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Kyoto, Japan

Matsunaga N.,Gifu Pharmaceutical University | Chikaraishi Y.,Gifu Pharmaceutical University | Shimazawa M.,Gifu Pharmaceutical University | Yokota S.,Wakasa Seikatsu Co. | Hara H.,Gifu Pharmaceutical University
Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine | Year: 2010

Vaccinium myrtillus (Bilberry) extracts (VME) were tested for effects on angiogenesis in vitro and in vivo. VME (0.3-30 μg ml-1) and GM6001 (0.1-100 μM; a matrix metalloproteinase inhibitor) concentration-dependently inhibited both tube formation and migration of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) induced by vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF-A). In addition, VME inhibited VEGF-A-induced proliferation of HUVECs. VME inhibited VEGF-A-induced phosphorylations of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK 1/2) and serine/threonine protein kinase family protein kinase B (Akt), but not that of phospholipase Cγ (PLCγ). In an in vivo assay, intravitreal administration of VME inhibited the formation of neovascular tufts during oxygen-induced retinopathy in mice. Thus, VME inhibited angiogenesis both in vitro and in vivo, presumably by inhibiting the phosphorylations of ERK 1/2 and Akt. These findings indicate that VME may be effective against retinal diseases involving angiogenesis, providing it can reach the retina after its administration. Further investigations will be needed to clarify the major angiogenesis-modulating constituent(s) of VME. Source

Ogawa K.,Gifu Pharmaceutical University | Kuse Y.,Gifu Pharmaceutical University | Tsuruma K.,Gifu Pharmaceutical University | Kobayashi S.,Wakasa Seikatsu Co. | And 2 more authors.
BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine | Year: 2014

Background: Blue light is a high-energy or short-wavelength visible light, which induces retinal diseases such as age-related macular degeneration and retinitis pigmentosa. Bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus L.) and lingonberry (Vaccinium vitis-idaea) contain high amounts of polyphenols (anthocyanins, resveratrol, and proanthocyanidins) and thus confer health benefits. This study aimed to determine the protective effects and mechanism of action of bilberry extract (B-ext) and lingonberry extract (L-ext) and their active components against blue light-emitting diode (LED) light-induced retinal photoreceptor cell damage.Methods: Cultured murine photoreceptor (661 W) cells were exposed to blue LED light following treatment with B-ext, L-ext, or their constituents (cyanidin, delphinidin, malvidin, trans-resveratrol, and procyanidin B2). 661 W cell viability was assessed using a tetrazolium salt (WST-8) assay and Hoechst 33342 nuclear staining, and intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) production was determined using CM-H2DCFDA after blue LED light exposure. Activation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK), nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB), and LC3, an ubiquitin-like protein that is necessary for the formation of autophagosomes, were analyzed using Western blotting. Caspase-3/7 activation caused by blue LED light exposure in 661 W cells was determined using a caspase-3/7 assay kit.Results: B-ext, L-ext, NAC, and their active components improved the viability of 661 W cells and inhibited the generation of intracellular ROS induced by blue LED light irradiation. Furthermore, B-ext and L-ext inhibited the activation of p38 MAPK and NF-κB induced by blue LED light exposure. Finally, B-ext, L-ext, and NAC inhibited caspase-3/7 activation and autophagy.Conclusions: These findings suggest that B-ext and L-ext containing high amounts of polyphenols exert protective effects against blue LED light-induced retinal photoreceptor cell damage mainly through inhibition of ROS production and activation of pro-apoptotic proteins. © 2014 Ogawa et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. Source

Sasaki M.,Keio University | Ozawa Y.,Keio University | Kurihara T.,Keio University | Kubota S.,Keio University | And 7 more authors.
Diabetologia | Year: 2010

Aims/hypothesis: Diabetic retinopathy is a progressive neurodegenerative disease, but the underlying mechanism is still obscure. Here, we focused on oxidative stress in the retina, and analysed its influence on retinal neurodegeneration, using an antioxidant, lutein. Methods: C57BL/6 mice with streptozotocin-induced diabetes were constantly fed either a lutein-supplemented diet or a control diet from the onset of diabetes, and their metabolic data were recorded. In 1-month-diabetic mice, reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the retina were measured using dihydroethidium and visual function was evaluated by electroretinograms. Levels of activated extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), synaptophysin and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) were also measured by immunoblotting in the retina of 1-month-diabetic mice. In the retinal sections of 4-month-diabetic mice, histological changes, cleaved caspase-3 and TUNEL staining were analysed. Results: Lutein did not affect the metabolic status of the diabetic mice, but it prevented ROS generation in the retina and the visual impairment induced by diabetes. ERK activation, the subsequent synaptophysin reduction, and the BDNF depletion in the diabetic retina were all prevented by lutein. Later, in 4-month-diabetic mice, a decrease in the thickness of the inner plexiform and nuclear layers, and ganglion cell number, together with increase in cleaved caspase-3- and TUNEL-positive cells, were avoided in the retina of lutein-fed mice. Conclusions/interpretation: The results indicated that local oxidative stress that has a neurodegenerative influence in the diabetic retina is prevented by constant intake of a lutein-supplemented diet. The antioxidant, lutein may be a potential therapeutic approach to protect visual function in diabetes. © 2010 Springer-Verlag. Source

Ogawa K.,Gifu Pharmaceutical University | Tsuruma K.,Gifu Pharmaceutical University | Tanaka J.,Gifu Pharmaceutical University | Kakino M.,Gifu Pharmaceutical University | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry | Year: 2013

Bilberry extract (B-ext) and lingonberry extract (L-ext) are currently used as health supplements. We investigated the protective mechanisms of the B-ext and L-ext against ultraviolet A (UVA)-induced retinal photoreceptor cell damage. Cultured murine photoreceptor (661W) cells were exposed to UVA following treatment with B-ext and L-ext and their main constituents (cyanidin, delphinidin, malvidin, trans-resveratrol, and procyanidin). B-ext, L-ext, and constituents improved cell viability and suppressed ROS generation. Phosphorylation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK), c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), and protein kinase B (Akt) were analyzed by Western blotting. B-ext and cyanidin inhibited phosphorylation of p38 MAPK, and B-ext also inhibited phosphorylation of JNK by UVA. L-ext, trans-resveratrol, and procyanidin alleviated the reduction of phosphorylated Akt levels by UVA. Finally, a cotreatment with B-ext and L-ext showed an additive effect on cell viability. Our findings suggest that both B-ext and L-ext endow protective effects against UVA-induced retinal damage. © 2013 American Chemical Society. Source

Wakasa Seikatsu Co. | Date: 2015-12-07

Nutritional supplement meal replacement bars for boosting energy; Nutritional drink mixes for use as meal replacements for medical purposes; Nutritional supplements; Dietary supplements; Pastilles for pharmaceutical purposes; Albuminous foodstuffs for medical purposes; Dietary fiber to aid digestion; Meal replacement powders, namely, powdered nutritional supplement drink mixes. Vegetable-fruit juices; Powders used in the preparation of fruit-based beverages; syrups for making fruit-flavored drinks; Non-alcoholic fruit extracts used in the preparation of beverages; Fruit nectars; Fruit juice; Non-alcoholic aperitifs; Tomato juice beverages.

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