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Chityala R.,University of Minnesota | Pudipeddi S.,Waldorf College
Proceedings of the 2011 International Conference on Image Processing, Computer Vision, and Pattern Recognition, IPCV 2011

Existing text based CAPTCHAs can only transcribe words in an image that contains ASCII characters. In this paper, we are describing a system called UCAPTCHA, which is intended to transcribe words in an image that contains Unicode characters to text. Such a system will be useful in transcribing scanned documents from many European languages like Spanish, German, French etc. Source

Neal T.M.S.,University of Massachusetts Medical School | Guadagno R.E.,National Science Foundation | Eno C.A.,Waldorf College | Brodsky S.L.,University of Alabama
Journal of the American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law

In this study, we examined how manipulations of likeability and knowledge affected mock jurors' perceptions of female and male expert witness credibility (n = 290). Our findings extend the person-perception literature by demonstrating how warmth and competence overlap with existing conceptions of likeability and knowledge in the psycholegal domain. We found that experts high in likeability, knowledge, or both were perceived equally positively, regardless of gender, in a death penalty sentencing context. Gender differences emerged when the expert was low in likeability or knowledge. In these conditions the male expert was perceived more positively than the comparable female expert. Although intermediate judgments (e.g., perceptions of credibility) were affected by our manipulations, ultimate decisions (e.g., sentencing) were not. Implications for theory and practice are discussed. Source

Bartelt P.E.,Waldorf College | Klaver R.W.,U.S. Geological Survey | Porter W.P.,University of Wisconsin - Madison
Ecological Modelling

Effective conservation of amphibian populations requires the prediction of how amphibians use and move through a landscape. Amphibians are closely coupled to their physical environment. Thus an approach that uses the physiological attributes of amphibians, together with knowledge of their natural history, should be helpful. We used Niche Mapper™ to model the known movements and habitat use patterns of a population of Western toads (Anaxyrus (=Bufo) boreas) occupying forested habitats in southeastern Idaho. Niche Mapper uses first principles of environmental biophysics to combine features of topography, climate, land cover, and animal features to model microclimates and animal physiology and behavior across landscapes. Niche Mapper reproduced core body temperatures (Tc) and evaporation rates of live toads with average errors of 1.6±0.4°C and 0.8±0.2g/h, respectively. For four different habitat types, it reproduced similar mid-summer daily temperature patterns as those measured in the field and calculated evaporation rates (g/h) with an average error rate of 7.2±5.5%. Sensitivity analyses indicate these errors do not significantly affect estimates of food consumption or activity. Using Niche Mapper we predicted the daily habitats used by free-ranging toads; our accuracy for female toads was greater than for male toads (74.2±6.8% and 53.6±15.8%, respectively), reflecting the stronger patterns of habitat selection among females. Using these changing to construct a cost surface, we also reconstructed movement paths that were consistent with field observations. The effect of climate warming on toads depends on the interaction of temperature and atmospheric moisture. If climate change occurs as predicted, results from Niche Mapper suggests that climate warming will increase the physiological cost of landscapes thereby limiting the activity for toads in different habitats. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. Source

Klaver R.W.,U.S. Geological Survey | Backlund D.,South Dakota Natural Heritage Program | Bartelt P.E.,Waldorf College | Knowles C.J.,Fauna West Wildlife Consultants | And 2 more authors.

The Northern Goshawk (Accipiter gentilis) is the largest of the three North American species of Accipiter and is more closely associated with older forests than are the other species. Its reliance on older forests has resulted in concerns about its status, extensive research into its habitat relationships, and litigation. Our objective was to model the spatial patterns of goshawk territories in the Black Hills, South Dakota, to make inferences about the underlying processes. We used a modification of Ripley's K function that accounts for inhomogeneous intensity to determine whether territoriality or habitat determined the spacing of goshawks in the Black Hills, finding that habitat conditions rather than territoriality were the determining factor. A spatial model incorporating basal area of trees in a stand of forest, canopy cover, age of trees >23 cm in diameter, number of trees per hectare, and geographic coordinates provided good fit to the spatial patterns of territories. There was no indication of repulsion at close distances that would imply spacing was determined by territoriality. These findings contrast with those for the Kaibab Plateau, Arizona, where territoriality is an important limiting factor. Forest stands where the goshawk nested historically are now younger and have trees of smaller diameter, probably having been modified by logging, fire, and insects. These results have important implications for the goshawk's ecology in the Black Hills with respect to mortality, competition, forest fragmentation, and nest-territory protection. © The Cooper Ornithological Society 2012. Source

Ewoldsen D.R.,Ohio State University | Eno C.A.,Waldorf College | Okdie B.M.,Ohio State University | Velez J.A.,Ohio State University | And 2 more authors.
Cyberpsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking

Research on video games has yielded consistent findings that violent video games increase aggression and decrease prosocial behavior. However, these studies typically examined single-player games. Of interest is the effect of cooperative play in a violent video game on subsequent cooperative or competitive behavior. Participants played Halo II (a first-person shooter game) cooperatively or competitively and then completed a modified prisoner's dilemma task to assess competitive and cooperative behavior. Compared with the competitive play conditions, players in the cooperative condition engaged in more tit-for-tat behaviors-a pattern of behavior that typically precedes cooperative behavior. The social context of game play influenced subsequent behavior more than the content of the game that was played. © 2012, Mary Ann Liebert, Inc. Source

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