Grimshaw R.,Birmingham Womens NHS Foundation Trust |
Jain P.,Walsall Manor Hospital |
Latthe P.,Birmingham Womens NHS Foundation Trust
Women's Health | Year: 2012
Mixed urinary incontinence accounts for 33% of all incontinence and is the involuntary loss of urine associated with the sensation of urgency; it is also associated with exertion, sneezing or coughing. Risk factors include vaginal delivery, obesity, age and possible genetic factors. Treatment includes lifestyle changes, behavioral therapies, medication and nerve modulation. Surgery with midurethral slings can cure both stress and urge components in 40-50% of cases. Future therapies may include new medications adapting potassium and calcium channels and more widespread use of sacral neuromodulation. This review focuses on the investigation and optimal management of mixed urinary incontinence. © 2012 Future Medicine Ltd.
Waterfield J.,Walsall Manor Hospital
BMJ Case Reports | Year: 2014
A 27-year-old man with a history of migraines, epilepsy and pulmonary stenosis presented to the emergency department with symptoms of vomiting, headache, visual disturbance and problems with balance. The team considered the possibility of intracranial pathology and an urgent CT head with contrast showed what appeared to be a large posterior fossa mass with an appearance suggestive of a primary haemangioblastoma, which was causing considerable mass effect. The patient had neurosurgery to relieve the obstruction and a biopsy of the area showed the mass to be an ischaemic infarct rather than a tumour. Further investigations following the stroke confirmed that the cause was due to having antiphospholipid syndrome and a patent foramen ovale. The patient made a good recovery following the operation and remains well. Copyright 2014 BMJ Publishing Group. All rights reserved.
Clayton R.N.,Staffordshire University |
Raskauskiene D.,Keele University |
Reulen R.C.,Walsall Manor Hospital |
Jones P.W.,University of Birmingham
Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism | Year: 2011
Context: Pituitary ACTH-dependent Cushing's disease (CD) is uncommon, and there are very limited data on long-term mortality. Objective: The aim was to summarize what is known about mortality in ACTH-dependent CD, to report on our own data, and to provide a meta-analysis of six other reports that addressed mortality of CD. Design and Methods: Vital status of 60 CD patients was recorded as of December 31, 2009, and the standardized mortality ratio (SMR) was calculated and compared with the general population of England and Wales, United Kingdom. A meta-analysis of SMRs from seven studies (including ours) was performed for overall mortality in CD. Where reported (four studies), a similar meta-analysis was performed for those patients whose hypercortisolism was in remission after treatment compared to those patients from the same center with persistent disease. Results: 1. From Stoke-on-Trent, 51 of 60 patients were female, median age at diagnosis was in the range of 36-46 yr, and median follow-up was 15 yr. There were 13 deaths, nine due to cardiovascular disease. Overall SMR for the whole cohort was 4.8 (95% confidence interval, 2.8-8.3) (P < 0001). SMR for vascular disease was 13.8 (7.2-36.5) (P < 0001). For persistent disease (n = 6), SMR was 16 (6.7-38.4) vs. remission (n = 54) SMR of 3.3 (1.7-6.7); after adjustment for age and sex, relative risk of death for persistent disease was 10.7 (2.3-48.6) (P = 0.002). Hypertension and diabetes mellitus were associated with significantly worse survival. 2. Using a random effects model meta-analysis revealed an overall (remission plus persistent disease) SMR of 2.2 (1.45-3.41) (P < 0.001). Pooled SMR was 1.2 (0.45-3.2) (P = not significant) for patients in remission and 5.5 (2.7-11.3) (P = 0.001) for patients with persistent disease. Persistence of disease, older age at diagnosis, and presence of hypertension and diabetes are the main determinants of mortality. Conclusions: Overall mortality in CD is double that of the general population. However, patients with CD in remission fare much better than those with persistence of hypercortisolism, and they appear not to have an increased mortality rate. Hypertension and diabetes mellitus are risk factors for worse outcome. Because diagnosis and treatment of patients are at a young age, much longer follow-up of patients in remission is required before one can be confident that their mortality outcome is no different from that of the general population, especially because cardiovascular risk factors may persist after successful biochemical control of the disease. Copyright © 2011 by The Endocrine Society.
Kudiyirickal M.G.,Alchemy Dental Practice |
Pappachan J.M.,Walsall Manor Hospital
Endocrine | Year: 2015
The oral health is influenced by systemic health, and one of the most common chronic diseases encountered in dental practice is diabetes mellitus. Diabetes can worsen oral infections and vice versa. In the literature, periodontitis and diabetes in the young to middle-aged adults have been the most widely researched area. Understanding the patho-physiology, clinical manifestations and management of different types of orofacial diseases in diabetic patients are important to the diabetologist and the dentist for the optimal care of patients with these diseases. This review explores the inter-link between diabetes and oral health. © 2014, Springer Science+Business Media New York.
Pappachan J.M.,Walsall Manor Hospital |
Raskauskiene D.,Walsall Manor Hospital |
Kutty V.R.,Sree Chitra Tirunal Institute for Medical Science and Technology |
Clayton R.N.,Staffordshire University
Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism | Year: 2015
Context: Several previous observational studies showed an association between hypopituitarism and excess mortality. Reports on reduction of standard mortality ratio (SMR) with GH replacement have been published recently. Objective: This meta-analysis assessed studies reporting SMR to clarify mortality risk in hypopituitary adults and also the potential benefit conferred by GH replacement. Data Sources: A literature search was performed in Medline, Embase, and Cochrane library up to March 31, 2014. Eligibility Criteria: Studies with or without GH replacement reporting SMR with 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were included. Data Extraction and Analysis: Patient characteristics, SMR data, and treatment outcomes were independently assessed by two authors, and with consensus from third author, studies were selected for analysis. Meta-analysis was performed in all studies together, and those without and with GH replacement separately, using the statistical package metafor in R. Results: Six studies reporting a total of 19 153 hypopituiatary adults with a follow-up duration of more than 99 000 person years were analyzed. Hypopituitarism was associated with an overall excess mortality (weighted SMR, 1.99; 95% CI, 1.21-2.76) in adults. Female hypopituitary adults showed higher SMR compared with males (2.53 vs 1.71). Onset of hypopituitarism at a younger age was associated with higher SMR. GH replacement improved the mortality risk in hypopituitary adults that is comparable to the background population (SMR with GH replacement, 1.15; 95% CI, 1.05-1.24 vs SMR without GH, 2.40; 95% CI, 1.46-3.34). GH replacement conferred lower mortality benefit in hypopituitary women compared with men (SMR, 1.57; 95% CI, 1.38-1.77 vs 0.95; 95% CI, 0.85-1.06). Limitations: There was a potential selection bias of benefit of GH replacement from a post-marketing data necessitating further evidence from long-term randomized controlled trials. Conclusions: Hypopituitarism may increase premature mortality in adults. Mortality benefit from GH replacement in hypopituitarism is less pronounced in women than men. Copyright © 2015 by the Endocrine Society.