College Place, WA, United States
College Place, WA, United States

Walla Walla University is a University offering liberal arts, professional, and technical programs located in College Place, Washington, just a few miles from Walla Walla. The current President is John McVay. It was founded in 1892 and is affiliated with the Seventh-day Adventist Church.The University has an annual enrollment of around 1,500 students. It is regionally accredited by the Northwest Association of Schools and Colleges and is also denominationally accredited. Walla Walla offers 36 majors, seven master’s degrees, and an associate of science degree. The Edward F. Cross School of Engineering is an ABET accredited program that offers bachelor of science and engineering degrees. No published research is regularly done at the school.Students are organized as the Associated Students of Walla Walla University or ASWWU. ASWWU operates the student newspaper The Collegian, the annual Mountain Ash , an online radio station, and the student directory the Mask. Both the men's and the women's on-campus dormitories operate their own clubs. The women's club is named Aleph Gimel Ain ; the men's club is named Omicron Pi Sigma . In athletics, Walla Walla U competes as a member of the NAIA Association of Independent Institutions . Their team nickname is "The Wolves". WWU also has a club men's ice-hockey team, "The Pack," which competes in the American Collegiate Hockey Association. Wikipedia.


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Nesbit G.M.,Oregon Health And Science University | Nesbit E.G.,Walla Walla University | Hamilton B.E.,Oregon Health And Science University
Journal of NeuroInterventional Surgery | Year: 2011

Background and aim: Accurate direct puncture access to vascular malformations and tumors of the head and neck is critical to successful embolization treatment and avoidance of complications. The primary focus of this project was to evaluate the accuracy and ease of needle placement using integrated 3D cone-beam CT and fluoroscopic guidance in accessing head and neck vascular malformations and tumors, and to determine its contribution to lesion treatment. Methods: A total of 27 patients, 14 female and 13 male, aged 4-63 years, were included in this study. The lesions included 11 venous malformations, 5 arteriovenous malformations, 5 juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibromas, 2 lymphovenous malformations, 1 lymphatic malformation, 1 capillary malformation, 1 nasal cavity leiomyoma, and 1 dural arteriovenous fistula. A total of 65 needle placements in 33 procedures were performed using an integrated 3D cone-beam CT and fluoroscopic guidance system. Results: Targeting was successful with a single pass in 62 of 65 planned needle placements to a superficial location in 24, the hypopharynx, retro-pharyngeal, pyriform sinus, or paratracheal spaces in 21, the sphenoid sinus and upper nasal cavity via trans-nasal approach in 5, intra-orbital in 5, intra-laryngeal in 4, pterygo-palatine fossa in 4, external auditory canal in 1, and intracranial via a juxta-torcular burr hole in 1. Needle placement was within 2 mm of the planned target in 11 locations in the 8 patients where post needle-placement cone-beam CT was obtained. Conclusion: This integrated 3D cone-beam CT and fluoroscopic guidance allowed access to deep, difficult to access, locations with ease using a single needle pass in most cases, resulting in improved treatment with decreased procedure times.


Onthank K.L.,Washington State University | Cowles D.L.,Walla Walla University
Marine Biology | Year: 2011

This study explores the relationship between energy budgeting and prey choice of Octopus rubescens. Seventeen male Octopus rubescens were collected between June 2006 and August 2007 from Admiralty Bay, Washington. Prey choices made by individuals in the laboratory deviated widely from those expected from a simple optimal foraging model. O. rubescens chose the crab Hemigrapsus nudus over the clam Nuttallia obscurata as prey by a ratio of 3:1, even though prey energy content and handling times suggested that this octopus could obtain 10 times more energy intake per unit time when choosing the latter compared to the former prey species. Octopus energy budgets were similar when consuming either of the prey species except for lipid extraction efficiency that was significantly higher in octopuses consuming H. nudus. This suggests that lipid digestibility may play an important role in the prey choice of O. rubescens. © 2011 Springer-Verlag.


