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Tupelo, MS, United States

Bazyar Lakeh A.A.,Leibniz Institute of Freshwater Ecology and Inland Fisheries | Bazyar Lakeh A.A.,Humboldt University of Berlin | Farahmand H.,University of Tehran | Kloas W.,Leibniz Institute of Freshwater Ecology and Inland Fisheries | And 6 more authors.
Aquaculture International | Year: 2015

Juvenile rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) were passively immunized by intraperitoneal immunization against somatostatin-14 (SS-14) using an antibody originating from egg-laying chicken (Gallus domesticus). Fish were immunized weekly (0, 7, 14, 21, 28, 35 days) with chicken egg yolk-derived immunoglobulin (IgY) against SS-14 (1:25 IgY, 5 mg mL−1), and growth performance, feed utilization as well as plasma concentrations and mRNA levels of growth hormone (GH) and insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) were compared to the control group that received placebo immunization with PBS. Passive immunization significantly increased weight gain of treated fish (67.7 ± 7.4 g) compared to the control group (40.1 ± 2.0 g) after 35 days (p < 0.05). Feed conversion ratio (FCR) was significantly improved in the immunized fish (0.7 ± 0.08) compared to control group (1.2 ± 0.06) (p < 0.05). The concentrations of GH and IGF-I in the blood plasma showed no significant differences between the fish treated with anti-SS-14 and those of control during the treatment (p > 0.05). In both groups, GH levels decreased over the 35 days of the experiment (p < 0.05). However, IGF-I level during the period of treatment remained unchanged in both control and immunized fish with the anti-SS-14. Similarly, no changes were observed in pituitary GH and liver IGF-I mRNA levels between treatment and control at each sampling time (p > 0.05). There was no indication of a cumulative, long-lasting effect of repeated immunization on GH or IGF-I plasma concentrations or mRNA expression. The present study shows that a passive immunization of rainbow trout against SS-14 using a chicken egg yolk-derived SS-14 antibody could increase growth rate and improved FCR. © 2015 Springer International Publishing Switzerland Source

Rosser T.G.,Mississippi State University | Griffin M.J.,Mississippi State University | Quiniou S.M.A.,Warmwater Aquaculture Research Unit | Greenway T.E.,Mississippi State University | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Parasitology | Year: 2014

The actinospore diversity of infected Dero digitata was surveyed (May 2011) from a channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) production pond in the Mississippi Delta region for the elucidation of unknown myxozoan life cycles. At present, only 2 myxozoan life cycles have been molecularly confirmed in channel catfish, linking the actinospore stage from an aquatic oligochaete (D. digitata) and the myxospore stage from the catfish. In this study D. digitata (n = 2,592) were isolated from oligochaetes collected from the bottom sediment of a channel catfish production pond. After 1 wk of daily observation, a total of 6 genetically different actinospore types were observed. The collective groups were classified as 2 aurantiactinomyxons, 2 helioactinomyxons, 1 raabeia, and 1 triactinomyxon. Overall prevalence of myxozoan infections in the isolated oligochaetes was 4.4%. Actinospores were photographed and measured for morphological characterization. Four previously undescribed actinospore types were identified and characterized molecularly and morphologically. Phylogenetic analysis revealed the raabeia and one of the helioactinomyxon (type 1) actinospores were closely related to the group of myxozoans known to parasitize ictalurids in North America. To date, no myxospores have been linked to the newly sequenced actinospores reported in this survey. The morphological and molecular data generated from this study will assist in the identification of myxospore counterparts for these actinospore stages and aid in the elucidation of unknown myxozoan life cycles in closed production systems. © 2014 American Society of Parasitologists. Source

Rosser T.G.,Mississippi State University | Griffin M.J.,Mississippi State University | Quiniou S.M.A.,Warmwater Aquaculture Research Unit | Khoo L.H.,Mississippi State University | Pote L.M.,Mississippi State University
Parasitology Research | Year: 2014

