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Hamilton, New Zealand

Shadbolt N.M.,Massey University | Olubode-Awosola F.,Waikato Mail Center
International Food and Agribusiness Management Review | Year: 2016

Farmers worldwide face an increasingly turbulent environment. Successful farmers are those that adapt to shifts in the environment to capture the opportunities from such disturbance and outperform those who do not adapt. Such farmers, the literature would suggest, are entrepreneurs, catalysts for change with a risk-taking propensity. The paper presents analysis of farmers grouped with respect to their attitude to risk. It identifies that those farmers that are risk seekers would be more accurately described as gamblers based on their performance over six years of volatility. The most successful group of farmers were risk neutral, had a strong business focus and skills, managing quite high levels of debt to good effect. They had a positive attitude to change and an ability to successfully adapt to changing conditions so best fit the broader definition of entrepreneur. The risk averse group carried less debt and also outperformed the risk seeking group with strong cash results and retained earnings. Farmers cannot be assumed to be successful catalysts for change just from their attitude to risk and a belief in their ability to manage risk; instead they are those whose results prove that they are successfully taking risks, have strong business skills and run efficient farm businesses. © 2016 International Food and Agribusiness Management Association (IFAMA). Source

Borrero J.C.,ASR Ltd. Marine Consulting and Research | Borrero J.C.,University of Southern California | Borrero J.C.,ECoast Ltd. | Bell R.,NIWA - National Institute of Water and Atmospheric Research | And 7 more authors.
Pure and Applied Geophysics | Year: 2013

The great Tohoku-oki earthquake of March 11, 2011 generated a devastating tsunami in the near field as well as substantial far-field effects throughout the Pacific Ocean. In New Zealand, the tsunami was widely observed and instrumentally recorded on an extensive array of coastal tidal gauges and supplemented by current velocity data from two sites. While the tsunami's first arrival was on the morning of March 12 in New Zealand, the strongest effects occurred throughout that afternoon and into the following day. Tsunami effects consisted primarily of rapid changes in water level and associated strong currents that affected numerous bays, harbors, tidal inlets and marine facilities, particularly on the northern and eastern shores of the North Island. The tsunami caused moderate damage and significant overland flooding at one location. The tsunami signal was clearly evident on tide gauge recordings for well over 2 days, clearly illustrating the extended duration of far field tsunami hazards. Real time analysis and modelling of the tsunami through the night of March 11, as the tsunami crossed the Pacific, was used as a basis for escalating the predicted threat level for the northern region of New Zealand. A comparison to recorded data following the tsunami shows that these real time prediction models were accurate despite the coarse near-shore bathymetry used in the assessment, suggesting the efficacy of such techniques for future events from far-field sources. © 2012 Springer Basel AG. Source

McDowell R.W.,Agresearch Ltd. | Taylor M.D.,Waikato Mail Center | Stevenson B.A.,Landcare Research
Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment | Year: 2013

The need to manage the potentially biotoxic metal-cadmium (Cd) in soil, relative to proposed limits, requires knowledge of how much Cd is present naturally under minimally disturbed conditions (MDC). Two data sets were collated, one of MDC soils sampled under native bush (n=293) and another of different land uses (arable, dairy, drystock, horticulture, forestry, and urban; n=1043) from which was estimated the background and anthropogenic contributions of Cd. The concentration of total Cd in MDC soils was strongly correlated to 11 different variables (e.g. pH, total carbon), but to total phosphorus most of all (r=0.712, P<0.001). Phosphorus concentration was used in an equation to show on average that background concentrations (up to a maximum of the 95th percentile of the MDC data set; 0.48mgkg-1) accounted for about half of the Cd in the land use data set. The New Zealand fertiliser management strategy currently sets absolute limits - irrespective of soil type or background contributions. However, given that anthropogenic inputs of Cd have been shown to be more bioavailable to plants, our approach could be used to highlight and initiate further investigation of anthropogenic enrichment that is more soil specific. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. Source

Hillock K.A.,University of Auckland | Hillock K.A.,Waikato Mail Center | Costello M.J.,University of Auckland
Biofouling | Year: 2013

Styela clava is a subtidal invasive marine species in Northern Europe, Atlantic Canada, Australia and New Zealand. It grows attached to solid substrata, including boat hulls, ropes, moorings, piers and aquaculture equipment, all of which can aid its spread to new locations. It interferes with feeding of mussels and oysters, and increases their harvesting costs. Being subtidal, it could be assumed that tunicates would rapidly die in air and thus exposure to air would be a practical method to prevent their spread on boats and equipment. This study tested their survival when exposed to air for up to (1) 120 h at a constant temperature of 10 °C, (2) shade ambient 15-27 °C, and (3) full sun ambient 15-29 °C. Humidity was consistently high (78-100%). The results indicated that survival was longer when the air temperature was cooler. Larger individuals of S. clava generally survived for longer out of seawater than smaller individuals. The results predict that two weeks of exposure to air for two weeks could be an effective management method to eradicate S. clava from marine equipment when the air temperature is 10 °C. However, drying time would be less under conditions of low humidity and under direct sunlight. © 2013 Taylor & Francis. Source

Townsend M.,NIWA - National Institute of Water and Atmospheric Research | Thrush S.F.,NIWA - National Institute of Water and Atmospheric Research | Thrush S.F.,University of Auckland | Lohrer A.M.,NIWA - National Institute of Water and Atmospheric Research | And 4 more authors.
Ecosystem Services | Year: 2014

Ecosystem services (ES) are a valuable way of defining the benefits derived from natural resources and are essential for balancing human exploitive uses with the preservation of natural capital. In marine ecosystems real world application of ES theory is hindered by inadequate knowledge of the distribution of communities and habitats and the ecosystem functions that they provide. Here, we present a new approach for mapping ecosystem service potential for multiple services when the details necessary for full quantification are unobtainable. By defining services from a series of principles based on current ecological understanding and linking these to marine biophysical parameters, we developed ecosystem service maps for the Hauraki Gulf, New Zealand. These maps were verified by statistical comparisons to available ecological information in well studied areas in the region. Such maps allow planners, managers and stakeholders to explicitly consider ES in ecosystem-based management (EBM) including marine spatial planning (MSP). Our approach provides a systems perspective, by emphasising connectivity between processes and locations and highlighting the potential range of trade-offs available for multi-objective management of marine systems. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. Source

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