Buchheim H.P.,Loma Linda University | Cushman Jr. R.A.,Walla Walla University | Biaggi R.E.,Adventist University of Plata
Rocky Mountain Geology | Year: 2011

The Eocene Green River Formation in Fossil Basin, Wyoming provides a detailed record of the paleoecology and depositional history of ancient Fossil Lake. Fossil Lake was one of three Eocene lakes that formed an extensive lake system in Wyoming, Utah, and Colorado. It began as a flood-plain lake in the southern part of Fossil Basin and expanded northward as the lake evolved. Fossil Lake went through the major stages of lake evolution, including the overfilled (Road Hollow Member), balanced-fill (Fossil Butte Member), and underfilled (Angelo Member) stages. These stages are represented in the sedimentary record by a complete suite of lake-margin to lake-center facies. This study establishes the Road Hollow Member of the Green River Formation as representing the earliest stage of lake evolution in Fossil Lake. We also revise the boundaries for the Fossil Butte and Angelo Members of the Green River Formation, which clearly delineate the latest two stages of lake evolution. These revisions not only describe and add a previously unrecognized and thick sequence of lacustrine rocks in Fossil Basin, but help us to better understand the depositional systems that existed during each stage of lake evolution.


Henson S.M.,Andrews University | Hayward J.L.,Andrews University | Cushing J.M.,University of Arizona | Galusha J.C.,Walla Walla University
Auk | Year: 2010

Spontaneous oscillator synchrony has been documented in a wide variety of electrical, mechanical, chemical, and biological systems, including the menstrual cycles of women and estrous cycles of Norway Rats (Rattus norvegicus). In temperate regions, many colonial birds breed seasonally in a time window set by photoperiod; some studies have suggested that heightened social stimulation in denser colonies can lead to a tightened annual reproductive pulse. It has been unknown, however, whether the analog of menstrual synchrony occurs in birdsthat is, whether avian ovulation cycles can synchronize on a daily timescale within the annual breeding pulse. We report every-other-day clutch-initiation and egg-laying synchrony in a breeding colony of Glaucous-winged Gulls (Larus glaucescens) and show that the level of synchrony declined with decreasing colony density. We also pose a mathematical model based on the hypothesis that preovulatory luteinizing hormone surges synchronize through social stimulation. Model predictions are consistent with observations. Finally, we suggest a procedure for identifying synchronous egg laying in other colonies and species. © 2010 by The American Ornithologists' Union. All rights reserved.


Hayward J.L.,Andrews University | Galusha J.G.,Walla Walla University | Henson S.M.,Andrews University
Journal of Raptor Research | Year: 2010

From 1980 to 1998, Washington's Bald Eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) population increased at an annual rate of 10. Over the same time period, foraging activity of Bald Eagles at marine bird breeding colonies also increased. From 1993 to 2008, we observed foraging-related behavior of Bald Eagles on Violet Point, Protection Island. This island hosts more than 70 of the breeding seabirds in Washington's inner seaways and serves as an important rookery for harbor seals (Phoca vitulina). We found that (1) eagles landed more frequently in seal haul-out (beach) areas than in gull-nesting (non-beach) areas of Violet Point, and that subadult eagles were more likely to land in gull-nesting areas than were adult eagles; (2) the presence of eagles on the beach was positively related to the presence of harbor seals on the beach; (3) a greater-than-expected number of adult eagles as compared with subadult eagles preyed on gull chicks; (4) subadult and adult eagles that attempted prey capture were equally successful at snatching gull chicks from the gull colony; (5) eagles were more likely to prey on gull eggs in tall grass than on gull eggs in sparse vegetation. Prey remains beneath one eagle nest on the island did not accurately reflect the range and relative frequencies of observed eagle predation events. Although seal afterbirths and dead pups constitute a major component of the diet of Bald Eagles on the island, the effect of eagles on live seals is probably negligible. In contrast, direct predation and indirect effects of eagle activity on Glaucous-winged Gull (Larus glaucescens) reproductive success may be substantial and may have been partly responsible for a 44 decrease in the number of gull nests in the colony from 19932008. © 2010 The Raptor Research Foundation, Inc.


