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Hamilton, New Zealand

Rademaker M.,Waikato Hospital
Australasian Journal of Dermatology | Year: 2013

Facial involvement of atopic eczema in young children can be difficult to manage. Chronic scratching and rubbing, combined with parental reluctance to use topical corticosteroids on the face, often results in recalcitrant facial eczema. While wet wraps are a useful management option for moderate/severe atopic eczema involving the trunk and limbs they are difficult to use on the face. We describe the use of a face-mask using a widely available adhesive hydrocolloid dressing (DuoDerm extra thin) in three children with recalcitrant facial atopic eczema. Symptomatic control of itch or soreness was obtained within hours and the facial atopic eczema was markedly improved by 7 days. The face-masks were easy to apply, each lasting 1-4 days. One patient had a single adjuvant application of a potent topical corticosteroid under the hydrocolloid dressing. All three patients had long remissions (greater than 3 months) of their facial eczema, although all continued to have significant eczema involving their trunk and limbs. Face-masks made from hydrocolloid dressings, with or without topical corticosteroids, are worth considering in children with recalcitrant facial eczema. © 2012 The Australasian College of Dermatologists. Source

Rademaker M.,Waikato Hospital
Australasian Journal of Dermatology | Year: 2013

With 30 years of clinical use, it is appropriate to review the use of isotretinoin. We now understand that retinoids influence cellular growth, differentiation, morphogenesis and apoptosis, inhibit tumour promotion and malignant cell growth, exert immuno-modulatory actions and alter cellular cohesiveness. This has expanded the indications of isotretinoin from just acne and rosacea to a wide range of inflammatory and malignant skin disorders. While the standard dose of 0.5 to 1 mg/kg per day for 4 months to a cumulative dose of 120-140 mg/kg per day has served us well in the management of acne vulgaris, there is emerging evidence that much lower dosages (as low as 5 mg/day) are just as effective but have significantly fewer adverse effects. Relapse of acne vulgaris continues to be a problem but we are beginning to recognise that this is related less to the cumulative dose and more to the length of sebaceous gland suppression. Other factors important for relapse include a macrocomedonal pattern of acne, smoking and age, both younger (under 14 years) and older (over 25 years). After 30 years of use, we now understand why isotretinoin is such an effective drug. Not only does it clear acne in almost all patients, long-term remission can be achieved in 70-80% of patients with a single course. Important changes in the use of isotretinoin include using a lower daily dose for a longer period of time. New indications continue to emerge, particularly as a potential treatment for both intrinsic and extrinsic (photo) aging. Teratogenicity however, remains a very significant concern. © 2012 The Australasian College of Dermatologists. Source

Cave G.,Tamworth Rural Referral Hospital | Harvey M.G.,Waikato Hospital
Critical Care | Year: 2014

The use of intravenous lipid emulsions (ILEs) as antidote in local anaesthetic systemic toxicity has gained widespread support following convincing data from animal models, and successful case reports in humans. Proposed beneficial mechanisms of action for ILEs include intravascular sequestration of intoxicant and subsequent enhanced redistribution to biologically inert tissues, augmentation of fatty acid utilisation for ATP synthesis in the context of metabolic poisoning, and direct cardiotonic and ion channel effects. The evidence base for use of ILEs in acute drug intoxication is evolving. The present evidence supports use of ILEs only in local anaesthetic systemic toxicity and in lipophilic cardiotoxin intoxication when there is an immediate threat to life, and other therapies have proven ineffective. © 2014 Cave and Harvey; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. Source

Chow K.,Waikato Hospital | Mora J.,Greenlane Clinical Center
Journal of Glaucoma | Year: 2012

PURPOSE: To evaluate the practice patterns in the use of glaucoma drainage devices (GDD) and cyclodestruction among consultant ophthalmologists in Australia and New Zealand. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A 22-part questionnaire regarding GDD implantation and cyclodestruction practices was sent to all ophthalmologists registered with the Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Ophthalmologists in 2008 by post or e-mail. RESULTS: Sixty-six percent of 872 questionnaires were returned, of these, 14% were from glaucoma subspecialists. Ten percent of all respondents performed GDD implantations. Molteno drains were the most popular device (69%). The most commonly recognized indications for GDD implantation were a history of 2 failed trabeculectomies (85%), neovascular glaucoma (71%), iridocorneal endothelial syndrome (55%), and uveitic glaucoma (52%). Only a minority of surgeons used intraoperative mitomycin C (38%) or 5-fluorouracil (26%) when implanting GDD. Cyclodestruction had been performed by 20% of all respondents. External diode cyclophotocoagulation was the most preferred treatment mode (73%). Sixty-seven percent treated 180 degrees of the ciliary body during initial treatment. Fifty-five percent treated only the earlier untreated area during retreatment. Only 11% of surgeons who performed cyclodestruction agreed that the indications for cyclodestruction are expanding. CONCLUSIONS: A wide range of practice patterns for GDD implantation and cyclodestruction exist among Australian and New Zealand ophthalmologists. This likely reflects a paucity of good evidence to guide practice. The Australasian indications for GDD implantation were moderately different from the reported practice in America. Well-designed clinical trials are needed to better define the indications and best practice for these 2 important glaucoma treatment modalities. © 2012 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Inc. Source

Elston M.S.,Waikato Hospital | Clifton-Bligh R.J.,University of Sydney
Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology | Year: 2010

Wnt signaling pathways are important regulators of normal embryological development including that of the pituitary gland. Altered Wnt pathway expression is common in many human tumors however until recently the role of these pathways in human pituitary tumorigenesis has received little attention. The advent of microarray analysis has identified several Wnt pathway inhibitors that are frequently perturbed in pituitary tumors. In this review we summarize the role of these inhibitors in other human tumor types and review the current state of knowledge of Wnt inhibitor expression in pituitary tumors. © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. Source

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