PubMed | Zespri International Ltd, New Zealand Institute for Plant and Food Research, Waikato Mail Center and PFR
Type: | Journal: Genomics data | Year: 2016
Both commercial and experimental genotypes of kiwifruit (Actinidia spp.) exhibit large differences in response to insect pests. An understanding of the vines physiological response to insect feeding and its genetic basis will be important in assisting the development of varieties with acceptable levels of pest resistance. This experiment describes transcriptome changes observed in the bark of kiwifruit 2 and 7days after the commencement of feeding by the armored scale insect pest, Hemiberlesia lataniae. Using a cDNA microarray consisting of 17,512 unigenes, we measured transcriptome changes and analyzed these into functional ontology categories using MapMan. Results are available in the GEO database GSE73922 and are described fully in Ref. Hill et al. (2015) . After 7days, transcripts associated with photosynthesis were down-regulated and secondary metabolism was up-regulated. Differential expression of transcripts associated with stress response was consistent with a defense response involving both effector and herbivore-triggered immunities, with predominant involvement of the salicylic acid phytohormonal pathway. This hypothesis was supported by the results of two laboratory experiments. The methods described here could be further adapted and applied to the study of plant responses to a wide range of sessile sucking pests.
Borrero J.C.,ASR Ltd. Marine Consulting and Research |
Borrero J.C.,University of Southern California |
Borrero J.C.,ECoast Ltd |
Bell R.,NIWA - National Institute of Water and Atmospheric Research |
And 7 more authors.
Pure and Applied Geophysics | Year: 2013
The great Tohoku-oki earthquake of March 11, 2011 generated a devastating tsunami in the near field as well as substantial far-field effects throughout the Pacific Ocean. In New Zealand, the tsunami was widely observed and instrumentally recorded on an extensive array of coastal tidal gauges and supplemented by current velocity data from two sites. While the tsunami's first arrival was on the morning of March 12 in New Zealand, the strongest effects occurred throughout that afternoon and into the following day. Tsunami effects consisted primarily of rapid changes in water level and associated strong currents that affected numerous bays, harbors, tidal inlets and marine facilities, particularly on the northern and eastern shores of the North Island. The tsunami caused moderate damage and significant overland flooding at one location. The tsunami signal was clearly evident on tide gauge recordings for well over 2 days, clearly illustrating the extended duration of far field tsunami hazards. Real time analysis and modelling of the tsunami through the night of March 11, as the tsunami crossed the Pacific, was used as a basis for escalating the predicted threat level for the northern region of New Zealand. A comparison to recorded data following the tsunami shows that these real time prediction models were accurate despite the coarse near-shore bathymetry used in the assessment, suggesting the efficacy of such techniques for future events from far-field sources. © 2012 Springer Basel AG.
McDowell R.W.,Agresearch Ltd. |
Taylor M.D.,Waikato Mail Center |
Stevenson B.A.,Landcare Research
Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment | Year: 2013
The need to manage the potentially biotoxic metal-cadmium (Cd) in soil, relative to proposed limits, requires knowledge of how much Cd is present naturally under minimally disturbed conditions (MDC). Two data sets were collated, one of MDC soils sampled under native bush (n=293) and another of different land uses (arable, dairy, drystock, horticulture, forestry, and urban; n=1043) from which was estimated the background and anthropogenic contributions of Cd. The concentration of total Cd in MDC soils was strongly correlated to 11 different variables (e.g. pH, total carbon), but to total phosphorus most of all (r=0.712, P<0.001). Phosphorus concentration was used in an equation to show on average that background concentrations (up to a maximum of the 95th percentile of the MDC data set; 0.48mgkg-1) accounted for about half of the Cd in the land use data set. The New Zealand fertiliser management strategy currently sets absolute limits - irrespective of soil type or background contributions. However, given that anthropogenic inputs of Cd have been shown to be more bioavailable to plants, our approach could be used to highlight and initiate further investigation of anthropogenic enrichment that is more soil specific. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.