Ma Q.,Walla Walla University | Levy C.,Florida International University | Perl M.,Ben - Gurion University of the Negev
Procedia Engineering | Year: 2015

The three dimensional stress intensity factors (3D SIFs) of a pressurized cylinder can be greatly affected by many factors. While an autofrettage process may introduce favorable residual stresses on the bore of the cylinder, other factors such as erosions and cracks, once introduced, may greatly reduce the effectiveness of the autofrettage. In this study, a closer look was given to problems with different crack configurations. Effort was expended to evaluate how the ellipticity of cracks affects the overall fatigue life of a simulated eroded pressurized cylinder in comparison with circular crack only configurations. Numerical analysis was performed using ANSYS, a standard commercially available finite element package. The residual stress due to any autofrettage process was simulated using the equivalent thermal loading. In-depth discussion was given to results when cracks of different ellipticity interact with other parameters including the depth of crack and the geometrical configurations of erosion. Specific cases considered include: crack ellipticity a/c=0.5, 1 and 1.5; relative crack depth a/t=0.01-0.2; relative erosion depth d/t=0.05; erosion relative finite length Le/L=0.12-1; erosion ellipticity d/h=0.3-2. Relevant non-erosion results are used for the sake of comparison. © 2015 The Authors.


Ma Q.,Walla Walla University | Levy C.,Florida International University | Perl M.,Ben - Gurion University of the Negev
Journal of Pressure Vessel Technology, Transactions of the ASME | Year: 2012

Our previous studies have shown that stress intensity factors (SIFs) are influenced considerably from the presence of the Bauschinger Effect (BE) in thick-walled pressurized cracked cylinders. For some types of pressure vessels, such as gun barrels, working in corrosive environment, in addition to acute temperature gradients and repetitive high-pressure impulses, erosions can be practically induced. Those erosions cause stress concentration at the bore, where cracks can readily initiate and propagate. In this study, the BE on the SIFs will be investigated for a crack emanating from an erosion's deepest point in a multiply eroded autofrettaged, pressurized thick-walled cylinder. A commercial finite element package, ansys, was employed to perform this type of analysis. A two-dimensional model, analogous to the authors' previous studies, has been adopted for this new investigation. Autofrettage with and without BE, based on von Mises yield criterion, is simulated by thermal loading and the SIFs are determined by the nodal displacement method. The SIFs are evaluated for a variety of relative crack lengths, a 0t= 0.01-0.45 emanating from the tip of the erosion of different geometries including (a) semicircular erosions of relative depths of 1-10 of the cylinder's wall thickness, t; (b) arc erosions for several dimensionless radii of curvature, r′t= 0.05-0.4; and (c) semi-elliptical erosions with ellipticities of dh= 0.5-1.5, and erosion span angle, , from 6 deg to 360 deg. The effective SIFs for relatively short cracks are found to be increased by the presence of the erosion and further increased due to the BE, which may result in a significant decrease in the vessel's fatigue life. Deep cracks are found to be almost unaffected by the erosion, but are considerably affected by BE. © 2012 American Society of Mechanical Engineers.


Ma Q.,Walla Walla University | Levy C.,Florida International University | Perl M.,Ben - Gurion University of the Negev
Journal of Pressure Vessel Technology, Transactions of the ASME | Year: 2010

