utero DDT and DDE exposure with infant and child neurodevelopment was examined in 1100 subjects in the Collaborative Perinatal Project, a prospective birth cohort enrolling pregnant women from 12 study centers in the United States from 1959 to 1965. Maternal DDT and DDE concentrations were measured in archived serum specimens. Infant mental and motor development was assessed at age 8 months using the Bayley Scales of Infant Development, and child cognitive development was assessed at age 7 years, using the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children. RESULTS:: Although levels of DDT and DDE were relatively high in this population (median DDT concentration, 8.9 μg/L; DDE, 24.5 μg/L), neither were related to Mental or Psychomotor Development scores on the Bayley Scales nor to Full-Scale Intelligence Quotient at 7 years of age. Categorical analyses showed no evidence of dose-response for either maternal DDT or DDE, and estimates of the association between continuous measures of exposure and neurodevelopment were indistinguishable from 0. CONCLUSIONS:: Adverse associations were not observed between maternal serum DDT and DDE concentrations and offspring neurodevelopment at 8 months or 7 years in this cohort. © 2012 by Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.


Trabert B.,U.S. National Institutes of Health | Longnecker M.P.,U.S. National Institutes of Health | Brock J.W.,Centers for Disease Control and Prevention | Brock J.W.,Warren Wilson College | And 2 more authors.
Environmental Health Perspectives | Year: 2012

Background: The etiologies of the male urogenital anomalies-cryptorchidism and hypospadias-are poorly understood. Given positive associations between chlordane isomers and testicular germ cell tumors, it is reasonable to assume that chlordanes might also be associated with other testicular dysgenesis syndrome disorders, namely cryptorchidism and hypospadias. Objective: To examine whether exposure to in utero chlordane is related to cryptorchidism and hypospadias, we evaluated levels of chlordane derivatives, trans-nonachlor and oxychlordane, among pregnant women enrolled in the Collaborative Perinatal Project (CPP). Methods: From 1959 to 1965, the CPP enrolled pregnant women at 12 U.S. medical centers. We analyzed serum trans-nonachlor and oxychlordane levels measured in third-trimester serum from the mothers of 217 sons with cryptorchidism, 197 sons with hypospadias, and 557 sons with neither condition. Adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals were calculated using conditional logistic regression. Results: The quartile-specific ORs for cryptorchidism or hypospadias show no notable associations with trans-nonachlor or oxychlordane. Further, there were no significant trends with increasing quartile of maternal trans-nonachlor or oxychlordane level in either cryptorchidism or hypospadias (p-trend all > 0.45). Conclusions: The results do not support an association between chlordane levels and cryptorchidism or hypospadias. It is unlikely that current chlordane exposure is related to the development of either anomaly, given that serum chlordane levels at the time of sample collection, the early 1960s, were considerably higher than levels at present.


Bartels P.J.,Warren Wilson College | Nelson D.R.,East Tennessee State University | Exline R.P.,Warren Wilson College
Journal of Zoological Systematics and Evolutionary Research | Year: 2011

Quantitative traits are an important part of tardigrade taxonomy for both heterotardigrades and eutardigrades. Because most quantitative traits vary as a function of body size, variation in body size complicates comparisons between individuals or populations. Thus, body size effects must be eliminated in morphometric analysis. Although ratios (size of character/body size) are often used to attempt this, they only work for the specific case of isometry (i.e. when a structure grows proportionally to body size). Ratios do not eliminate body size effects for allometric (disproportionate) growth. In eutardigrades, body size is highly correlated with the length of the rigid buccal tube, whereas body length (BL) is highly variable because of the flexibility of the cuticle and the orientation and coverslip pressure on the specimen. In heterotardigrades, BL is typically used to indicate body size because the thickened dorsal plates provide more rigidity and reliability in measurements. We measured 27 traits in 97 specimens of Paramacrobiotus tonollii (Eutardigrada) and 14 traits in 100 specimens of Echiniscus virginicus (Heterotardigrada) and found that many traits are allometric rather than isometric. Thorpe (1975, Biol J Linn Soc 7:27) provided a normalization technique to eliminate body size effects for any trait regardless of its relationship to body size. Using the data from P. tonollii, we show that Thorpe's size normalization does successfully remove buccal tube length effects (body size effects), while pt indices generally do not. We also demonstrate the effectiveness of Thorpe's normalization in species delineations of Macrobiotus recens and Macrobiotus hufelandi, two species that differ primarily in a few quantitative traits and overall body size in addition to the eggs. Based on these examples, we propose that the allometric exponent (b) and the Y-intercept (a*) of the regression of Thorpe normalized traits versus body size are valuable metrics in tardigrade systematics. © 2011 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.