Webster J.R.,Agresearch Ltd. |
Schutz K.E.,Agresearch Ltd. |
Sutherland M.A.,Agresearch Ltd. |
Stewart M.,Waikato Mail Center |
Mellor D.J.,Massey University
New Zealand Veterinary Journal | Year: 2015
Abstract: The New Zealand dairy industry needs to meet public expectations regarding animal welfare in order to retain the freedom to operate and achieve market success. Three key orientations towards animal welfare assessment have been identified, namely biological functioning, affective state and natural living, the last two of which are more recent foci for societal concern. Biological functioning was the first and most-studied aspect of animal welfare and continues to be important, but now the contribution of affective state to animal well-being is emphasised much more. Natural living, or naturalness, has received relatively less attention from animal welfare science. It is proposed that increasing the use of naturalness as a contextual reference point for considering species-specific behavioural expressions of affective state will enhance its inclusion in animal welfare assessment. Nevertheless, all three orientations need to be considered in order to evaluate the significance of welfare research findings. On this basis, five key aspects of the New Zealand dairy industry that have been the subject of recent research, due to the risk of them not meeting public expectations, are highlighted and discussed. The aspects are provision of shade and shelter, meeting targets for body condition, provision of comfortable surfaces for rearing calves, and for adult cows while off pasture, and pain relief for disbudding of calves. Research evidence indicates that the industry guidelines on body condition score, if met, would satisfy public expectations across the three orientations to animal welfare, whereas further work is needed on the other aspects. It is concluded that considering these three orientations to animal welfare when planning research and then evaluating the outcomes will help to promote the market success of the dairy industry in New Zealand. © 2014, © 2014 New Zealand Veterinary Association.
PubMed | University of Auckland, Lincoln University at Christchurch, Waikato Regional Council and Auckland Council
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Applied and environmental microbiology | Year: 2016
Bacterial communities are important for the health and productivity of soil ecosystems and have great potential as novel indicators of environmental perturbations. To assess how they are affected by anthropogenic activity and to determine their ability to provide alternative metrics of environmental health, we sought to define which soil variables bacteria respond to across multiple soil types and land uses. We determined, through 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing, the composition of bacterial communities in soil samples from 110 natural or human-impacted sites, located up to 300 km apart. Overall, soil bacterial communities varied more in response to changing soil environments than in response to changes in climate or increasing geographic distance. We identified strong correlations between the relative abundances of members of Pirellulaceae and soil pH, members of Gaiellaceae and carbon-to-nitrogen ratios, members of Bradyrhizobium and the levels of Olsen P (a measure of plant available phosphorus), and members of Chitinophagaceae and aluminum concentrations. These relationships between specific soil attributes and individual soil taxa not only highlight ecological characteristics of these organisms but also demonstrate the ability of key bacterial taxonomic groups to reflect the impact of specific anthropogenic activities, even in comparisons of samples across large geographic areas and diverse soil types. Overall, we provide strong evidence that there is scope to use relative taxon abundances as biological indicators of soil condition.The impact of land use change and management on soil microbial community composition remains poorly understood. Therefore, we explored the relationship between a wide range of soil factors and soil bacterial community composition. We included variables related to anthropogenic activity and collected samples across a large spatial scale to interrogate the complex relationships between various bacterial community attributes and soil condition. We provide evidence of strong relationships between individual taxa and specific soil attributes even across large spatial scales and soil and land use types. Collectively, we were able to demonstrate the largely untapped potential of microorganisms to indicate the condition of soil and thereby influence the way that we monitor the effects of anthropogenic activity on soil ecosystems into the future.
Shadbolt N.M.,Massey University |
Olubode-Awosola F.,Waikato Mail Center
International Food and Agribusiness Management Review | Year: 2016
Farmers worldwide face an increasingly turbulent environment. Successful farmers are those that adapt to shifts in the environment to capture the opportunities from such disturbance and outperform those who do not adapt. Such farmers, the literature would suggest, are entrepreneurs, catalysts for change with a risk-taking propensity. The paper presents analysis of farmers grouped with respect to their attitude to risk. It identifies that those farmers that are risk seekers would be more accurately described as gamblers based on their performance over six years of volatility. The most successful group of farmers were risk neutral, had a strong business focus and skills, managing quite high levels of debt to good effect. They had a positive attitude to change and an ability to successfully adapt to changing conditions so best fit the broader definition of entrepreneur. The risk averse group carried less debt and also outperformed the risk seeking group with strong cash results and retained earnings. Farmers cannot be assumed to be successful catalysts for change just from their attitude to risk and a belief in their ability to manage risk; instead they are those whose results prove that they are successfully taking risks, have strong business skills and run efficient farm businesses. © 2016 International Food and Agribusiness Management Association (IFAMA).