Due to acute temperature gradients and repetitive high-pressure impulses, extremely dense internal surface cracks can be practically developed in highly pressurized thick-walled vessels, typically in gun barrels. In the authors' previous studies, networks of typical radial and longitudinal-coplanar, semi-elliptical, internal surface cracks have been investigated assuming both ideal and realistic full autofrettage residual stress fields (ε=100%). The aim of the present work is to extend the analysis twofold: to include various levels of partially autofrettaged cylinders and to consider configurations of closely and densely packed radial crack arrays. To accurately assess the stress intensity factors (SIFs), significant computational efforts and strategies are necessary, especially for networks with closely and densely packed cracks. This study focuses on the determination of the distributions along the crack fronts of KI P, the stress intensity factor due to internal pressure KI A, the negative stress intensity factor resulting from the residual stress field due to ideal or realistic autofrettage, and KI N, the combined SIF KI N = KI P - KI A . The analysis is performed for over 1000 configurations of closely and densely packed semicircular and semi-elliptical networked cracks affected by pressure and partial-to-full autofrettage levels of ε=30-100%, which is of practical benefit in autofrettaged thick-walled pressure vessels. The 3-D analysis is performed via the finite element method and the submodeling technique employing singular elements along the crack front and the various symmetries of the problem. The network cracks will include up to 128 equally spaced cracks in the radial direction: with relative longitudinal crack spacing, 2c/d, from 0.1 to 0.99; autofrettage level of 30-100%; crack depth to wall thickness ratios, a/t, from 0.01 to 0.4; and, cracks with various ellipticities of crack depth to semicrack length, a/c, from 0.2 to 2. The results clearly indicate that the combined SIFs are considerably influenced by the three dimensionality of the problem and the Bauschinger effect (BE). The Bauschinger effect is found to have a dramatic effect on the prevailing combined stress intensity factors, resulting in a considerable reduction of the fatigue life of the pressure vessel. While the fatigue life can be finite for ideal autofrettage, it is normally finite for realistic autofrettage for the same crack network. Furthermore, it has been found that there are differences in the character of the SIFs between closely packed and densely packed crack networks, namely, more dramatic drop-offs in KI A and KI N at the crack-inner bore interface for densely packed cracks further influenced by crack depth. © 2010 American Society of Mechanical Engineers.


Ma Q.,Walla Walla University | Yaw L.,Walla Walla University
ASEE Annual Conference and Exposition, Conference Proceedings | Year: 2015

As an advanced modern engineering tool, the Finite Element Method (FEM) has been widely adopted in current undergraduate engineering curricula, especially in the discipline of mechanical engineering. However, the usage of FEM as a tool integrated into other fundamental engineering classes, such as statics and dynamics, fluid and thermal, and mechanics of materials, is not as common as one might suppose. Including, this present-day engineering tool is proposed to assist the teaching of deformation concepts in mechanics of materials. Due to the inherent complexity of FEM, a small finite element analysis (FEA) program, mini-FEA, developed by Professor Paul S. Steif at Carnegie Mellon University about fifteen years ago, is used to illustrate the concepts and quickly show how it works. For complex geometry, ANSYS Mechanical APDL programs were created by the instructor so that the requirements of student interaction with the program are minimal, and to keep their focus on deformation concepts. The mini-FEA allows the instructor to provide a quick illustration of deformation concepts as well as the basic steps in implementing FEM. The concepts of deformation mechanics are then demonstrated by graphical illustrations from both FEM and the traditional photoelasticity method. The purpose of this paper is to study the effectiveness of integrating FEM and discover how FEM further enhances students' learning in comparison with the traditionally used photoelasticity method. From the survey feedback, the effectiveness of the FEM model in enhancing student learning is clearly seen. Assessment of this approach and results of teaching strategies are presented. © American Society for Engineering Education, 2015.


Haynal S.,College Place | Haynal H.,Walla Walla University
ICASSP, IEEE International Conference on Acoustics, Speech and Signal Processing - Proceedings | Year: 2013

Recent research presents a technique to enumerate all valid assignments of 'twiddle factors' for power-of-two fast Fourier transform (FFT) flow graphs. Brute-force search employing state-of-the-art Boolean satisfiability (SAT) solvers can then be used to find FFT algorithms within this large solution space which have desirable characteristics. Surprisingly, this approach has discovered FFT algorithms requiring fewer operations than the split-radix algorithm even when all twiddle factors are nth roots of unity. This paper reviews and then extends this prior research to examine fast discrete convolution algorithms when implemented via FFT and inverse FFT (IFFT) algorithms. In particular, we find that the combination of FFT and IFFT algorithms in fast convolution permits greater freedom when selecting valid twiddle factor assignments. We exploit this freedom and use SAT solvers to find new fast convolution algorithms with the lowest operation counts known. © 2013 IEEE.

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