In the southeastern USA, the channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus is a host to at least eight different species of myxozoan parasites belonging to the genus Henneguya, four of which have been characterized molecularly using sequencing of the small subunit ribosomal RNA (SSU rRNA) gene. However, only two of these have confirmed life cycles that involve the oligochaete Dero digitata as the definitive host. During a health screening of farm-raised channel catfish, several fish presented with deformed primary lamellae. Lamellae harbored large, nodular, white pseudocysts 1.25 mm in diameter, and upon rupturing, these pseudocysts released Henneguya myxospores, with a typical lanceolate-shaped spore body, measuring 17.1 ± 1.0 μm (mean ± SD; range = 15.0–19.3 μm) in length and 4.8 ± 0.4 μm (3.7–5.6 μm) in width. Pyriform-shaped polar capsules were 5.8 ± 0.3 μm in length (5.1–6.4 μm) and 1.7 ± 0.1 μm (1.4–1.9 μm) in width. The two caudal processes were 40.0 ± 5.1 μm in length (29.5–50.0 μm) with a spore length of 57.2 ± 4.7 (46.8–66.8 μm). The contiguous SSU rRNA gene sequence obtained from myxospores of five excised cysts did not match any Henneguya sp. in GenBank. The greatest sequence homology (91 % over 1,900 bp) was with Henneguya pellis, associated with blister-like lesions on the skin of blue catfish Ictalurus furcatus. Based on the unique combination of pseudocyst and myxospore morphology, tissue location, host, and SSU rRNA gene sequence data, we report this isolate to be a previously unreported species, Henneguya bulbosus sp. nov. © 2014, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg. Source

Griffin M.J.,Mississippi State University | Quiniou S.,Warmwater Aquaculture Research Unit | Khoo L.,Mississippi State University | Bollinger T.K.,Canadian Cooperative Wildlife Health Center
Journal of Fish Diseases | Year: 2015

The goal of this study was to identify a myxosporidian parasite infecting the central nervous system of yellow perch Perca flavescens (Mitchell, 1814) observed while investigating a fish kill in Saskatchewan, Canada. Fish were collected from seven different lakes, from two distinct watersheds. Sixty-four per cent (54/86) of yellow perch contained myxozoan pseudocysts located throughout the spinal cord and brain. Myxospores measured 16.5 μm (range 16.2-16.8) long and 8.2 μm (range 7.9-8.4) wide and contained two pyriform, mildly dissymmetrical, polar capsules measuring 7.7 μm (range 7.3-8.1) long and 2.7 μm (range 2.4-3.0) wide. The polar capsules each contained a single polar filament, with 7-9 turns per polar filament coil. Sequencing of the 18S SSU rDNA gene demonstrated >99% similarity to Myxobolus neurophilus. In 60% of infected fish, there was a mild to moderate, non-suppurative myelitis or encephalitis, or both, associated with myxospores. Axonal degeneration was present in rare cases. These findings extend the geographical distribution of M. neurophilus and suggest it may be widespread in yellow perch populations in Saskatchewan. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd. Source

Rosser T.G.,Mississippi State University | Griffin M.J.,Mississippi State University | Quiniou S.M.A.,Warmwater Aquaculture Research Unit | Khoo L.H.,Mississippi State University | And 3 more authors.
Parasitology Research | Year: 2015

There are more than 200 species of Henneguya described from fish. Of these, only three life cycles have been determined, identifying the actinospore and myxospore stages from their respective hosts. Two of these life cycles involve the channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) and the freshwater oligochaete Dero digitata. Herein, we molecularly confirm the life cycle of a previously undescribed Henneguya sp. by matching 18S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene sequence of the myxospore stage from channel catfish with the previously described actinospore stage (Aurantiactinomyxon mississippiensis) from D. digitata. Gill tissue from naturally infected channel catfish contained pseudocysts restricted to the apical end of the primary lamellae. Myxospores were morphologically consistent with Henneguya spp. from ictalurid fishes in North America. The spores measured 48.8 ± 4.8 μm (range = 40.7–61.6 μm) in total spore length. The lanceolate spore body was 17.1 ± 1.0 μm (14.4–19.3 μm) in length and 5.0 ± 0.3 μm (4.5–5.5 μm) in width. The two polar capsules were 6.2 ± 0.4 μm (5.8–7.0 μm) long and 5.0 ± 0.3 μm (4.5–5.5 μm) wide. The polar capsule contained eight to nine coils in the polar filament. The two caudal processes were of equal length, measuring 31.0 ± 4.1 μm (22.9–40.6 μm). The 1980-bp 18S rRNA gene sequence obtained from two excised cysts shared 99.4 % similarity (100 % coverage) to the published sequence of A. mississippiensis, an actinospore previously described from D. digitata. The sequence similarity between the myxospore from channel catfish and actinospore from D. digitata suggests that they are conspecific, representing alternate life stages of Henneguya mississippiensis n. sp. © 2015, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg. Source

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