This research presents an examination of Black gay men and their lived experiences while undergraduates at historically Black colleges and universities (HBCUs). Based on 10 in-depth interviews with self-identified Black gay men, the author presents four emergent themes, which reveal the complex ways in which Black gay men navigate and negotiate the intersections of their multiple identities as related to race, sexual orientation, and gender at HBCUs. The findings of this research have implications for larger discussions of community, Black masculinity, and gay identity in predominantly Black and non-Black contexts. © , Copyright © Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.


Mazer S.J.,University of California at Santa Barbara | Moghaddasi A.,University of California at Santa Barbara | Bello A.K.,University of California at Santa Barbara | Bello A.K.,Warren Wilson College | Hove A.A.,University of California at Santa Barbara
American Journal of Botany | Year: 2016

PREMISE OF THE STUDY: One proposed function of long styles is to intensify selection among male gametophytes relative to short styles. If so, given sufficient competition, longer styles will have higher rates of pollen tube attrition (failure to reach the style base) within the style than shorter ones. Alternatively, style length may influence pollen receipt, which itself may affect attrition rates. METHODS: We tested these predictions by collecting senescing styles from wild populations of two insect-pollinated Clarkia species. We examined the number of pollen grains adhering to the stigma, length of styles, and rates of attrition from the stigma surface to the stigma–style junction (SSJ), from the SSJ to the style base, and from the stigma surface to the style base. Multivariate analyses estimated the independent effects of pollen grains per stigma, the number of pollen tubes at the SSJ, and style length on attrition. KEY RESULTS: Style length was generally positively correlated with pollen receipt, and the number of pollen grains per stigma was positively correlated with all three attrition rates. In neither species was any attrition rate affected by style length independent of the number of pollen grains per stigma. CONCLUSIONS: Pollen attrition was mediated by style length, but the function of style length was primarily to increase the number of germinating pollen grains, which affected attrition rates either through stigma clogging or pollen–pollen interactions. Style length may have a direct effect on pollen receipt due to the stigma’s position relative to pollinator body parts, but traits correlated with style length may also directly affect pollen receipt. © 2016 Botanical Society of America.


Walker S.H.,North Carolina State University | Lilley L.M.,Warren Wilson College | Enamorado M.F.,North Carolina State University | Comins D.L.,North Carolina State University | Muddiman D.C.,North Carolina State University
Journal of the American Society for Mass Spectrometry | Year: 2011

A library of neutral, hydrophobic reagents was synthesized for use as derivatizing agents in order to increase the ion abundance of N-linked glycans in electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI MS). The glycans are derivatized via hydrazone formation and are shown to increase the ion abundance of a glycan standard more than 4-fold. Additionally, the data show that the systematic addition of hydrophobic surface area to the reagent increases the glycan ion abundance, a property that can be further exploited in the analysis of glycans. The results of this study will direct the future synthesis of hydrophobic reagents for glycan analysis using the correlation between hydrophobicity and theoretical non-polar surface area calculation to facilitate the development of an optimum tag for glycan derivatization. The compatibility and advantages of this method are demonstrated by cleaving and derivatizing N-linked glycans from human plasma proteins. The ESI-MS signal for the tagged glycans are shown to be significantly more abundant, and the detection of negatively charged sialylated glycans is enhanced. © 2011 American Society for Mass Spectrometry.


This article addresses an effort to incorporate wireless sensor networks and the emerging tools of the Geoweb into undergraduate teaching and research at a small liberal arts college. The primary goal of the research was to identify the hardware, software, and skill sets needed to deploy a local sensor network, collect data, and transmit that data over the Internet in a format that could be viewed and analyzed by an end user. A second goal of the project was to identify new skills and technologies that could be incorporated into existing GIS and computer science courses in order to better prepare students for the changing landscape of the Geoweb. © 2011 National Council for Geographic Education.