Smith M.,Waikato Mail Center |
Baxendine S.,Waikato Mail Center
International Review of Psychiatry | Year: 2015
This paper provides a detailed description and critique of the development of routine outcome measurement (ROM) within New Zealand's mental health and addiction services. The paper will include a brief description of the New Zealand setting and the events that led to routine outcome measures, demographic and diagnostic characteristics of the population in New Zealand, characteristics of the New Zealand mental health and addictions services, a description of the outcome measures and rationale for their selection, the information collection protocol for the outcome measures, outcome data completion rates and aggregated outcome reporting uses, barriers and facilitators to the adoption of routine outcome measures in New Zealand, and current status and next steps. © 2015 Institute of Psychiatry.
Hill R.,Waikato Mail Center
Journal of Hydrology New Zealand | Year: 2011
The Waikato region covers much of New Zealand's central North Island and has a land area of about 25,000 square km. The region encompasses about 44,000 kilometres of waterways, including three larger river catchments - the Waikato River (11,353 km2), Waipa River (3092 km2) and the Waihou River (1275 km2). The soil resource is vital to the Waikato region's wellbeing, and safeguarding it requires sound knowledge of the resource and effective erosion and sediment management. The sediment regime within the Waikato region reflects both natural processes and modification of natural processes (under present climatic and landscape conditions), including changes in land use, hydro-electric power development, sand and gravel extraction and channel management works. Waikato Regional Council (formerly Environment Waikato) has several sediment management roles, including regional monitoring and research, policy development and management implementation. Information about sediment sources and sediment movement through the region, as well as ways to prioritise decision-making, are an integral part of regional sediment management. Policy development and implementation through education and rules need be evidence-based and practical. To achieve this, continued monitoring and research, including collaborations with external research providers, is critical. Examples of how sediment-related monitoring and research has assisted sediment management in the Waikato region are summarised in this paper. © New Zealand Hydrological Society (2011).
Hillock K.A.,University of Auckland |
Hillock K.A.,Waikato Mail Center |
Costello M.J.,University of Auckland
Biofouling | Year: 2013
Styela clava is a subtidal invasive marine species in Northern Europe, Atlantic Canada, Australia and New Zealand. It grows attached to solid substrata, including boat hulls, ropes, moorings, piers and aquaculture equipment, all of which can aid its spread to new locations. It interferes with feeding of mussels and oysters, and increases their harvesting costs. Being subtidal, it could be assumed that tunicates would rapidly die in air and thus exposure to air would be a practical method to prevent their spread on boats and equipment. This study tested their survival when exposed to air for up to (1) 120 h at a constant temperature of 10 °C, (2) shade ambient 15-27 °C, and (3) full sun ambient 15-29 °C. Humidity was consistently high (78-100%). The results indicated that survival was longer when the air temperature was cooler. Larger individuals of S. clava generally survived for longer out of seawater than smaller individuals. The results predict that two weeks of exposure to air for two weeks could be an effective management method to eradicate S. clava from marine equipment when the air temperature is 10 °C. However, drying time would be less under conditions of low humidity and under direct sunlight. © 2013 Taylor & Francis.
McNamara N.,Waikato Mail Center
Nurse Education in Practice | Year: 2015
Educating undergraduate nurses in the 21st century provides some very realistic challenges. Decreased government health budgets, increased student numbers and higher patient acuities have resulted in a reduction in the availability and quality of clinical placements. Simulated nursing practice is an innovative strategy designed to address these concerns. A simulation programme was designed for first year undergraduate nursing students to help prepare them for clinical placement. The aim of this research is to assess student perspectives and learning from the newly introduced simulation programme. This study is a descriptive design with Kolb's experiential theory providing a theoretical framework. 158 first year students taking part in a four day simulation programme chose to complete a questionnaire on programme completion. Students responded to five statements using a likert scale and categories developed and refined for the remaining four questions. Students reported significant learning in the areas of basic clinical skills and clinical documentation and collaborative care. 100% of students recommended the programme continue. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.