Wakelyn Associates LLC

Dover, DC, United States

Wakelyn Associates LLC

Dover, DC, United States
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Hughs S.E.,U.S. Department of Agriculture | Wakelyn P.J.,Wakelyn Associates LLC
Journal of Agricultural Safety and Health | Year: 2017

It has been documented that some dusts generated while processing agricultural products, such as grain and sugar, can constitute combustible dust hazards. After a catastrophic dust explosion in a sugar refinery in 2008, the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) initiated action to develop a mandatory standard to comprehensively address the fire and explosion hazards of combustible dusts. Cotton fiber and related materials from cotton ginning, in loose form, can support smoldering combustion if ignited by an outside source. However, dust fires and other more hazardous events, such as dust explosions, are unknown in the cotton ginning industry. Dust material that accumulates inside cotton gins and almond huller plants during normal processing was collected for testing to determine combustibility. Cotton gin dust is composed of greater than 50% inert inorganic mineral dust (ash content), while almond huller dust is composed of at least 7% inert inorganic material. Inorganic mineral dust is not a combustible dust. The collected samples of cotton gin dust and almond huller dust were sieved to a known particle size range for testing to determine combustibility potential. Combustibility testing was conducted on the cotton gin dust and almond huller dust samples using the UN test for combustibility suggested in NFPA 652.. This testing indicated that neither the cotton gin dust nor the almond huller dust should be considered combustible dusts (i.e., not a Division 4.1 flammable hazard per 49 CFR 173.124). © 2017 ASABE.


Nguyen T.-M.D.,U.S. Department of Agriculture | Chang S.,U.S. Department of Agriculture | Condon B.,U.S. Department of Agriculture | Uchimiya M.,U.S. Department of Agriculture | And 4 more authors.
Polymers for Advanced Technologies | Year: 2012

The economic and environmentally friendly flame-retardant compound, tetramethyl (6-chloro-1,3,5-triazine-2,4-diyl)bis(oxy)bis(methylene) diphosphonate (CN-1), was synthesized by a simple two-step procedure from dimethyl phosphate, and its chemical structure was characterized by 1H, 13C, and 31P nuclear magnetic resonance and gas chromatography mass spectroscopy. Using the traditional pad-dry-cure method, we obtained several different add-ons (wt%) by treating cotton twill fabric with flame retardant (CN-1). Thermogravimetric analysis, in an air and nitrogen atmosphere, of the modified cotton showed that decomposition occurred ~230°C with 16% residue weight char yield at 600°C, indicating high thermal stability for all treated levels. Limiting oxygen index (LOI) and the vertical flammability test were employed to determine the effectiveness of the flame-retardant treatments on the fabrics. LOI values increased from ~18vol% oxygen in nitrogen for untreated fabric to maximum of 34vol% for the highest treatment level. Fabrics with higher levels of flame retardant also easily passed the vertical flammability test. Furthermore, Fourier transform infrared and scanning electron microscopy were utilized to characterize the chemical structure as well as the surface morphology of the flame-retardant treated twill fabrics, including char area and the edge between unburned fabric and char area. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.


Chang S.,Wakelyn Associates LLC | Condon B.,Wakelyn Associates LLC | Graves E.,Wakelyn Associates LLC | Uchimiya M.,Wakelyn Associates LLC | And 3 more authors.
Fibers and Polymers | Year: 2011

The flame retardant behavior of cotton fabric treated with phosphorus-nitrogen containing triazine compound was evaluated. It was found that cyanuric chloride (2,4,6-trichloro-1,3,5-triazine) is an excellent starting material for the preparation of phosphonate flame retardants that interact well with cotton to improve flame resistance (FR) performance. Tetraethyl 6-chloro-1,3,5-triazine-2,4-diyldiphosphonate (TECTDP) has been prepared by a simple one-step reaction in high yield (98. 0 %). Cotton fabrics treated with TECTDP result in covalent bond formation between TECTDP and hydroxyl groups in cotton fabrics. This FR system provides an efficient flame retardant for cotton textiles at low cost to meet government mandates. In this study, the FR material was synthesized and characterized by 1H and 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), and LC-MS spectroscopy. The chemical structure of cotton twill fabric treated with TECTDP by pad-dry-cure method was analyzed by FT-MIR and SEM. Furthermore, the thermal and flammability properties were evaluated by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), limiting oxygen index (LOI, ASTM D-2863-09), and a vertical flame test (ASTM D-6413-08). © 2011 The Korean Fiber Society and Springer Netherlands.

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