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Bad Boll, Germany

Dog's mercury (Mercurialis perennis L.) is a medicinal plant belonging to the Euphorbiaceae (spurge family). In pre-Christian times and in the Middle Ages the herb has been used as a remedy to treat purulent wounds (suppurations), eczema and abscesses. Mercurialis has also been applied as a laxative and against complaints during menstruation. Nowadays, hydroalcoholic and fermented aqueous extracts are being mainly used in complementary medicine, especially for the treatment of slowly healing wounds, inflammation, burns, haemorrhoids and also conjunctivitis (inflamed eyes). Until recently, the chemical constituents of M. perennis and their pharmacology were poorly known. Current phytochemical investigations show, that the plant is containing alkaloids, essential oil, n-alkylresorcinols, depsides and flavonoids. Investigation of an aqueous fermented Mercurialis extract in an in vitro-model of inflammation on human monocytes demonstrated an immunomodulating effect for the first time. This potency comes along with an accelerated wound healing activity of the aqueous fermented Mercurialis extract. In this review, both a survey on the pharmacognosy, but also most recent findings from Mercurialis research is given. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York. Source


This article reviews recent general and legal requirements for primary packaging materials for cosmetics and medicinal products for topical application. Differences and similarities are considered. In many cases, primary packaging materials can be selected from materials which are already available on the market. If this is not possible for specific applications or formulations, the packaging has to be carefully developed. A basic requirement for the use of any packaging material is the extensive knowledge of its composition and properties. Ingredients of the product should not be adsorbed onto the surface of the packaging, and not be absorbed into the body of the packaging. They should also not migrate through the packaging (compatibility). Furthermore the packaging should not release substances into the product. It has to be assessed whether a satisfactory evaluation can be performed just on the basis of knowing the formulation and the primary packaging material. Especially in the case of plastic packagings for medicinal products, but also for cosmetics packagings, it might be necessary to perform Extractables/Leachables studies. Additionally, the packaging material has to be toxicologically harmless. In this context the present article provides an overview of relevant current legal rules, e. g. of the drug, cosmetic and food law. Furthermore, several aspects concerning the selection of suppliers will be explored. © ECV • Editio Cantor Verlag. Source


Millet A.,Albert Ludwigs University of Freiburg | Stintzing F.,WALA Heilmittel GmbH | Merfort I.,Albert Ludwigs University of Freiburg
Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis | Year: 2010

An HPLC method, which allows reliable quantitation of flavonols and other phenolics in birch leaf extracts, was developed and validated. The method was applied to study the bioconversion of flavonols in fermented aqueous extracts. Almost 100% of the flavonols were converted during the 12 months observation period. The generated phenolics as well as consecutive conversion products were identified by HPLC-DAD, LC-MS and GC-MS techniques. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. Source


Ziegmann M.,Karlsruhe Institute of Technology | Abert M.,Doc Labor Dr Huber | Muller M.,WALA Heilmittel GmbH | Frimmel F.H.,Karlsruhe Institute of Technology
Water Research | Year: 2010

The development of methods facilitating the detection of cyanobacterial blooms in drinking water reservoirs at an early stage is of great importance. Fluorescence spectroscopy could meet these requirements. The study contains the examination of possible correlations between the different maxima of a fluorescence excitation-emission matrix and the amount of produced and excreted toxins of a lab culture of Microcystis aeruginosa at different stages of growth. Various fluorescence signals (protein-like and humic-like substances, pigments) are suited for an estimation of cell density and actual intra- and extracellular toxin concentration. One signal at 315 nm/396 nm presumably originating from protein-like substances might be useful as a tool for the prediction of increasing cyanobacterial toxin concentrations. As the measurement of fluorescence matrices is still time consuming, synchronous scans with Δλ = 80 nm were tested as a potential alternative. They accurately depict the course of protein-like and humic-like fluorescence during the different stages of growth although especially the latter one is not captured at its maximum. However, due to insufficient separation of chlorophyll a and phycocyanin, the image of the matrix maxima by synchronous scans with Δλ = 80 nm can only be used with minor restrictions. Nevertheless, fluorescence spectroscopy seems to be a powerful tool for the evaluation of cyanobacterial blooms. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source


Duckstein S.M.,WALA Heilmittel GmbH
Zeitschrift für Naturforschung. C, Journal of biosciences | Year: 2013

Acetone/water extracts from the leaves, including stalks, of Alchemilla vulgaris L. and A. mollis (Buser) Rothm. were investigated for their phenolic composition by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). A total of 24 and 27 compounds were detected for A. vulgaris and A. mollis, respectively. Pedunculagin and agrimoniin, as described in earlier reports for A. vulgaris, as well as other monomeric and oligomeric ellagitannins such as sanguiin H-10, castalagin/vescalagin, and galloyl-bis-hexahydroxydiphenoyl (HHDP) hexose constituted the major phenolic fraction of both plant species. Also, gallic and chlorogenic acids were found in both extracts. Interestingly, catechin and a procyanidin trimer were detected only in A. mollis. The flavonoid fraction comprised quercetin glucuronide as major compound in addition to several other quercetin glycosides. Most interestingly, a tentatively identified kaempferol glucuronide and a methylated quercetin glucuronide were exclusively found in A. mollis. Finally, the overall phenolic fingerprints of both Alchemilla species, harvested in May and August, i.e. at the beginning and the end of the flowering period, were compared. A general accumulation of phenolic constituents was observed later in the year, especially with regard to the ellagitannins. Source

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