Britton W.B.,Brown University | Lindahl J.R.,Warren Wilson College | Cahn B.R.,University of California at Irvine | Davis J.H.,City University of New York | Goldman R.E.,Brown University
Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences | Year: 2014

Buddhist meditation practices have become a topic of widespread interest in both science and medicine. Traditional Buddhist formulations describe meditation as a state of relaxed alertness that must guard against both excessive hyperarousal (restlessness) and excessive hypoarousal (drowsiness, sleep). Modern applications of meditation have emphasized the hypoarousing and relaxing effects without as much emphasis on the arousing or alertness-promoting effects. In an attempt to counterbalance the plethora of data demonstrating the relaxing and hypoarousing effects of Buddhist meditation, this interdisciplinary review aims to provide evidence of meditation's arousing or wake-promoting effects by drawing both from Buddhist textual sources and from scientific studies, including subjective, behavioral, and neuroimaging studies during wakefulness, meditation, and sleep. Factors that may influence whether meditation increases or decreases arousal are discussed, with particular emphasis on dose, expertise, and contemplative trajectory. The course of meditative progress suggests a nonlinear multiphasic trajectory, such that early phases that are more effortful may produce more fatigue and sleep propensity, while later stages produce greater wakefulness as a result of neuroplastic changes and more efficient processing. Published 2013. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.


