WALA Heilmittel GmbH

Bad Homburg vor der Höhe, Germany

WALA Heilmittel GmbH

Bad Homburg vor der Höhe, Germany
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Deters A.M.,University of Munster | Meyer U.,WALA Heilmittel GmbH | Stintzing F.C.,WALA Heilmittel GmbH
Journal of Ethnopharmacology | Year: 2012

Ethnopharmacological relevance: Traditionally and nowadays preparations from two xerophytic plants, the ice plant and cactus pear are used in dermatologic and cosmetic preparations. In spite of their daily use, little is known concerning the bioactivity of such extracts on skin cells. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of pressed juices from ice plant (McP) and two cactus pear polysaccharides (cold water soluble, NwPS; non swelling pectin, NPec) on the cell physiology of normal human dermal fibroblasts (NHDF) and HaCaT-keratinocytes due to composition, concentration and incubation time. Materials and methods: Cactus pear polysaccharides were analyzed by high performance anion exchange chromatography with pulsed amperometric detection after hydrolysis with trifluoroacetic acid. Ice plant pressed juices were filtrated through a 1.2 μm (McPI) and 0.2 μm filter (McPII). Cell proliferation was measured with BrdU incorporation assay. Reduction of tetrazolium salts was applied to determine the metabolic activity (MTT) while necrotic effects were assessed by LDH-release measurements. Results: Cactus pear polysaccharides differed predominantly in their glucose and uronic acid content. The filtration of pressed juices altered the amounts of high molecular weight compounds. The proliferation of NHDF and HaCaTs was significantly stimulated by cactus pear polysaccharides and ice plant pressed juices not until 72 h of incubation. McPI significantly increased the proliferation of NHDF and HaCaTs while significant effect of McPII was only observed in case of HaCaT-keratinocytes. A dependence on concentration was not observed. Metabolic activity was neither influenced by McPI nor by McPII independent of incubation time. The HaCaT proliferation was not significantly influenced by low concentrations of cactus pear polysaccharides however it was inhibited by 100 μg/mL NPec. 100 μg/mL of NwPS and 1 μg/mL NPec stimulated the proliferation of fibroblasts. The metabolic activity of NHDF was not affected neither by NPec nor by NwPS. Independent of the used concentration NwPS significantly enhanced the metabolic activity of HaCaTs after 48 h of incubation. Conclusions: Pressed juices of common ice plant and polysaccharides of cactus pear influenced the cell physiology of human keratinocytes and fibroblasts predominantly in a time-dependent manner. The effect was also be related to the concentration and composition as well as the investigated cell type. © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd.


Ziegmann M.,Karlsruhe Institute of Technology | Abert M.,Doc Labor Dr Huber | Muller M.,Wala Heilmittel GmbH | Frimmel F.H.,Karlsruhe Institute of Technology
Water Research | Year: 2010

The development of methods facilitating the detection of cyanobacterial blooms in drinking water reservoirs at an early stage is of great importance. Fluorescence spectroscopy could meet these requirements. The study contains the examination of possible correlations between the different maxima of a fluorescence excitation-emission matrix and the amount of produced and excreted toxins of a lab culture of Microcystis aeruginosa at different stages of growth. Various fluorescence signals (protein-like and humic-like substances, pigments) are suited for an estimation of cell density and actual intra- and extracellular toxin concentration. One signal at 315 nm/396 nm presumably originating from protein-like substances might be useful as a tool for the prediction of increasing cyanobacterial toxin concentrations. As the measurement of fluorescence matrices is still time consuming, synchronous scans with Δλ = 80 nm were tested as a potential alternative. They accurately depict the course of protein-like and humic-like fluorescence during the different stages of growth although especially the latter one is not captured at its maximum. However, due to insufficient separation of chlorophyll a and phycocyanin, the image of the matrix maxima by synchronous scans with Δλ = 80 nm can only be used with minor restrictions. Nevertheless, fluorescence spectroscopy seems to be a powerful tool for the evaluation of cyanobacterial blooms. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Dog's mercury (Mercurialis perennis L.) is a medicinal plant belonging to the Euphorbiaceae (spurge family). In pre-Christian times and in the Middle Ages the herb has been used as a remedy to treat purulent wounds (suppurations), eczema and abscesses. Mercurialis has also been applied as a laxative and against complaints during menstruation. Nowadays, hydroalcoholic and fermented aqueous extracts are being mainly used in complementary medicine, especially for the treatment of slowly healing wounds, inflammation, burns, haemorrhoids and also conjunctivitis (inflamed eyes). Until recently, the chemical constituents of M. perennis and their pharmacology were poorly known. Current phytochemical investigations show, that the plant is containing alkaloids, essential oil, n-alkylresorcinols, depsides and flavonoids. Investigation of an aqueous fermented Mercurialis extract in an in vitro-model of inflammation on human monocytes demonstrated an immunomodulating effect for the first time. This potency comes along with an accelerated wound healing activity of the aqueous fermented Mercurialis extract. In this review, both a survey on the pharmacognosy, but also most recent findings from Mercurialis research is given. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.


