East London, South Africa

Walter Sisulu University

East London, South Africa

Walter Sisulu University is a university of technology and science in Mthatha, Eastern Cape, South Africa, which came into existence on 1 July 2005 as a result of a merger between Border Technikon, Eastern Cape Technikon and the University of Transkei. The university is named after Walter Sisulu, a prominent figure in the struggle against apartheid. Wikipedia.

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Meel B.L.,Walter Sisulu University
Medicine, Science and the Law | Year: 2017

Background: South Africa has one of the highest rates of rape in the world, but this barely seems to surprise anyone. It is extremely disturbing, especially when children and elderly women are raped. Women and children are usually the weakest group in society physically, as well as the most exposed to abuse and neglect. It should be the responsibility of a civil society to protect these vulnerable groups from harm. Objective: This study investigated the trend of rapes among elderly women in the Mthatha area of South Africa. Method: This was a retrospective descriptive study from the records of the Sinawe Centre. All cases of the rape of elderly women (i.e. those aged ≥65 years) between 2007 and 2011 were recorded. The Sinawe Centre is now a one-stop centre known as the Thuthuzela-Sinawe Centre, which is the only centre to deal with cases of rape in this area. Results: A total 2579 adult victims of rape (i.e. those aged ≥16 years) were reported at the Sinawe Centre over a five-year period (2007–2011). Of these, 145 (5.6%) involved elderly women. The average rate of rape among elderly women was 20.7/10,000 adult women per year. There was an increase in elderly rape from 17.1/10,000 women in 2007 to 40/10,000 women in 2009. The highest percentage (45.5%) of women were aged between 65 and 70 years, and the lowest percentage (4.1%) were aged between 86 and 90 years. The highest number of cases (56; 38.6%) were reported in 2009 (p <.05; χ2= 45.2). In the majority of cases (122; 84.2%), there was a single perpetrator. There were two perpetrators in 14 (9.6%) cases, and three or more perpetrators were recorded in nine (6.2%) rapes. A little more than half (74; 51%) were known to the victims. In 117 (83%) cases, the rape took place in the home. Human immunodeficiency virus infection was found to be prevalent in five (3.6%) cases of elderly rape. Conclusion: There are a high number of rapes among elderly women in the Mthatha area of South Africa. It is a matter of serious concern, and needs urgent attention. © 2017, © The Author(s) 2017.

Mukund Bahadur K.-C.,Walter Sisulu University | Murrayb P.J.,Center for Health Informatics Research and Development
Studies in Health Technology and Informatics | Year: 2010

The HIV/AIDS pandemic is one of the most serious threats to global health. HIV/AIDS is a chronic illness, requiring patient empowerment to enhance adherence to treatment regimes if it is to be managed effectively. While healthcare costs are rising, people still have expectations of high-quality care. This literature review-based study explored the use of cell phone (mobile phone) short messaging services (SMS) in health care, in particular for HIV/AIDS in South Africa. From an initial corpus of 212 papers, 28 were reviewed. The main findings include that SMS can improve service delivery through appointment reminders and improve communication between healthcare workers. It improves diagnosis, prevention, treatment and rehabilitation by supporting adherence to medication, and monitoring illness and medical interventions. SMS is useful in public health programmes, such as contact tracing and partner notification, therefore playing an important role in control of HIV/AIDS. As South Africa has one of the highest uptakes and demographic distributions of cellular technology in the world, SMS is feasible as a tool to deliver quality health care with low cost. © 2010 IMIA and SAHIA. All rights reserved.

Ngole V.M.,Walter Sisulu University
Plant, Soil and Environment | Year: 2011

This study investigated copper (Cu) and lead (Pb) enrichment factor (EF) and mobility factor (MF) as possible indicators of their uptake by spinach (Spinaceae oleraceae) and carrots (Daucus carota) grown on a sludge-amended luvisol (SAL). Sewage sludge was applied to luvisol at different rates and spinach and carrots planted. Enrichment of Cu and Pb in SAL was determined, and values regressed with those of Cu and Pb concentrations in spinach and carrots. Concentration of Cu and Pb in vegetables was calculated using the regression model obtained, and calculated values compared with actual values. Pb MF were higher than Cu MF but Cu and Pb EFsoil values were < 3.0, indicating minor enrichment from sludge addition. EF had 10% reliability in predicting Cu and Pb uptake in vegetables. MF was more than 70% reliable in predicting carrot Cu uptake and spinach Pb uptake. EF and MF are not effective as predictors of heavy metal uptake by vegetables. The role of other soil components including root exudates and by-products from microbial activities should also be investigated.