News Article | February 17, 2017
Site: www.PR.com

Bill Pullman will underscore the importance of community in a speech at his sons' alma mater in Asheville, North Carolina. He plans to look closely at the idea of “changing the world.” With so many different changemakers trying to engage in different ways, Pullman said it is harder to know what a new and “changed” world looks like. Asheville, NC, February 17, 2017 --( Pullman, who starred in the “Independence Day” movie franchise, has “a little bit of envy” toward students who graduate from Warren Wilson College. “It probably would have been a place that I would have picked,” he said. While the College didn’t appear on his radar in time for his own higher education, Pullman’s sons – Jack and Lewis – did make their way to Warren Wilson. Jack Pullman graduated in 2012 with a degree in art. His brother, Lewis Pullman, earned a social work degree in 2015, while also following in dad’s footsteps with starring roles in College theater productions. “Lewis’ genius was finding that social work program. The work that they do really is the heart and soul of Warren Wilson with their sense of social justice and practical experience – crafting your professional engagement with service. Lewis got so much out of that. I think his emotional intelligence gained incredibly, and the academic intelligence was good, too,” Pullman said. Warren Wilson College President Steven Solnick said Pullman is the keynote speaker because he aligns with the school’s mission and strategic goals. “Beyond his stage and screen success, Bill Pullman is a deep thinker and an agriculturist,” Solnick said. “Warren Wilson prides itself on having the nation’s top college farm and a commitment to academic excellence, sustainability and social justice. Bill can speak to all of these core values because he lives them, and I believe he will provide the charge our graduates need to hear before heading into the world.” While Pullman is leaving room to tailor his speech to specific global issues in May, he plans to look closely at the idea of “changing the world.” With so many different changemakers trying to engage in different ways, Pullman said it is harder to know what a new and “changed” world looks like. “How is it that we’ve gotten into such silos? When we thought we were all together changing the world, we actually were in a lot of different realms. The connections between those realms have been increasingly more difficult to make,” he said. Pullman sees the answer in building community. He and his wife, Tamara, put the idea to the test in 2011 when they founded Hollywood Orchard. The nonprofit’s mission is “to better neighborhood quality of life by operating a community orchard that is a teaching model for sustainability” in the Beachwood Canyon area of Los Angeles, California. The desire to plant and grow something is another obvious connection to Warren Wilson College, which boasts a nearly 300-acre farm. As a child, Pullman worked on farms in upstate New York, and he operates a ranch in Montana. In addition to his agrarian endeavors, Pullman maintains a hefty acting schedule. USA Network recently picked up the new series “The Sinner,” which he says is not just a “whodunit, but why done it” show. Pullman stars as investigator Harry Ambrose who tries to find out why a mother, played by Jessica Biel, committed “a horrible act of violence in a fit of rage but has no idea why she did it,” according to TV Guide, which did not list a premiere date. He stars alongside Angelica Houston, Julia Stiles and David Morse in the upcoming movie “Trouble.” The Hollywood Reporter calls the film an “indie comedy-drama” centered on siblings “whose differences entangle the fate of an old friend.” Finally, Pullman takes on the title role in the forthcoming western “The Ballad of Lefty Brown.” Peter Fonda and Jim Caviezel co-star, and Lewis Pullman also makes an appearance. “The Ballad of Lefty Brown” is part of the South By Southwest film festival with a showing slated for March 13, 2017. As he prepares to send the class of 2017 into the world, Pullman seems confident in the graduates’ capabilities. “There’s something about Warren Wilson,” he said. “You can gain a lot of very important things and skills that you carry over into whatever you decide to do.” Warren Wilson College’s commencement ceremony is Saturday, May 20, 2017. For more information, visit Photo of Bill Pullman by Taylor Jewell/Invision/AP. Asheville, NC, February 17, 2017 --( PR.com )-- Celebrity sightings in Asheville are nothing new. The world’s top actors, musicians and leaders have helped make “the land of the sky” a well-known tourist destination. An oft-understated feature of the city is its reputation as a mecca for higher learning. This is a truth Warren Wilson College’s 2017 commencement speaker, actor Bill Pullman, knows better than most.Pullman, who starred in the “Independence Day” movie franchise, has “a little bit of envy” toward students who graduate from Warren Wilson College. “It probably would have been a place that I would have picked,” he said.While the College didn’t appear on his radar in time for his own higher education, Pullman’s sons – Jack and Lewis – did make their way to Warren Wilson. Jack Pullman graduated in 2012 with a degree in art. His brother, Lewis Pullman, earned a social work degree in 2015, while also following in dad’s footsteps with starring roles in College theater productions.“Lewis’ genius was finding that social work program. The work that they do really is the heart and soul of Warren Wilson with their sense of social justice and practical experience – crafting your professional engagement with service. Lewis got so much out of that. I think his emotional intelligence gained incredibly, and the academic intelligence was good, too,” Pullman said.Warren Wilson College President Steven Solnick said Pullman is the keynote speaker because he aligns with the school’s mission and strategic goals.“Beyond his stage and screen success, Bill Pullman is a deep thinker and an agriculturist,” Solnick said. “Warren Wilson prides itself on having the nation’s top college farm and a commitment to academic excellence, sustainability and social justice. Bill can speak to all of these core values because he lives them, and I believe he will provide the charge our graduates need to hear before heading into the world.”While Pullman is leaving room to tailor his speech to specific global issues in May, he plans to look closely at the idea of “changing the world.” With so many different changemakers trying to engage in different ways, Pullman said it is harder to know what a new and “changed” world looks like.“How is it that we’ve gotten into such silos? When we thought we were all together changing the world, we actually were in a lot of different realms. The connections between those realms have been increasingly more difficult to make,” he said.Pullman sees the answer in building community. He and his wife, Tamara, put the idea to the test in 2011 when they founded Hollywood Orchard. The nonprofit’s mission is “to better neighborhood quality of life by operating a community orchard that is a teaching model for sustainability” in the Beachwood Canyon area of Los Angeles, California.The desire to plant and grow something is another obvious connection to Warren Wilson College, which boasts a nearly 300-acre farm. As a child, Pullman worked on farms in upstate New York, and he operates a ranch in Montana.In addition to his agrarian endeavors, Pullman maintains a hefty acting schedule. USA Network recently picked up the new series “The Sinner,” which he says is not just a “whodunit, but why done it” show. Pullman stars as investigator Harry Ambrose who tries to find out why a mother, played by Jessica Biel, committed “a horrible act of violence in a fit of rage but has no idea why she did it,” according to TV Guide, which did not list a premiere date.He stars alongside Angelica Houston, Julia Stiles and David Morse in the upcoming movie “Trouble.” The Hollywood Reporter calls the film an “indie comedy-drama” centered on siblings “whose differences entangle the fate of an old friend.”Finally, Pullman takes on the title role in the forthcoming western “The Ballad of Lefty Brown.” Peter Fonda and Jim Caviezel co-star, and Lewis Pullman also makes an appearance. “The Ballad of Lefty Brown” is part of the South By Southwest film festival with a showing slated for March 13, 2017.As he prepares to send the class of 2017 into the world, Pullman seems confident in the graduates’ capabilities.“There’s something about Warren Wilson,” he said. “You can gain a lot of very important things and skills that you carry over into whatever you decide to do.”Warren Wilson College’s commencement ceremony is Saturday, May 20, 2017.For more information, visit http://warren-wilson.edu Photo of Bill Pullman by Taylor Jewell/Invision/AP. Pullman Photo Actor Bill Pullman will deliver the 2017 keynote address at Warren Wilson College's commencement in May. Photo by Taylor Jewell/Invision/AP. The Associated Press has granted use of this image to Warren Wilson College for 1 month media outreach with each outlet's website archive rights included. Filename: BillPullman.jpg Click here to view the list of recent Press Releases from Warren Wilson College

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