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Liverpool, United Kingdom

Michael B.D.,University of Liverpool | Michael B.D.,Walton Center Neurology Foundation Trust | Solomon T.,University of Liverpool | Solomon T.,Walton Center Neurology Foundation Trust
Epilepsia | Year: 2012

Summary Encephalitis is an inflammation and swelling of the brain, which is often caused by a viral infection; it is an important cause of acute symptomatic seizures as well as subsequent epilepsy. Herein we describe the definition, epidemiology, and etiology of encephalitis as a cause of seizures. We then focus on encephalitis due to herpes simplex virus (the most common sporadic viral cause of encephalitis) and Japanese encephalitis virus (the most common epidemic viral cause). We also discuss the evidence for seizures occurring in the context of antibody-associated encephalitis, an increasingly important condition. Finally, we describe the acute and longer-term management of encephalitis-related seizures and their potential pathophysiologic mechanisms, concluding with the emerging etiologic role of human herpesvirus 6. © 2012 International League Against Epilepsy. Source


Dodd K.C.,Royal Preston Hospital | Dodd K.C.,Walton Center Neurology Foundation Trust | Michael B.D.,Walton Center Neurology Foundation Trust | Michael B.D.,University of Liverpool | And 6 more authors.
BMC Research Notes | Year: 2015

Background: Herpes simplex virus (HSV) encephalitis is the most common sporadic cause of encephalitis with significant morbidity and mortality that is drastically reduced by early antiviral treatment. Case presentation: We report a 37 year old woman, 33 weeks pregnant, who presented with seizures due to proven HSV-1 encephalitis, and who had had a previous episode of probable viral encephalitis aged 14 years. She was successfully treated with aciclovir on both occasions and, in the latter, went on to deliver a healthy infant. This case is compared with 17 cases of HSV encephalitis in pregnancy in the literature identifying a predominance in the late 2nd and 3rd trimesters, perhaps in part due to immunological changes in pregnancy. The clinical presentation is also compared with non-pregnant patients with HSV encephalitis in the largest prospective UK and European studies. We also present practical advice on management from recent national guidelines. Conclusion: When pregnant women present with new seizures, headache, impaired consciousness or altered behaviour urgent investigation is required to identify common diagnoses, such as eclampsia, venous sinus thrombosis and metabolic disturbances. Nevertheless, viral encephalitis is a very treatable cause of this presentation with potentially serious complications if missed, and may be more common in latter stages of pregnancy. Encephalitis should not be discounted if the patient is afebrile, has a normal Glasgow coma score, or the cerebrospinal fluid white cell count is only slightly elevated, as these features are well recognised in viral encephalitis. © 2015 Dodd et al.; licensee BioMed Central. Source


Michael B.D.,University of Liverpool | Michael B.D.,Walton Center Neurology Foundation Trust | Powell G.,Walton Center Neurology Foundation Trust | Curtis S.,Royal Liverpool and Broadgreen NHS Foundation Trust | And 9 more authors.
Emergency Medicine Journal | Year: 2013

Background: Acute central nervous system (CNS) infections, such as meningitis and encephalitis, are neurological emergencies for which accurate diagnosis and prompt treatment improve the outcome. Analysis of the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) obtained at lumbar puncture (LP) is pivotal to establishing the diagnosis and guiding management. PCR analysis of the CSF is an important method to identify the pathogen. However, recent studies have demonstrated that many patients have inadequate CSF sample collection and analysis. Aims: To increase the proportion of patients having an LP for a suspected CNS infection for whom the appropriate samples are taken. Secondary aims included to increase the proportion of patients for whom a pathogen was identified. Methods: The authors developed an LP pack for patients with a suspected CNS infection. They also assessed its impact on diagnosis by comparing practice 6 months before and after its introduction to the medical admissions unit of a large inner city teaching hospital. Results: The authors found that the LP pack reduced major errors in CSF sample collection and improved the diagnosis of acute CNS infections; among those patients who had a CSF pleocytosis, the proportion with a viral or bacterial pathogen identified by PCR was increased after introduction of the pack. Discussion: This study has demonstrated that the introduction of a simple low-cost LP pack into a busy acute medical setting can improve the diagnosis of CNS infections and, thus, guide treatment. Further work is needed to see if these results are more widely reproducible, and to examine the clinical, health and economic impact on overall management of patients with suspected CNS infections. Source

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