Cook S.,Walter Sisulu University
South African Medical Journal | Year: 2013

Screening for diabetic retinopathy (DR) not only allows for detection of microvascular complications, but for detection of other comorbidities. Recent advances in digital camera technology have improved screening for DR and many countries have established systems that screen all diabetics for DR annually. However, South Africa has lagged behind due to pressures at the primary care level, with the result that many diabetics are not screened. In response, the Ophthalmology Society of Southern Africa has developed a low-cost 'scorecard' system for a national DR screening programme.

Background. Intracranial suppuration (ICS) is a life-threatening condition caused by various disease processes and consisting of brain abscess and extradural and subdural empyema. The major causes have changed over the decades. To the author’s knowledge, the incidence of ICS in South Africa (SA) has not been established. Objective. To determine the incidence of ICS, overall and according to age and gender, and to identify the source and distribution of ICS. Method. The archive of the radiology departments at Umtata General Hospital and Nelson Mandela Academic Hospital in the Transkei region, Eastern Cape Province, SA, was searched retrospectively for computed tomography (CT) reports of patients diagnosed with ICS. Cases in which the CT images, patients’ clinical information and CT reports were available for an uninterrupted period of at least 1 year were included. Results. Five time frames were established, encompassing 8 years of data. The first time frame established an incidence of ICS of 1/100 000/year for the Transkei region. All the time frames were utilised to determine the incidence according to gender and age, and the source and distribution of ICS. The incidence of ICS was higher among males than females, and highest in the age groups 0 - 10 and 11 - 20 years. A seasonal variation in the incidence of sinusitis- and meningitis-related ICS was noted. Numbers of cases declined during the last 3 years of the study period. Conclusion. Sinusitis, head trauma, ear infection and meningitis were the major sources of ICS. A pulmonary source was not a major feature. In the last 4 years, trauma became the commonest source of ICS. A steady decline in ear infection- and meningitis-related ICS was noted. © 2015, South African Medical Association. All rights reserved.

Ekosse G.I.E.,Walter Sisulu University
Applied Clay Science | Year: 2010

Kaolin exploitation remains a financially sustained profit making mining industry that continues to contribute positively to national economies of the world. Its occurrence in Africa is not properly documented and adequately investigated. This work presents a summary of the geology, mineralogy, chemistry and usage of over two hundred and fifty kaolin deposits and occurrences in Africa including Algeria, Botswana, Burundi, Cameroon, Egypt, Eritrea, Nigeria, South Africa, Tanzania and Zimbabwe. Utilisation of African kaolin in bricks, ceramics, fibre glass, plastics, pottery, pharmaceutics, paint, rubber, among others is mentioned. Market economics including cheap labour, must be considered by prospective companies interested in investing in kaolin exploitation in the continent. With increasing and new industrial applications and continuous price increase, any promising deposit or occurrence of kaolin in Africa is worth investing in. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.

Angst J.,University of Zürich | Grobler C.,Walter Sisulu University
European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience | Year: 2015

In the classification of mood disorders, major depressive disorder is separate from bipolar disorders whereas mania is not. Studies on pure mania are therefore rare. Our paper reviews the evidence for distinguishing pure mania (M) and mania with mild depression (Md) from bipolar disorder. Two large epidemiological studies found a prevalence of 1.7–1.8 % of M/Md in adolescents and adults. Several clinical follow-up studies demonstrated good stability of the diagnosis after a previous history of three manic episodes. Compared to bipolar disorder, manic disorder is characterised by a weaker family history for depression, an earlier onset, fewer recurrences and better remission, and is less comorbid with anxiety disorders. In addition, mania is strongly associated with a hyperthymic temperament, manifests more psychotic symptoms and is more often treated with antipsychotics. Twin and family studies find mania to be more heritable than depression and show no significant transmission from depression to mania or from mania to depression. Cardiovascular mortality is elevated among patients with mood disorders generally and is highest among those with mania. In non-Western countries, mania and the manic episodes in bipolar disorder are reported to occur more frequently than in Western countries. © 2015, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

Meel Banwari L.,Walter Sisulu University
African Health Sciences | Year: 2015

Background: Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) is considered as a gold standard in estimating the prognosis of the comatose patient. The management of the patient relies heavily on this scale. The mechanism of injury must also be included in scoring of the GCS. Survival from strangulation is uncommon, and if it occurs, it is often associated with various complications such as neurological consequences. Objective: To highlight a poor correlation with low GCS and ultimate outcome in cases of manual strangulation. Case report: This is a case report of young female adult who was raped and manually strangulated by a colleague during a training course for traditional healers. She was admitted with very low (3/15) Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) and presumed to have a poor prognosis. She was rigorously ventilated in Intensive Care Unit (ICU), and was discharged from hospital after a week without any complications. The neck and genital injuries are described. This report discusses. Conclusion: A low Glasgow Coma Scale is not a predictive of poor prognosis in cases of manual strangulation. © 2015, Makerere University, Medical School. All rights reserved.