Duckstein S.M.,WALA Heilmittel GmbH | Stintzing F.C.,WALA Heilmittel GmbH
Chemistry and Biodiversity | Year: 2014

The aerial parts of the medicinal plant Helleborus niger L. comprise a substantial number of constituents with only few of them identified so far. To expand the knowledge of its secondary metabolite profile, extracts from H. niger leaves and stems were investigated by liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MSn). Specific identification strategies using LC/MS are established and discussed in detail. The leaves turned out to contain acylated and non-acylated quercetin and kaempferol oligoglycosides, protoanemonin and its precursor ranunculin, b-ecdysone, and a variety of steroidal saponins, mainly in the furostanol form. The sapogenins were elucidated as of sarsasapogenyl, diosgenyl, and macranthogenyl structures, and confirmed by comparison with the respective reference compounds. The secondary metabolite profiles were almost identical in both plant parts except that the stems lacked kaempferol derivatives and some saponins. The ranunculin derivatives and b-ecdysone were found in both plant parts. Correlations between the location of the compound groups and the plant's defense strategies are proposed. Additionally, the role of the detected secondary metabolites as protective substances against exogenic stress and as a defense against herbivores is discussed. © 2014 Verlag Helvetica Chimica Acta AG, Zürich.


This article reviews recent general and legal requirements for primary packaging materials for cosmetics and medicinal products for topical application. Differences and similarities are considered. In many cases, primary packaging materials can be selected from materials which are already available on the market. If this is not possible for specific applications or formulations, the packaging has to be carefully developed. A basic requirement for the use of any packaging material is the extensive knowledge of its composition and properties. Ingredients of the product should not be adsorbed onto the surface of the packaging, and not be absorbed into the body of the packaging. They should also not migrate through the packaging (compatibility). Furthermore the packaging should not release substances into the product. It has to be assessed whether a satisfactory evaluation can be performed just on the basis of knowing the formulation and the primary packaging material. Especially in the case of plastic packagings for medicinal products, but also for cosmetics packagings, it might be necessary to perform Extractables/Leachables studies. Additionally, the packaging material has to be toxicologically harmless. In this context the present article provides an overview of relevant current legal rules, e. g. of the drug, cosmetic and food law. Furthermore, several aspects concerning the selection of suppliers will be explored. © ECV • Editio Cantor Verlag.


Turek C.,WALA Heilmittel GmbH | Stintzing F.C.,WALA Heilmittel GmbH
Comprehensive Reviews in Food Science and Food Safety | Year: 2013

In recent years, consumers have developed an ever-increasing interest in natural products as alternatives for artificial additives or pharmacologically relevant agents. Among them, essential oils have gained great popularity in the food, cosmetic, as well as the pharmaceutical industries. Constituting an array of many lipophilic and highly volatile components derived from a great range of different chemical classes, essential oils are known to be susceptible to conversion and degradation reactions. Oxidative and polymerization processes may result in a loss of quality and pharmacological properties. Despite their relevance for consumers, there is a paucity of information available addressing this issue. Therefore, the present review provides a comprehensive summary on possible changes in essential oils and factors affecting their stability. Focusing on individual essential oils, the various paths of degradation upon exposure to extrinsic parameters are outlined. Especially temperature, light, and oxygen availability are recognized to have a crucial impact on essential oil integrity. Finally, analytical methods to assess both genuine as well as altered essential oil profiles are evaluated with respect to their suitability to track chemical alterations. It is believed that only a careful inspection of essential oils by a set of convenient methods allows profound quality assessment that is relevant to producers and consumers alike. © 2012 Institute of Food Technologists®.