Novikova N.,Walter Sisulu University
Cochrane database of systematic reviews (Online) | Year: 2012

Local anaesthetic nerve block is an important modality for pain management in labour. Pudendal and paracervical block (PCB) are most commonly performed local anaesthetic nerve blocks which have been used for decades. To establish the efficacy and safety of local anaesthetic nerve blocks for pain relief in labour. We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (28 February 2012). We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs) assessing pain management in labour with the use of local anaesthetic nerve blocks. We did not include results from quasi-RCTs. We designed a form to extract data. For eligible studies, two review authors extracted the data using the agreed form. We resolved discrepancies through discussion or, if required, we consulted a third person. We entered and analysed data using Review Manager software and checked for accuracy. We found 41 trials for consideration of inclusion into this review. We included only 12 RCTs (1549 participants) of unclear quality. We excluded 29 studies (30 reports). The majority of excluded studies were not relevant to this review, and a few were not randomised.Local anaesthetic nerve block versus placebo or no treatment. We found that more women were satisfied with pain relief after local anaesthetic nerve block (in particular 2% lidocaine PCB) than after placebo (one study, 198 participants, risk ratio (RR) 32.31, 95% confidence interval (CI) 10.60 to 98.54). Local anaesthetic nerve block was associated with more side effects (one study, 200 participants, RR 29.0, 95% CI 1.75 to 479.61).Local anaesthetic nerve block (in particular, PCB) versus opioid Local anaesthetic nerve block (in particular, PCB) in comparison with opioid (in particular, intramuscular pethidine or fentanyl patient-controlled analgesia) was found to be more effective for pain relief (one study, 109 participants, RR 2.52, 95% CI 1.65 to 3.83) and was not associated with an increased rate of assisted vaginal birth (two studies, 129 participants, RR 1.02, 95% CI 0.56 to 1.87) or with an increased caesarean section rate (two studies, 129 participants, RR 0.23, 95% CI 0.03 to 1.87).Local anaesthetic nerve block versus non-opioid agents Satisfaction with pain relief and rate of caesarean sections were found to be the same in women receiving local anaesthetic nerve block and non-opioid agents (one study, 100 participants, RR 1.11, 95% CI 0.67 to 1.84; RR 2.0, 95% CI 0.19 to 21.36, respectively). More women who received non-opioid agent in comparison with women who received local anaesthetic nerve block required additional interventions for pain relief (one study, 100 participants, RR 0.06, 95% CI 0.02 to 0.25).Local anaesthetic nerve block using different anaesthetic agents There was no difference in pain relief satisfaction, assisted vaginal birth, caesarean section, side effects for mother, Apgar score or admission to the neonatal intensive care unit between different anaesthetic agents, e.g. bupivacaine, carbocaine, lidocaine, chloroprocaine. Local anaesthetic nerve blocks are more effective than placebo, opioid and non-opioid analgesia for pain management in labour based on RCTs of unclear quality and limited numbers. Side effects are more common after local anaesthetic nerve blocks in comparison with placebo. Different local anaesthetic agents used for pain relief provide similar satisfaction with pain relief. Further high-quality studies are needed to confirm the findings, to assess other outcomes and to compare local anaesthetic nerve blocks with various modalities for pain relief in labour.

Okuthe G.E.,Walter Sisulu University
Acta Histochemica | Year: 2013

Oogenesis involves a sequence of cellular divisions and developmental changes leading to the formation of oocytes, whose role in development is to transfer genomic information to the next generation. During this process, the gene expression pattern changes considerably concomitant with genome remodeling, while genomic information is maintained. The development of the gonad in zebrafish is unique in that it goes through an initial ovarian phase and subsequently into either ovarian or testicular phases. How the germ cells choose to commit to an oogenic fate and enter meiosis or alternatively not to enter meiosis and commit to a spermatogenetic fate remains a key question in development. Lack of suitable markers has hampered the understanding of the principles controlling sex differentiation in zebrafish. The current study was aimed at finding substantive cytochemical markers to identify specific oocyte stages primarily focusing on the DNA and RNA component of cells, using fluorescent dyes: acridine orange and propidium iodide. The pattern of synthesis and appearance of nucleoli was stage specific and may be used to identify stages of oogenesis. A distinguishing and possibly diagnostic feature of the staining pattern observed was the low level of chromatin staining compared to other cellular structures. This may be related to the more diffuse state of chromatin that occurs prior to thickening of chromosomes from the pachytene stage onwards. Although the fluorescent dyes may be useful in determining the localization of nucleic acids in tissue sections, it was not possible to quantify the relative contribution of the DNA and RNA components of specific stages of oocyte growth. © 2012 Elsevier GmbH.

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