Duckstein S.M.,WALA Heilmittel GmbH
Zeitschrift für Naturforschung. C, Journal of biosciences | Year: 2013

Acetone/water extracts from the leaves, including stalks, of Alchemilla vulgaris L. and A. mollis (Buser) Rothm. were investigated for their phenolic composition by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). A total of 24 and 27 compounds were detected for A. vulgaris and A. mollis, respectively. Pedunculagin and agrimoniin, as described in earlier reports for A. vulgaris, as well as other monomeric and oligomeric ellagitannins such as sanguiin H-10, castalagin/vescalagin, and galloyl-bis-hexahydroxydiphenoyl (HHDP) hexose constituted the major phenolic fraction of both plant species. Also, gallic and chlorogenic acids were found in both extracts. Interestingly, catechin and a procyanidin trimer were detected only in A. mollis. The flavonoid fraction comprised quercetin glucuronide as major compound in addition to several other quercetin glycosides. Most interestingly, a tentatively identified kaempferol glucuronide and a methylated quercetin glucuronide were exclusively found in A. mollis. Finally, the overall phenolic fingerprints of both Alchemilla species, harvested in May and August, i.e. at the beginning and the end of the flowering period, were compared. A general accumulation of phenolic constituents was observed later in the year, especially with regard to the ellagitannins.


Turek C.,WALA Heilmittel GmbH | Stintzing F.C.,WALA Heilmittel GmbH
Food Research International | Year: 2012

Four common essential oils were subjected to different storage conditions in order to reveal the impact of light and temperature on the physico-chemical properties as well as on the chemical composition of the respective oil. For this purpose, aliquots of lavender, pine, rosemary, and thyme oil were stored for up to 72. weeks in the presence of atmospheric oxygen at 23 °C in the dark as well as at 23 °C and 38 °C under cool white light, respectively. Alterations were monitored by a set of recently established quality parameters such as peroxide value, pH, and conductivity as well as high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with diode array detection and tandem mass spectrometry. Characteristic changes occurred for each essential oil, revealing individual impacts of extrinsic parameters on the particular sample. Most striking degradation of monoterpenes could be observed in rosemary oil: While α-terpinene was reduced to less than 10% within 3. weeks of storage at 38 °C under daylight but did not alter during the same period at room temperature in the dark, its amount in pine oil decreased to about 40 and 65%, respectively. Moreover, trends of peroxide values were compared to conductivity and pH in the course of storage. This approach allows to shed light on the storage history thereby providing a more complete view on essential oil quality. Additionally, gas chromatography (GC) analyses coupled to electron ionization mass spectrometry were performed in order to evaluate the informative and complementary character of GC and HPLC with regard to their capability to retrace essential oil modifications upon storage, respectively. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.


Turek C.,WALA Heilmittel GmbH | Stintzing F.C.,WALA Heilmittel GmbH
Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry | Year: 2011

A high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method was established using an analytical reversed-phase column and gradient elution to achieve chromatographic separation of typical compounds in essential oils. For detection, a diode array detector monitoring different wavelengths simultaneously as well as a mass spectrometer (MS) were used. Atmospheric pressure chemical ionization operating in the positive mode turned out to be a suitable tool to detect volatiles of different chemical classes and to identify them in essential oil matrices. Characteristic fingerprints of eucalyptus, lavender, may chang, pine, rosemary, thyme, and turpentine essential oils monitored at a representative wavelength (220 nm) demonstrated the suitability of HPLC in essential oil analysis. Additional monitoring wavelengths (210, 250, and 280 nm) provided useful information about the identity of the specific component and opened the possibility to differentiate presumably coeluting compounds by means of their distinct absorption behavior. Finally, peak assignment in seven essential oils was performed on the basis of characteristic retention times and UV and MS data of a broad set of reference volatiles. © 2011 Springer-Verlag.


Duckstein S.M.,WALA Heilmittel GmbH | Stintzing F.C.,WALA Heilmittel GmbH
Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry | Year: 2011

Aqueous and acetone/water extracts from Hamamelis virginiana leaves were investigated to obtain a thorough insight into their phenolic composition. To secure compound integrity, a gentle extraction method including the exclusion of light was used. Liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) analyses yielded a fingerprint including 27 phenolic constituents. Quantification of the key compounds on an equivalent basis by high-performance liquid chromatography diode-array detection (HPLC-DAD) showed that gallotannins consisting of six to 11 galloyl units constitute the main fraction, whereas procyanidins and catechin represented only a minor part. Closer inspection revealed that both extracts possess virtually the same galloyl hexose distribution, and the octagalloyl hexose represents the major tannin constituent. Additionally, eight flavonol glycosides and their corresponding aglycones quercetin and kaempferol, as well as three chlorogenic acid isomers and other hydroxycinnamic acids, were identified. Moreover, stability studies on the aqueous extract (5 °C, dark; room temperature, dark; room temperature, light) revealed that the phenolic profile underwent changes when exposed to light. Especially the gallotannins proved to be considerably unstable which may result in phytochemically altered Hamamelis leaf extracts upon transport and storage. [Figure not available: see fulltext.] © 2011 Springer-Verlag.

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